How Useful Is A Tweet?
iHub Research’s 3Vs of Crowdsourcing
Framework
Angela Crandall Nanjira Sambuli Chris Orwa
This rese...
Twitter: Some Facts and Figures
•  Launched in 2006
•  Approximately 550 million active users
worldwide
•  About 200 milli...
Twitter and the Tweeps
•  Twitter…can be more of a news media than
even a social network (Kwak et al, 2010)
•  Breaking ne...
Twitter for Crowdsourcing.
That Is…
Collecting information from the “crowd”
• Allows for a wide reach of people in inexpen...
Mapping Kenyan Election Events,
Thanks to crowdsourcing!
What is there to (Twitter) crowdsourcing?
Viability: In what situation/events is crowdsourcing a
viable venture likely to ...
Crowdsourcing during an Election
•  What, if any, particular conditions should be in place
for crowdsourcing of informatio...
Why Elections?
o  Elections in Kenya have been noted to spark many
online conversations, especially with the continued
upt...
Why Crowdsourcing, Kenyan
Elections and #KoT
•  #KoT have participated in crowdsourcing activities
severally, under hashta...
(Online) Passive Crowdsourcing
vs. Active Crowdsourcing
• Active – Open call made for participation
(e.g. Ushahidi’s Crowd...
What we did
Cross-comparison of different media
sources:
o Traditional Media
o Data mining from Twitter
o Uchaguzi Crowdsou...
Research Findings
Passive
Crowdsourcing
is Viable
During the
Elections in
Kenya
Twitter
Breaks
News
An Example from the Westgate
Incident
First tweet about the attack at 12:38PM
First tweet by media about the attack
First tweet by a government institution about
the attack
Mining Of Twitter Data without
Machine Learning is Not Feasible
Search
method
Time
taken
Number of
Newsworthy
Tweets
Searc...
From the Westgate Incident…
Mining tweets from the Westgate attack
manually has been labour-intensive, limiting us
to suffic...
In Summary:
o  Kenyan social media content is rich with real-time
updates of happenings that might not be present in
mains...
The 3Vs Crowdsourcing
Framework
AVAILABLE FOR FREE DOWNLOAD HERE:
http://www.ihub.co.ke/blog/2013/08/3vs-crowdsourcing-fra...
Next Steps
•  Testing the 3V’s Framework on other election-
related crowdsourcing opportunities
•  Move to real-time analy...
research@ihub.co.ke
?
?
?
3Vs Crowdsourcing presentation *iHub_Research
3Vs Crowdsourcing presentation *iHub_Research
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3Vs Crowdsourcing presentation *iHub_Research

  1. 1. How Useful Is A Tweet? iHub Research’s 3Vs of Crowdsourcing Framework Angela Crandall Nanjira Sambuli Chris Orwa This research was funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre.
  2. 2. Twitter: Some Facts and Figures •  Launched in 2006 •  Approximately 550 million active users worldwide •  About 200 million monthly active users •  An average of 400 million tweets are sent everyday globally •  60% of the monthly active users log on using a mobile device at least once every month
  3. 3. Twitter and the Tweeps •  Twitter…can be more of a news media than even a social network (Kwak et al, 2010) •  Breaking news and coverage of real-time events are all shared under the 140-character limit •  Twitter users search for up-to-the-second information and updates on unfolding events
  4. 4. Twitter for Crowdsourcing. That Is… Collecting information from the “crowd” • Allows for a wide reach of people in inexpensive ways • Large amounts of data can be obtained quickly, and often in real time • Not necessarily through tech, but nowadays most use tech such as online or via mobile phone • Crowdsourcing fosters citizen engagement with the information—to dispute, confirm, or acknowledge its existence.
  5. 5. Mapping Kenyan Election Events, Thanks to crowdsourcing!
  6. 6. What is there to (Twitter) crowdsourcing? Viability: In what situation/events is crowdsourcing a viable venture likely to offer worthwhile results/ outcomes? Validity: Does crowd-sourced information offer a true reflection of the reality on the ground? Verification: Is there a way in which we can verify that the information provided through crowdsourcing is indeed valid? If so, can the verification process be automated?
  7. 7. Crowdsourcing during an Election •  What, if any, particular conditions should be in place for crowdsourcing of information to be viable during an election period? •  Can crowd-sourced information be validated during an election period? If so, what is the practical implementation of doing so? •  How do different crowdsourcing methods contribute to the quality of information collected?
  8. 8. Why Elections? o  Elections in Kenya have been noted to spark many online conversations, especially with the continued uptake of social media; o  Citizens have an important role to play to contribute information from the ground; o  Existing election crowdsourcing initiatives (such as Uchaguzi), but none use passive crowdsourcing; o  Research exists around crowdsourcing during disasters, but does not yet exist around elections.
  9. 9. Why Crowdsourcing, Kenyan Elections and #KoT •  #KoT have participated in crowdsourcing activities severally, under hashtags such as #CarPoolKE, #findfuel, #SomeoneTellCNN etc. •  Approximately 90,000 tweets generated during the first Kenyan Presidential Debates (as monitored using popular hashtags) •  Election-campaigning was also digital
  10. 10. (Online) Passive Crowdsourcing vs. Active Crowdsourcing • Active – Open call made for participation (e.g. Ushahidi’s Crowdmap). • Passive – Sifting through content already being generated (e.g. on Twitter/ Facebook) to capture relevant information.
  11. 11. What we did Cross-comparison of different media sources: o Traditional Media o Data mining from Twitter o Uchaguzi Crowdsourcing o Fieldwork
  12. 12. Research Findings
  13. 13. Passive Crowdsourcing is Viable During the Elections in Kenya
  14. 14. Twitter Breaks News
  15. 15. An Example from the Westgate Incident First tweet about the attack at 12:38PM
  16. 16. First tweet by media about the attack
  17. 17. First tweet by a government institution about the attack
  18. 18. Mining Of Twitter Data without Machine Learning is Not Feasible Search method Time taken Number of Newsworthy Tweets Search time for whole data set Viable for real time analysis Viable for post-data analysis Linear search 90 hrs 100 270 days No No Keyword search 4.5 hrs 400 27 days No In a very limited way ML, supervised learning Less than 6 mins, 1.5 hrs labeling 12,208 Less than 1 sec Yes Yes
  19. 19. From the Westgate Incident… Mining tweets from the Westgate attack manually has been labour-intensive, limiting us to sufficiently analysing the first half hour (12:38 PM – 1:18 PM GMT+ 3) Further analysis into Twitter data from the incident will require machine learning techniques.
  20. 20. In Summary: o  Kenyan social media content is rich with real-time updates of happenings that might not be present in mainstream media reports. o  Mining of crowd-sourced data appears to be high value when one is looking for timely, local information. o  There are indeed considerations that are useful for assessing and running an election-based crowdsourcing activity.
  21. 21. The 3Vs Crowdsourcing Framework AVAILABLE FOR FREE DOWNLOAD HERE: http://www.ihub.co.ke/blog/2013/08/3vs-crowdsourcing-framework-for-elections- launched/
  22. 22. Next Steps •  Testing the 3V’s Framework on other election- related crowdsourcing opportunities •  Move to real-time analysis of tweets •  Provide tools for verifying crowdsourced information. •  Integrate research to media practices •  Working with local media organizations to build a useable tool for collecting real-time newsworthy incidents from the crowd
  23. 23. research@ihub.co.ke ? ? ?

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