1. Unusual or infrequent2. Socially unacceptable or inviolation of social norms3. Fraught with misperceptionsor misinterpretations ofreality
4. Associated with states ofsevere personal distress5. Maladaptive or self-defeating6. Dangerous
Ancient societies attributed abnormalbehavior to divine or supernatural forces.Exorcists were used to rid people whobehaved abnormally.Greek Physicians Hippocrates and Galenbelieved that abnormal behavior reflectednatural causes.
In the 19thCentury, German PhysicianWilhelm Griesinger argued that abnormalbehavior was caused by diseases of the brain.Griesinger, along with another GermanPhysician Emil Kraepin, was ininfluential inthe development of the modern medicalmodelAsylums or “madhouses” began to crop upthroughout Europe in the late 15thcentury andearly 16thcentury.
The Biological Perspective-biological perspective incorporate the medical model butrefer more broadly to approaches that relate abnormalbehavior to biological process and apply biologicallybased treatments.The Psychological Perspectiveo Psychodynamic Modelso Learning Theoryo Humanists Theoryo Cognitive Theory
Sociocultural Perspective- theorists believe that abnormal behavior is rooted insocial ills, such as poverty, discrimination, and socialstressors, not in individualsBiopsychosocial Perspective- The leading interactionist model, the diathesis-stress model,posits that some people have predispositions (diathesis) forparticular disorders, but whether these disorders actuallydevelop depends upon the type and severity of the stressorsthey experience
A. Degenerative Disease- also called neurodegenerative disease, is adisease in which the function or structure of theaffected tissues or organs will progressivelydeteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodilywear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eatinghabits.
EXAMPLES OF DEGENERATIVE DISEASES:1. Huntington Disease – Huntingtonsdisease, chorea, or disorder (HD), isa neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affectsmuscle coordination and leads to cognitive declineand dementia. It typically becomes noticeable inmiddle age.
2. Multiple Sclerosis-is an inflammatory disease in which the fattymyelin sheaths around the axons ofthe brain and spinal cord are damaged, leadingto demyelination and scarring as well as a broadspectrum of signs and symptoms.
3. Senile Dementia- also called Alzheimer disease, seniledementia of the Alzheimer type, primarydegenerative dementia of the Alzheimers type, orsimply Alzheimers, is the most common formof dementia. This incurable, degenerative,and terminal disease
4. Parkinson’s Disease-is a degenerative disorder of the centralnervous system. It results from the deathof dopamine-containing cells in the substantinigra, a region of themidbrain; the cause of cell-death is unknown. Early in the course of thedisease, the most obvious symptomsare movement-related,including shaking,rigidity, slowness ofmovement and difficulty with walking and gait.
B. Cardiovascular Disorders- These are disorders related to the heart.C. Trauma Induced- These are all related to brain injury,hemorrhages and concussions.D. Drug and Alcohol related- Intoxication, drug and alcohol withdrawalsymptoms.
Some of the major disorders in thiscategory are: Depression, Phobias,Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Bipolar-Affective Disorder, PTSD, Panic Disorders
DEPRESSION-is a state of low mood and aversion toactivity that can affect a persons thoughts,behaviour, feelings and physical well-being
PANIC ATTACK- are periods ofintense fear or apprehension that are ofsudden onset and of relatively briefduration. Panic attacks usually beginabruptly, reach a peak within 10 minutes,and subside over the next several hours.It may lead to other anxiety disorders,such as agoraphobia (avoiding going outin public)
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER- Obsessions are persistent thoughts or fears thatpreoccupy your mind and are difficult to remove. Incontrast, compulsions are specific actions that you doover and over, often to deal with an obsessions.BIPOLAR DISORDER- A person with bipolar disorder will go throughepisodes of mania (highs) and at other times experienceepisode s of depression (lows).
Symptoms of mania include: Racing speech and thoughts Increased energy Decrease need for sleep Elevated mood and exaggerated optimism Increased physical and mental activity Excessive irritability, aggressive behavior, and impatience, Poor judgment Reckless behavior Difficulty concentrating Inflated sense of self-importance
Symptoms of depression include: Loss of interest in usual activities Prolonged sad or irritable mood Loss of energy or fatigue Feelings of guilt or worthlessness Sleeping too much or inability to sleep Drop in grades and inability to concentrate Inability to experience pleasure Appetite loss or overeating Anger, worry, and anxiety Thoughts of death or suicide
- formerly referred to as character disorders,are a class of personality types and behaviors. Thesebehavioral patterns in personality disorders aretypically associated with severe disturbances in thebehavioral tendencies of an individual, usuallyinvolving several areas of the personality, and arenearly always associated with considerable personaland social disruption.
- This is a collection of diseases that severely affect thebrain and thinking processes. The most prevalentsymptoms of these diseases are usually delusions andhallucinations.Major Psychotic Disorders:o Schizophreniao Schizophreniformo Schizoaffective disordero Delusional disordero Substance-abuse Psychotic Disorder
HALLUCINATIONS- are false or distorted sensory experiences thatappear to be real perceptions. These sensoryimpressions are generated by the mind rather than byan external stimuli, and may be seen, heard, felt, evensmelled or tasted.
DELUSIONS- is defined as a false belief based on incorrectinference about external reality that is firmlysustained despite what almost everybody else believesand despite what constitutes inconvertible andobvious proof or evidence to the contrary.
Clinical Interview – the most widely used method ofassessmentPsychological Tests- are structured methods of assessmentthat are used to evaluate reasonably stable traits such asintelligence and personality.Neuropsychological assessment- help determine organicbases for impaired behavior and psychological functioning.Behavioral assessment- test responses are taken as samplesof behavior rather than as signs underlying traits ordispositionsCognitive assessment- focuses on the measurement ofthoughts, beliefs, and attitudes in order to help identifydistorted thinking patterns.
PSYCHOTHERAPY- Involves a systematic interaction between therapists andclients that incorporate psychological principles to helpclients overcome abnormal behavior, solve problems inliving, or develop as individuals.o Behavior Therapyo Humanistic Approacheso Technical Electicismo Group Therapy
BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES- Biological approaches include drug therapy,electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), and psychosurgery.HOSPITALIZATION and COMMUNITY-BASEDCARE- The mental hospital provides a structured treatmentenvironment for people in acute crisis and for those who areunable to adapt to community living. The mental hospitaltoday aims to restore patients to community functioningand incorporates treatment approaches such as biologicaltherapies, psychotherapies, structured living environment s,and drug and alcohol rehabilitation.