Learn    Play ExtrapolateProve games            Memory                                       InitiateActivity   Problem So...
Table of Contents                                                                                                       In...
Table of Contents                                                                                                       In...
How, Why, What?    The ‘Scientifica’ Way                                                                                  ...
How, Why, What?    The ‘Scientifica’ Way                                                                                  ...
The Enterprise Index                                                                                        Practicality  ...
The Enterprise Index                                                                                        Practicality  ...
i-Invent Case Studies                                                       Why the keys are not arrangedThe following cas...
i-Invent Case Studies                                                       Why the keys are not arrangedThe following cas...
Think of various problems that may occur in a typeset press. Imagine that you faced the same              Sholes proceeded...
Think of various problems that may occur in a typeset press. Imagine that you faced the same              Sholes proceeded...
Now how could we possibly eliminate this problem?                                                                         ...
Now how could we possibly eliminate this problem?                                                                         ...
C an you design a conveyor belt for an escalator?A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys, with ...
C an you design a conveyor belt for an escalator?A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys, with ...
In a simple form, imagine a pair of scissors. If we separate the two blades by removing theMechanical linkage             ...
In a simple form, imagine a pair of scissors. If we separate the two blades by removing theMechanical linkage             ...
Parallel Motion Linkage: Look at the following diagram. Five metal bars are connected at A,         From the given set of ...
Parallel Motion Linkage: Look at the following diagram. Five metal bars are connected at A,         From the given set of ...
Food Chain                                                                                                                ...
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
Scientifica Preparatory Book
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Scientifica Preparatory Book

  1. 1. Learn Play ExtrapolateProve games Memory InitiateActivity Problem Solving SkillsParticipate Creative Thinking Create Innovate ObservationAnalytical SkillsExperiment Activi Explore Teach fun Memory Share Initiate ROUND ONE
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction Dear Student, Science is a subject that you might be in love with or afraid of. It is a subject that you can`t ignore. But is science just a few chapters or a few questions? No my friend, science is much more than that, in fact Introduction 01 science is “a way of life,” and at iKen Scientifica we try to show you the way. Making science inspiring and encouraging you to love and enjoy science, more importantly to understand and develop the The ‘Scientifica’ Way 02 scientific attitude in you. Only this way you can appreciate the scientific principles that guides the universe, and also implement them in your daily lives. The Enterprise Index 04 It is a known fact that most of the things that we learn is by observing and practicing them, like we have Study References 05 learnt to speak by listening to sounds and imitating that. But learning science needs to be a little different, it should not be learnt by simply imitating, or accepting statements, but by observing, i-Invent Case Study: Keys 07 understanding and then applying them. The true essence of learning science lies in the art of asking i-Invent Case Study: The Moving Belt 11 questions like “WHY?”, “HOW?,” “WHICH?”, “WHAT?” i-Invent Case Study: Mechanical Linkage 14 The main objective of this preparatory booklet is to emphasize and equip you with the scientific spirit of being inquisitive about everything around you, and kindle the joy of learning by understanding. Solved questions from previous years 18 At iKen Scientifica we bring about ways to 1. To stimulate your young & curious minds. 2. Helping you to explore the world around you. 3. Exposing you to experimenting, observing the outcome and understanding its working 4. Encouraging you to put forth your ideas and implementing them. 5. Making you experience the power of innovation. 6. Inducing the habit of practicing and questioning science rather than learning and believing it. 7. Emphasizing that one problem can have multiple solutions. 8. To master the scientific way of doing things or kindling the scientific attitude in you. Go ahead, turn the pages and explore the world of learning science through understanding and experimenting. Happy learning, Team iKen Scientifica 1
  3. 3. Table of Contents Introduction Dear Student, Science is a subject that you might be in love with or afraid of. It is a subject that you can`t ignore. But is science just a few chapters or a few questions? No my friend, science is much more than that, in fact Introduction 01 science is “a way of life,” and at iKen Scientifica we try to show you the way. Making science inspiring and encouraging you to love and enjoy science, more importantly to understand and develop the The ‘Scientifica’ Way 02 scientific attitude in you. Only this way you can appreciate the scientific principles that guides the universe, and also implement them in your daily lives. The Enterprise Index 04 It is a known fact that most of the things that we learn is by observing and practicing them, like we have Study References 05 learnt to speak by listening to sounds and imitating that. But learning science needs to be a little different, it should not be learnt by simply imitating, or accepting statements, but by observing, i-Invent Case Study: Keys 07 understanding and then applying them. The true essence of learning science lies in the art of asking i-Invent Case Study: The Moving Belt 11 questions like “WHY?”, “HOW?,” “WHICH?”, “WHAT?” i-Invent Case Study: Mechanical Linkage 14 The main objective of this preparatory booklet is to emphasize and equip you with the scientific spirit of being inquisitive about everything around you, and kindle the joy of learning by understanding. Solved questions from previous years 18 At iKen Scientifica we bring about ways to 1. To stimulate your young & curious minds. 2. Helping you to explore the world around you. 3. Exposing you to experimenting, observing the outcome and understanding its working 4. Encouraging you to put forth your ideas and implementing them. 5. Making you experience the power of innovation. 6. Inducing the habit of practicing and questioning science rather than learning and believing it. 7. Emphasizing that one problem can have multiple solutions. 8. To master the scientific way of doing things or kindling the scientific attitude in you. Go ahead, turn the pages and explore the world of learning science through understanding and experimenting. Happy learning, Team iKen Scientifica 1
  4. 4. How, Why, What? The ‘Scientifica’ Way Observe Observing phenomena, actions or events and reason out the knowledge gathered from The Round One of iKen Scientifica examines how well you can utilize your scientific abstract thoughts and everyday experiences. aptitude. You will be posed with some scenario based questions which require the basic scientific concepts you have learnt till now and a little common sense to address them. You do not need any special preparation for the first round. The examination does not require you to have factual knowledge of any particular concept. It needs the knowledge that you have gathered over the years. Nevertheless, you can equip Question yourself, to handle the examination questions. This book will introduce you to an The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? approach to improve your scientific aptitude along with scenarios and sample questions to practice. Obser v Extrapolate e An educated guess about how things work: “If I do [this], then [this] will happen." Prac Questi t on ic e Apply Applying scientific procedures, concept and knowledge in understanding situations and problems that occur in every day life. Analy Extrap Analyze ze ola Understanding, interpreting, relating and concluding. te Appl y Practice *Needs Parental Help And Guidance Generate interest and increase efficiency2 3
  5. 5. How, Why, What? The ‘Scientifica’ Way Observe Observing phenomena, actions or events and reason out the knowledge gathered from The Round One of iKen Scientifica examines how well you can utilize your scientific abstract thoughts and everyday experiences. aptitude. You will be posed with some scenario based questions which require the basic scientific concepts you have learnt till now and a little common sense to address them. You do not need any special preparation for the first round. The examination does not require you to have factual knowledge of any particular concept. It needs the knowledge that you have gathered over the years. Nevertheless, you can equip Question yourself, to handle the examination questions. This book will introduce you to an The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? approach to improve your scientific aptitude along with scenarios and sample questions to practice. Obser v Extrapolate e An educated guess about how things work: “If I do [this], then [this] will happen." Prac Questi t on ic e Apply Applying scientific procedures, concept and knowledge in understanding situations and problems that occur in every day life. Analy Extrap Analyze ze ola Understanding, interpreting, relating and concluding. te Appl y Practice *Needs Parental Help And Guidance Generate interest and increase efficiency2 3
  6. 6. The Enterprise Index Practicality The shape of the pentagon can be useful to understand your relative performances in different categories. The graph tends to point towards a key parameter the child is exceptionally good in. Memory The overall objective of the student should be to make the pentagon fuller to the maximum extent. You should work towards increasing the area of this pentagon as much as you can. The outside borders of graph represent, the highest possible Enterprise Index and extra ordinary scientific aptitude. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Our analysis helps you identify your relatively weak areas and work towards increasing Analytical Skills the area of the pentagon as much as possible. You can understand areas you are relatively weak in and how to go about improving on them. The Enterprise Index is not a percentage or a percentile score. You can notice that good scores on individual parameters is highlighted in the Visualization pentagon chart but your Enterprise Index depends on how well you use all the learning parameters together. (for e.g. not just memory or only analytical skills without Observation practicality etc.) What is “Enterprise Index”? “Enterprise Index” is a number, which gauges the scientific aptitude of a child. How well does In the end, learning and applying is a part of life and not just academics. Exploiting your the child performs when put in a real life situation? How is he/she able to implement what they strengths is easy but you also need to work on your weaknesses. It’s what separates the have learnt to solve real life problems? best from the rest! A lot of research goes into finding out what learning parameters will determine this “Enterprise Index”. There are several parameters that determine the success of an attempt to solve any real Web references for self study & research world problem. The five primary parameters that make “Enterprise Index” are identified as: (a) Observation The Internet is full of limitless knowledge. And it is undoubtedly the best place to (b) Analytical skills gather material for preparation of iKen Scientifica round 1. To give you a head start, (c) Visualization here are a few recommendations: - (d) Practicality and (e) Memory www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ Has a varied amount of learning content broaden the childs horizon of knowledge. Science explained in a more readable format. All questions may not carry equal marks. All questions are designed in a manner that they do not just test only one parameter. Each question tests some or all of the five parameters that www.howstuffworks.com It has thousands of topics, from a simply key to advance security system explained through videos and illustrations. You can learn how everything works. comprise the Enterprise Index. www.instructables.com Student’s parameter scores are combined to form the “Enterprise Index” score. Large collection of How To and Do it yourself and provides good hands-on experience. Along with exploring the projects, you can also share your project. Enterprise Index is an absolute number that represents the correlation between the child’s abilities to utilize all the parameters together. www.physics4kids.com This website helps you to learn and understand the basic concepts of physics through real-life scenarios. Perform small activities and solve the quizzes. Your performance will be indicated by an Enterprise Index graph. This graph represents your www.popularmechanics.com performance in the five parameters which constitute the Enterprise Index. The percentage score This site covers a variety of information on automotive needs, electronics, computers, telecommunications and everything dealing with machines. in each category is plotted to make a pentagon (a polygon with five sides). The pentagon or the4 radar graph represents the child’s parameter score on five axes. www.gorobotics.net 5 Learn the very basics to how to make a robot right from the simple to advanced concepts and provides a good resource of robotic projects.
  7. 7. The Enterprise Index Practicality The shape of the pentagon can be useful to understand your relative performances in different categories. The graph tends to point towards a key parameter the child is exceptionally good in. Memory The overall objective of the student should be to make the pentagon fuller to the maximum extent. You should work towards increasing the area of this pentagon as much as you can. The outside borders of graph represent, the highest possible Enterprise Index and extra ordinary scientific aptitude. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Our analysis helps you identify your relatively weak areas and work towards increasing Analytical Skills the area of the pentagon as much as possible. You can understand areas you are relatively weak in and how to go about improving on them. The Enterprise Index is not a percentage or a percentile score. You can notice that good scores on individual parameters is highlighted in the Visualization pentagon chart but your Enterprise Index depends on how well you use all the learning parameters together. (for e.g. not just memory or only analytical skills without Observation practicality etc.) What is “Enterprise Index”? “Enterprise Index” is a number, which gauges the scientific aptitude of a child. How well does In the end, learning and applying is a part of life and not just academics. Exploiting your the child performs when put in a real life situation? How is he/she able to implement what they strengths is easy but you also need to work on your weaknesses. It’s what separates the have learnt to solve real life problems? best from the rest! A lot of research goes into finding out what learning parameters will determine this “Enterprise Index”. There are several parameters that determine the success of an attempt to solve any real Web references for self study & research world problem. The five primary parameters that make “Enterprise Index” are identified as: (a) Observation The Internet is full of limitless knowledge. And it is undoubtedly the best place to (b) Analytical skills gather material for preparation of iKen Scientifica round 1. To give you a head start, (c) Visualization here are a few recommendations: - (d) Practicality and (e) Memory www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ Has a varied amount of learning content broaden the childs horizon of knowledge. Science explained in a more readable format. All questions may not carry equal marks. All questions are designed in a manner that they do not just test only one parameter. Each question tests some or all of the five parameters that www.howstuffworks.com It has thousands of topics, from a simply key to advance security system explained through videos and illustrations. You can learn how everything works. comprise the Enterprise Index. www.instructables.com Student’s parameter scores are combined to form the “Enterprise Index” score. Large collection of How To and Do it yourself and provides good hands-on experience. Along with exploring the projects, you can also share your project. Enterprise Index is an absolute number that represents the correlation between the child’s abilities to utilize all the parameters together. www.physics4kids.com This website helps you to learn and understand the basic concepts of physics through real-life scenarios. Perform small activities and solve the quizzes. Your performance will be indicated by an Enterprise Index graph. This graph represents your www.popularmechanics.com performance in the five parameters which constitute the Enterprise Index. The percentage score This site covers a variety of information on automotive needs, electronics, computers, telecommunications and everything dealing with machines. in each category is plotted to make a pentagon (a polygon with five sides). The pentagon or the4 radar graph represents the child’s parameter score on five axes. www.gorobotics.net 5 Learn the very basics to how to make a robot right from the simple to advanced concepts and provides a good resource of robotic projects.
  8. 8. i-Invent Case Studies Why the keys are not arrangedThe following case studies have been composed with an aim to make children more observant alphabeticallyand aware about their surroundings. It also fuels their ability to question, evaluate and makescience a part of their day- to-day life and helps them to reason rationally. Christopher Latham Sholes was a U.S. mechanical engineer formerly working in Dan ville hadThese case studies are more concerned with breaking the myth that great minds lead to great moved to Milwaukee. Here he took up the job of a newspaper editor. It was mid 19th centuryinventions. It assists them to comprehend that even an ordinary man is capable of amazing and in those times, newspapers were printed in printing presses using typesetting system.inventions. The only precursor is that he knows how to approach the problem and how to In typesetting system, compositors set written material into type. This means compositorsextrapolate information from his existing knowledge? The ever existing curiosity in children manually lay the letters out before printing begins. Once the letters are arranged, they are inkedkeeps their mind flexible, making them more creative than most adults. With this book, we aim and the impression is printed on paper.to show you that the process of Invention is not one-shot thing. This is actually a step-by-step Once at Sholes printing press, the compositors went on strike. This created a great problem andprocess that starts with an idea and slowly evolves into an invention. Moreover, all great he realised that the process is dependent on compositors.inventions are not associated with some extraordinary human beings, but many of them are byordinary human beings who would not stop trying despite many letdowns.The cases in this book are illustrated in a story format, which will employ your minds and alsokeep up the curiosity. The cases will familiarize you with different designs, their advantage andreasons for choosing right material in making a certain product.Enjoy your journey into the world of invention! 6 7
  9. 9. i-Invent Case Studies Why the keys are not arrangedThe following case studies have been composed with an aim to make children more observant alphabeticallyand aware about their surroundings. It also fuels their ability to question, evaluate and makescience a part of their day- to-day life and helps them to reason rationally. Christopher Latham Sholes was a U.S. mechanical engineer formerly working in Dan ville hadThese case studies are more concerned with breaking the myth that great minds lead to great moved to Milwaukee. Here he took up the job of a newspaper editor. It was mid 19th centuryinventions. It assists them to comprehend that even an ordinary man is capable of amazing and in those times, newspapers were printed in printing presses using typesetting system.inventions. The only precursor is that he knows how to approach the problem and how to In typesetting system, compositors set written material into type. This means compositorsextrapolate information from his existing knowledge? The ever existing curiosity in children manually lay the letters out before printing begins. Once the letters are arranged, they are inkedkeeps their mind flexible, making them more creative than most adults. With this book, we aim and the impression is printed on paper.to show you that the process of Invention is not one-shot thing. This is actually a step-by-step Once at Sholes printing press, the compositors went on strike. This created a great problem andprocess that starts with an idea and slowly evolves into an invention. Moreover, all great he realised that the process is dependent on compositors.inventions are not associated with some extraordinary human beings, but many of them are byordinary human beings who would not stop trying despite many letdowns.The cases in this book are illustrated in a story format, which will employ your minds and alsokeep up the curiosity. The cases will familiarize you with different designs, their advantage andreasons for choosing right material in making a certain product.Enjoy your journey into the world of invention! 6 7
  10. 10. Think of various problems that may occur in a typeset press. Imagine that you faced the same Sholes proceeded to construct a machine to do the whole alphabet. problem and you had to come up with a solution to tackle this problem, what would it be? Sholes arranged the keys arranged alphabetically in two rows. The process of laying out of alphabets is a big manual task, highly dependent on the skill of the person doing it. It may take a lot of time or there could be mistakes in the setting. A way to tackle these problems would be to somehow automate this process. The question is how? This could be possibly done by creating some kind of a system where this manual setting is not at all required. Maybe creating a typing machine which automatically does embossing of letters on a large sheet of metal or even digitalising the process like the modern day printer. The typebars were attached to the circumference of a metal ring, forming a Sholes tried building a machine to automate basket. When a key was pressed, the typesetting, but this was a failure. Then he thought of corresponding typebar would swing upwards, a simple device with a piece of printers type. It was causing the print head to strike at the centre of mounted on a little rod so that it strikes upwards to a the ring. Gravity would then return the typebar flat plate. This flat plate held a piece of carbon paper, to its initial position. However, the model was which was between a piece of stationary. Sholes sluggish; it clashed and jammed when demonstration model looked like this: someone tried to type with it. Why do you think this problem came up? Check the initial design and suggest why the design could be problematic?With the key of an old telegraph instrumentmounted on its base, Sholes tapped down The problem must be of the alignment of these lever arms. When the levers strike inon his model and the little type jumped up to moderate speed there are chances that two adjacent arms may touch each other, obstructhit the carbon paper against the glass plate. or even jam the machine.This diagram shows Sholes basicmechanism—an up-strike design. Here is what happened. Now, look at the diagram LMNOPQR showing the arrangement of typebars. And draw H IJK ST G UV F the movement of the typebars when you type the DE WX Now Sholes wanted to extend this design to include all the alphabets. Can you word FEED. Now when the typebar F is coming AB C YZ conceptualise a design to extend this concept of including all the alphabets? back to its position, E is going to hit the paper and when E is returning, D would be moving. (Hammer strikes here) Al alphabets would include the A-Z, 1-9 and some other special characters. This would need a lot Considering that they are mechanical rods of average precision, what could be the possible of levers. The most obvious way would be to place all the levers around in a circular fashion which problem that made this model sluggish? all have their typing end at the centre. But it would be difficult for a person to type sitting at one place. So, may be placing these letters in an arc would be better so that a person typing the text will have access to all alphabets. Sholes’ original model would have faced typebar jamming because when the typist types very fast, bars would hit each other. 8 9
  11. 11. Think of various problems that may occur in a typeset press. Imagine that you faced the same Sholes proceeded to construct a machine to do the whole alphabet. problem and you had to come up with a solution to tackle this problem, what would it be? Sholes arranged the keys arranged alphabetically in two rows. The process of laying out of alphabets is a big manual task, highly dependent on the skill of the person doing it. It may take a lot of time or there could be mistakes in the setting. A way to tackle these problems would be to somehow automate this process. The question is how? This could be possibly done by creating some kind of a system where this manual setting is not at all required. Maybe creating a typing machine which automatically does embossing of letters on a large sheet of metal or even digitalising the process like the modern day printer. The typebars were attached to the circumference of a metal ring, forming a Sholes tried building a machine to automate basket. When a key was pressed, the typesetting, but this was a failure. Then he thought of corresponding typebar would swing upwards, a simple device with a piece of printers type. It was causing the print head to strike at the centre of mounted on a little rod so that it strikes upwards to a the ring. Gravity would then return the typebar flat plate. This flat plate held a piece of carbon paper, to its initial position. However, the model was which was between a piece of stationary. Sholes sluggish; it clashed and jammed when demonstration model looked like this: someone tried to type with it. Why do you think this problem came up? Check the initial design and suggest why the design could be problematic?With the key of an old telegraph instrumentmounted on its base, Sholes tapped down The problem must be of the alignment of these lever arms. When the levers strike inon his model and the little type jumped up to moderate speed there are chances that two adjacent arms may touch each other, obstructhit the carbon paper against the glass plate. or even jam the machine.This diagram shows Sholes basicmechanism—an up-strike design. Here is what happened. Now, look at the diagram LMNOPQR showing the arrangement of typebars. And draw H IJK ST G UV F the movement of the typebars when you type the DE WX Now Sholes wanted to extend this design to include all the alphabets. Can you word FEED. Now when the typebar F is coming AB C YZ conceptualise a design to extend this concept of including all the alphabets? back to its position, E is going to hit the paper and when E is returning, D would be moving. (Hammer strikes here) Al alphabets would include the A-Z, 1-9 and some other special characters. This would need a lot Considering that they are mechanical rods of average precision, what could be the possible of levers. The most obvious way would be to place all the levers around in a circular fashion which problem that made this model sluggish? all have their typing end at the centre. But it would be difficult for a person to type sitting at one place. So, may be placing these letters in an arc would be better so that a person typing the text will have access to all alphabets. Sholes’ original model would have faced typebar jamming because when the typist types very fast, bars would hit each other. 8 9
  12. 12. Now how could we possibly eliminate this problem? The moving belt The keys could possibly be arranged in a fashion that the most frequently used alphabet keys are far away from each other so that the chances of adjacent levers hitting each other is minimised. Imagine you are an engineer in a coalmine, where the workers dig out coals that need to be transported to the processing plant situated 1 km away. The workers carry the coals in theHere is how Sholes solved this problem. Compare this with the solution you have suggested. trolleys. Now that you know about the simple machines, design an automatic system to moveSholes made a list of all frequently appearing combination of letters in the English language and the coals to the processing unit.came up with a new layout after studying them. The objective of this layout was to place these The most convenient way could be to make a continuous system which keeps on working andletters far apart on the keyboard thus preventing the type bars from getting entangled. Also anytime some worker keeps a coal piece on it would be drawn out of the mine. It should keepQWERTY keypad disturbed the alphabetical sequence of which made typists take a longer time into account that pieces should not fall off and also it should be able to work for moving coalto look for each alphabet. It made to slow down the speed of typing in the process. A lesser from one height to another.speed meant fewer chances of the adjacent type bars getting jammed. To move material in a mine or a shopping store or airport, we use a conveyor belt. It moves cardboard boxes, wooden boxes, metal boxes, plastic boxes etc. A conveyor is used to move material from one point to the other. Now we will learn about how a conveyer belt works and the various ways of designing a conveyor belt. Place a piece of whole brick on the floor, and apply force to push the brick. Now take some pencils. Around 6–8 will be enough, or you can even use some cylindrical sticks.The late 19th century saw continued product improvement. These included the carriage return, Put the brick as shown in the image and push it.the self-rewinding ink ribbon and the shift key to distinguish between capital and small letters, Note down your observations below.and the ability to see what you were typing. Pushing the brick takes a lot of force, while in the case of pencilsThe electric typewriters were then replaced by electronic typewriters, which were ultimately they act as wheels and need only aevolved into type ball introduced by IBM in 1964. And they gradually evolved into computer little push to move the brick forward.based word processor. Today, the keyboard doesnt have the typebars, which will hit each otherduring typing. But we are still using the QWERTY model.Can you guess why? The use of the QWERTY keyboard became so popular in the typewriters, that it became a matter of In which case is it easier to push the brick? Using this concept, can you now improve the design habit. So conventional format still continues most widely although other kinds of keyboards are you have made to move the coals in the mine? also used. Yes, a system can be made where these cylinders are fixed on their axes and keep on rotating in the same direction. This would make anything kept over them move. The speed of rotation of theseThe evolution of the typewriter has been a fascinating one leading to one of the most ingenious cylinders would determine the speed at which the brick moves ahead.inventions–“The Computer”. 10 11
  13. 13. Now how could we possibly eliminate this problem? The moving belt The keys could possibly be arranged in a fashion that the most frequently used alphabet keys are far away from each other so that the chances of adjacent levers hitting each other is minimised. Imagine you are an engineer in a coalmine, where the workers dig out coals that need to be transported to the processing plant situated 1 km away. The workers carry the coals in theHere is how Sholes solved this problem. Compare this with the solution you have suggested. trolleys. Now that you know about the simple machines, design an automatic system to moveSholes made a list of all frequently appearing combination of letters in the English language and the coals to the processing unit.came up with a new layout after studying them. The objective of this layout was to place these The most convenient way could be to make a continuous system which keeps on working andletters far apart on the keyboard thus preventing the type bars from getting entangled. Also anytime some worker keeps a coal piece on it would be drawn out of the mine. It should keepQWERTY keypad disturbed the alphabetical sequence of which made typists take a longer time into account that pieces should not fall off and also it should be able to work for moving coalto look for each alphabet. It made to slow down the speed of typing in the process. A lesser from one height to another.speed meant fewer chances of the adjacent type bars getting jammed. To move material in a mine or a shopping store or airport, we use a conveyor belt. It moves cardboard boxes, wooden boxes, metal boxes, plastic boxes etc. A conveyor is used to move material from one point to the other. Now we will learn about how a conveyer belt works and the various ways of designing a conveyor belt. Place a piece of whole brick on the floor, and apply force to push the brick. Now take some pencils. Around 6–8 will be enough, or you can even use some cylindrical sticks.The late 19th century saw continued product improvement. These included the carriage return, Put the brick as shown in the image and push it.the self-rewinding ink ribbon and the shift key to distinguish between capital and small letters, Note down your observations below.and the ability to see what you were typing. Pushing the brick takes a lot of force, while in the case of pencilsThe electric typewriters were then replaced by electronic typewriters, which were ultimately they act as wheels and need only aevolved into type ball introduced by IBM in 1964. And they gradually evolved into computer little push to move the brick forward.based word processor. Today, the keyboard doesnt have the typebars, which will hit each otherduring typing. But we are still using the QWERTY model.Can you guess why? The use of the QWERTY keyboard became so popular in the typewriters, that it became a matter of In which case is it easier to push the brick? Using this concept, can you now improve the design habit. So conventional format still continues most widely although other kinds of keyboards are you have made to move the coals in the mine? also used. Yes, a system can be made where these cylinders are fixed on their axes and keep on rotating in the same direction. This would make anything kept over them move. The speed of rotation of theseThe evolution of the typewriter has been a fascinating one leading to one of the most ingenious cylinders would determine the speed at which the brick moves ahead.inventions–“The Computer”. 10 11
  14. 14. C an you design a conveyor belt for an escalator?A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of amaterial called the conveyor belt that rotates around them.There are two main industrial classes of the belt conveyors:• General material handling such as moving boxes inside a factory• Bulk material handling such as transporting industrial and agricultural materials, like grain, coal, ores, etc. generally in outdoor locations Belt Pulleys—their rotation makes the belt over it moveAt the airport, you must have seen that the luggage is put on a moving platform, which Quirky Facttransports it to the other part of the airport after the security check. Also at a grinding mill,there is a continuously moving belt, which is attached to a running motor.List all the places where you have seen a conveyor and pulley system. The longest conveyor belt system in the world is 100km (63 miles) long and takesConveyor belt can be seen in airport to carry luggage, mines to carry loads, automated material from the Western Sahara Bu Craa phosphate mines to the coast.factories to carry goods from one station to the other. Even escalators are a form ofconveyor belt. History of conveyor belts Initially, the conveyor belts were up to 4 miles long and were generally made from layers of rubber and cotton. This revolutionised the mining industry, along with the coal-cutting machines, which Sutcliffe also invented in the 1880’s. The conveyor belts also revolutionised many other industries, allowing quick and efficient mass production, with the likes of Henry Ford catching on and introducing them to his production lines. The introduction of the synthetic conveyor belts made the belts strong yet very cheap, thus suited many different industries and trades. The synthetic material was used as the prime material for conveyor belts during the Second World War, mainly because there were very few natural materials such as rubber, cotton and canvas available. Today the conveyor belts are everywhere—used in many different trades and industries—mainly for production of goods. 12 13
  15. 15. C an you design a conveyor belt for an escalator?A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of amaterial called the conveyor belt that rotates around them.There are two main industrial classes of the belt conveyors:• General material handling such as moving boxes inside a factory• Bulk material handling such as transporting industrial and agricultural materials, like grain, coal, ores, etc. generally in outdoor locations Belt Pulleys—their rotation makes the belt over it moveAt the airport, you must have seen that the luggage is put on a moving platform, which Quirky Facttransports it to the other part of the airport after the security check. Also at a grinding mill,there is a continuously moving belt, which is attached to a running motor.List all the places where you have seen a conveyor and pulley system. The longest conveyor belt system in the world is 100km (63 miles) long and takesConveyor belt can be seen in airport to carry luggage, mines to carry loads, automated material from the Western Sahara Bu Craa phosphate mines to the coast.factories to carry goods from one station to the other. Even escalators are a form ofconveyor belt. History of conveyor belts Initially, the conveyor belts were up to 4 miles long and were generally made from layers of rubber and cotton. This revolutionised the mining industry, along with the coal-cutting machines, which Sutcliffe also invented in the 1880’s. The conveyor belts also revolutionised many other industries, allowing quick and efficient mass production, with the likes of Henry Ford catching on and introducing them to his production lines. The introduction of the synthetic conveyor belts made the belts strong yet very cheap, thus suited many different industries and trades. The synthetic material was used as the prime material for conveyor belts during the Second World War, mainly because there were very few natural materials such as rubber, cotton and canvas available. Today the conveyor belts are everywhere—used in many different trades and industries—mainly for production of goods. 12 13
  16. 16. In a simple form, imagine a pair of scissors. If we separate the two blades by removing theMechanical linkage middle hinge and apply force in a similar way, then what will happen? Draw the line of movement in both the cases. As you can see, we need to use the linkage to achieve the desired motion.Imagine you are asked to make a giant Mickey Mouse statue in your school garden. Everyday inthe morning, the statue will wave his hand, greeting all the kids. The hand movement of thestatue is an oscillatory motion. However, you have to generate this motion from an electricmotor, which is moving in a circular motion. Look at the following diagram for the next level of linkages. The given linkage arrangement isCan you design an arrangement to create this transformation of motion below? fixed at point C. The points A and B are free to move. The horizontal to and fro movement of point B results in movement of point A. Can you visualise how point A will move as you move point in the marked direction. Write your comments below. Motor A Point A would move something like this: Fixed C B HingedThere are many ways to achieve this motion transformation. We can use the fundamentals oflevers that we have already studied. Using the concept of levers, we can make something more Lets now talk about various types of linkages. Depending on the application as to how we needeffective, which we call linkage in mechanical language. to transform the motion, we can categorise the various types of linkages.Linkages form a part of most mechanical assemblies. Normally, machines operate with some Reverse Motion Linkage: Suppose you want to change a pull motion to push. This meanssort of energy source. The energy gets converted into motion. But sometimes, we need more that you are generating a motion in the reverse direction of the force. As the top rod moves tocomplicated motion, which cannot be generated by a regular energy conversion process. For the right, the bottom rod moves to the left.example, steam power gives you a linear motion or an electric motor will rotate in a circular Forcepattern. But in real life, we might need more complicated motion to operate a car wiper, arollercoaster or a robotic arm. So we need to convert motion from one form to another. MotionCan you identify where else you will need a motion conversion? Design a linkage to perform such kind of motion transformation. Linkages might be needed in: Scissors/Pliers Sliding or collapsible doors Motion Force Force Car wipers Machines Reverse Umbrellas Parallel etc Motion 14 15
  17. 17. In a simple form, imagine a pair of scissors. If we separate the two blades by removing theMechanical linkage middle hinge and apply force in a similar way, then what will happen? Draw the line of movement in both the cases. As you can see, we need to use the linkage to achieve the desired motion.Imagine you are asked to make a giant Mickey Mouse statue in your school garden. Everyday inthe morning, the statue will wave his hand, greeting all the kids. The hand movement of thestatue is an oscillatory motion. However, you have to generate this motion from an electricmotor, which is moving in a circular motion. Look at the following diagram for the next level of linkages. The given linkage arrangement isCan you design an arrangement to create this transformation of motion below? fixed at point C. The points A and B are free to move. The horizontal to and fro movement of point B results in movement of point A. Can you visualise how point A will move as you move point in the marked direction. Write your comments below. Motor A Point A would move something like this: Fixed C B HingedThere are many ways to achieve this motion transformation. We can use the fundamentals oflevers that we have already studied. Using the concept of levers, we can make something more Lets now talk about various types of linkages. Depending on the application as to how we needeffective, which we call linkage in mechanical language. to transform the motion, we can categorise the various types of linkages.Linkages form a part of most mechanical assemblies. Normally, machines operate with some Reverse Motion Linkage: Suppose you want to change a pull motion to push. This meanssort of energy source. The energy gets converted into motion. But sometimes, we need more that you are generating a motion in the reverse direction of the force. As the top rod moves tocomplicated motion, which cannot be generated by a regular energy conversion process. For the right, the bottom rod moves to the left.example, steam power gives you a linear motion or an electric motor will rotate in a circular Forcepattern. But in real life, we might need more complicated motion to operate a car wiper, arollercoaster or a robotic arm. So we need to convert motion from one form to another. MotionCan you identify where else you will need a motion conversion? Design a linkage to perform such kind of motion transformation. Linkages might be needed in: Scissors/Pliers Sliding or collapsible doors Motion Force Force Car wipers Machines Reverse Umbrellas Parallel etc Motion 14 15
  18. 18. Parallel Motion Linkage: Look at the following diagram. Five metal bars are connected at A, From the given set of pictures, identify the type of linkage the figure belongs to.B, C and D. The whole arrangement is fixed on the wall with the help of nails E and F such thatthe bars BC and AD can rotate across those points but you cannot move the bars in linearmotion across these points. As the large rod CD at the top of the diagram moves to the left, thetwo small rods at the bottom move to the right. All the rods are parallel to each other.Suppose you apply a force at point A and moved it to the right. Then, what will be the movementin the points B, C and D. Mark it in the diagram. Cycle break The cycle break uses bell and crank mechanism while the Scissor lift C D uses a combination of parallel and reverse linkages. Scissors lift E Fixed F pivot point Let us now have a look at the history of linkages. B A Archimedes applied geometry to the study of the lever. The work of Archimedes and Hero of Crank and Slider Linkage: The rods move forwards and backwards in slider. The fixed Alexandria were the primary sources of machine theory. It was Leonardo da Vinci who brought pivot anchors the linkages to one place. an inventive energy to machines and mechanism. In the mid 1700’s, the steam engine was of growing importance. And James Watt realised that efficiency could be increased by using different cylinders for expansion and condensation of the steam. This drove his search for a linkage that could transform rotation of a crank into a linear slide and resulted in his discovery of what is called ‘Watts Linkage’. This led to the study of Now note down the kind of the motion transformation this linkage will achieve. What will be linkages that could generate straight lines and inspired the mathematician, J. J. Sylvester, who the applications of this linkage? invented the ‘Peaucellier Linkage’, which generates an exact straight line from a rotating crank. As we progress through these modules, we will learn how we can make many mechanical tasks This king of a linkage can be used to convert circular motion from a motor source to constrained simpler using these linkages. linear motion.Bell Crank Linkage: This linkage allows horizontal movement to be converted to verticalmovement. It also works the other way around.Can you design an appropriate linkage to provide this change in the direction of motion? Force Force 16 Fixed point Motion 17 Motion
  19. 19. Parallel Motion Linkage: Look at the following diagram. Five metal bars are connected at A, From the given set of pictures, identify the type of linkage the figure belongs to.B, C and D. The whole arrangement is fixed on the wall with the help of nails E and F such thatthe bars BC and AD can rotate across those points but you cannot move the bars in linearmotion across these points. As the large rod CD at the top of the diagram moves to the left, thetwo small rods at the bottom move to the right. All the rods are parallel to each other.Suppose you apply a force at point A and moved it to the right. Then, what will be the movementin the points B, C and D. Mark it in the diagram. Cycle break The cycle break uses bell and crank mechanism while the Scissor lift C D uses a combination of parallel and reverse linkages. Scissors lift E Fixed F pivot point Let us now have a look at the history of linkages. B A Archimedes applied geometry to the study of the lever. The work of Archimedes and Hero of Crank and Slider Linkage: The rods move forwards and backwards in slider. The fixed Alexandria were the primary sources of machine theory. It was Leonardo da Vinci who brought pivot anchors the linkages to one place. an inventive energy to machines and mechanism. In the mid 1700’s, the steam engine was of growing importance. And James Watt realised that efficiency could be increased by using different cylinders for expansion and condensation of the steam. This drove his search for a linkage that could transform rotation of a crank into a linear slide and resulted in his discovery of what is called ‘Watts Linkage’. This led to the study of Now note down the kind of the motion transformation this linkage will achieve. What will be linkages that could generate straight lines and inspired the mathematician, J. J. Sylvester, who the applications of this linkage? invented the ‘Peaucellier Linkage’, which generates an exact straight line from a rotating crank. As we progress through these modules, we will learn how we can make many mechanical tasks This king of a linkage can be used to convert circular motion from a motor source to constrained simpler using these linkages. linear motion.Bell Crank Linkage: This linkage allows horizontal movement to be converted to verticalmovement. It also works the other way around.Can you design an appropriate linkage to provide this change in the direction of motion? Force Force 16 Fixed point Motion 17 Motion
  20. 20. Food Chain ? 3. Suppose a population of animal X was introduced into the community. After the introduction of X, the An ecosystem consists of all the things interacting with each number of lions increased while the number of deer decreased. What do you think animal X could be? other in a specific geographical area. They can be living or non- living. Some examples of non-living things that support life in an ! A. Another primary consumer like Zebra, which the lion can hunt ecosystem are light, air, soil, and water. Living things are the B. Some animal that hunts Lions organisms (plants and animals) that use the non living or the C. Another animal that hunts Deer other living things as resources. D. None of the above All living and non living things are interlinked to each other. Plants use sunlight to make their food. Some organisms depend on If ‘X’ was some animal that hunted lion, then the population of lions would also have been plants for their food, they are called primary consumers. Some decreasing. Again if ‘X’ hunted deer, then population of lions would, then population of lions would organisms depend on primary consumers they are called not have been increasing, as there would be competition for food. Another herbivore which lion secondary consumers, so on and so forth. can hunt can be a possibility, as their population would make available ample, which will increase Given is a diagram known as food chain. Look at it and answer a few questions. lion population. Hence option A would be the correct answer. Above is a pyramid of consumers, indicating their number and interdependence for a balanced living world. This has to live in harmony with the abiotic factors (air, water etc.). ? 4. Over a period of time, the number of deer drops. Which of the following statements can explain it? I. The producers are available in lesser number II. More species of primary consumers exist III. An increase in the lion population? 1. Now complete the following sequence IV. The death rate of the deer is lower than its birth rate Sun > Plants > ________ > Snake > ________ ! A. I and IV ! A. Rabbit, Rhino B. I, II and IV B. Giraffe, Wolf C. I, II and III C. Lion, Cheetah D. II, III and IV D. Rabbit, Hawk If the death rate is lower than birth rate i.e. number of deer dying is lower than those of being born, This is an example of a food chain, where the flow of food/energy is represented as a chain. The will result in the increase in the number of deer population. flow goes as producers (autotrophs/plants) are consumed by primary consumers (herbivores), But, if there competition is more herbivore species, this will result in more competition for food who in turn are consumed by secondary consumers (carnivores) and so on. and may result in starvation and death. Also increase in the population of carnivores may result in So in this problem plants are consumed by rabbits/giraffes and not by lions. Again rabbits can only the decrease in deer population. This may also result from lack of primary producers on which the be consumed by snakes and not the other ones. Snakes are consumed by hawks and not by deer population is dependent for food. So option C would be the correct option. wolf/cheetah or rhino. So option D is the correct one for completing the food chain.? 2. Animals like lions prey on other animals such as deer, what will happen if there are no deer in the forest? I. The lion would go to another area to hunt for food II. The lion would eat barks and roots of trees III. The lion population in the area will start dwindling. ! A. Both I and II B. II only C. Both I and III D. I only In case of a particular ecosystem, if the population of deer starts dwindling, then lions will definitely suffer food shortage, and they may even migrate to other regions in search of food or the population will start to go down due to death from starvation. But carnivore can not turn into herbivore so quickly. So option C is the correct option. 18 19

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