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Organization Systems


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Organization Systems

  1. 1. Organization Systems
  2. 2. Organization Systems <ul><li>“ our understanding of the world is largely determined by our ability to organize information” </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we organize information? </li></ul><ul><li>Name some organization systems we commonly use…. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organization Systems <ul><li>Challenges of organizing information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal politics </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Organizing web sites and intranets <ul><li>Information organization is closely related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The best approach is to isolate the design of organization systems. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Organization Systems <ul><li>Are composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Schemes (e.g. exact or ambiguous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Structures (e.g. top-down or bottom-up) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exact Organization Schemes <ul><li>Divide information into well defined and mutually exclusive sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ambiguous Organization Systems <ul><li>Divide information into categories that defy exact definition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Organization Structures <ul><li>The structure of information defines the primary way in which users can navigate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organization Structures <ul><li>Hierarchies are Top-down approaches </li></ul>Plants Flowers Trees Annuals Perennials Conifers Deciduous
  10. 10. Organization Structures <ul><li>Designing taxonomies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical categories must mutually exclusive. (be aware of it, but not constrain by it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between breath and depth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchies are good but is only one component of a cohesive organization system. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Organization Structures <ul><li>The Database Model: A bottom-up approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata is the primary key that links Information Architecture with databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A database is a collection of data arranged for optimizing storage and speed of search and retrieval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most databases are build using the relational model . In this model data is stored within a set of relations or tables. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Relational Database Example
  13. 13. Entity-Relationship Diagram AUTHOR au_id au_lname address city state AUTHOR_TITLE au_id title_id TITLE title_id title type price pub_id PUBLISHER pub_id pub_name city
  14. 14. Entity-Relationship Diagram
  15. 15. Organization Systems <ul><li>Information architects need to understand how metadata, controlled vocabulary, and database structures can be used to enable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic generation of alphabetical indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic presentation of associative “see also” links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fielded searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced filtering and sorting of search results </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organization Systems <ul><li>Hypertext: highly nonlinear way of structuring information. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext chunks can be connected hierarchically or not hierarchically, or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides flexibility but it can be a source of user confusion. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organization Structures <ul><li>Hypertext is a highly nonlinear way of sorting information. It involves two main components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Items or chunks of information that will be linked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links between those chunks of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertext provides with great flexibility. However, it presents substantial potential for complexity and user confusion. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Classification <ul><li>Examples: Flickr & Delicious </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging, collaborative categorization, ethno-classification </li></ul><ul><li>Users tag objects with one or more keywords </li></ul><ul><li>User-centered, bottom up organizational structure </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is social classification? <ul><li>User added metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Shared resource (pictures, URLs) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative, social software </li></ul><ul><li>Social Feedback Loop </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomy, free-tagging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad ( Many users tag one resource ) or narrow ( Few users tag one resource ) folksonomies </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Folksonomies <ul><li>“ The old way creates a tree. The new, rakes leaves together.” ~ David Weinberger </li></ul><ul><li>“ Folksonomies don’t support searching and other types of browsing nearly as well as tags from controlled vocabularies from professionals.” ~ Lou Rosenfeld </li></ul>
  21. 21. Creating cohesive organization systems <ul><ul><li>“ Suggesting organization is the first step in transforming data to information.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider exact and ambiguous organization systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about organization structures that influence how users can navigate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the right combination for your site </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Creating cohesive organization systems <ul><ul><li>You need to consider a variety of exact and ambiguous organization schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exact schemes are best for “known item” search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous are best for browsing and associative learning when users have vaguely defined information needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whenever possible use both types of schemes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Creating cohesive organization systems <ul><ul><li>Large web sites will use all three types of organization structures: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level ------ Hierarchical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous groups of information------ Database model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less structured, more creative content items ------- Hypertext </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Creating cohesive organization systems <ul><ul><li>When thinking about organization structures: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The top level will most likely be hierarchical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collections of structured and homogeneous information are excellent candidates for the database model. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less structured, more creative relationships between content can be handled through hypertext. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Discussion Question <ul><li>Social Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues with Folksonomies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good or bad? </li></ul></ul>