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Chapter 9
Property Acquisition and Cost
Recovery
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Learning Objectives
1. Explain the concept of basis and adjusted basis and
describe the cost recovery methods used under the tax
law to recover the cost of personal property, real
property, intangible assets, and natural resources
2. Determine the applicable cost recovery (depreciation)
life, method, and convention for tangible personal and
real property and calculate the deduction allowable
under basic MACRS
3. Explain the additional special cost recovery rules
(§179, bonus, listed property) and calculate the
deduction allowable under these rules.
4. Explain the rationale behind amortization, describe the
four categories of amortizable intangible assets, and
calculate amortization expense
5. Explain cost recovery of natural resources and the
allowable depletion methods
9-2
Cost Recovery
 Businesses must capitalize the cost of assets
with a useful life of more than one year on the
balance sheet rather than expense the cost
immediately
 Also known as depreciation, amortization, or
depletion – depending upon the underlying
nature of asset
 Business use these methods to recover cost
of assets due to wear, tear and obsolescence
of assets
9-3
 Different methods to recover the costs of
assets
 Depreciation - Deducting the cost of tangible
personal and real property (other than land)
over a specific period of time
 Amortization - Deducting the cost of intangible
property over a specific period of time
 Depletion - Deducting the cost of natural
resources over time
Cost Recovery
9-4
Cost Recovery
 Basis for Cost Recovery –
 Once the use of purchased assets is started,
recouping the cost of assets also starts
 Cost basis reduces when cost is recovered
through Cost Recovery Deductions which is called
Assets Adjusted Basis or Tax Basis
 Assets Adjusted Basis = Assets Initial Cost or
Historical basis minus Accumulated Depreciation
(Amortization or Depletion)
9-5
Basis Example
 Scrap-Happy Inc., a scrapbooking retail
chain, purchased an old office building for
$175,000 for use in expanding its current
operations. An additional $15,000 was spent
painting and remodeling the building in
preparation for its opening.
 Two years later, a Scrap-Happy employee
discovered that several leaks in the roof were
causing serious water damage to the store’s
inventory; the company spent $50,000 to re-roof
the building.
 Every six months, Scrap-Happy pays $500 to
have the carpet professionally cleaned.
9-6
Ad

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ACCT321 Chapter 09

  • 1. Chapter 9 Property Acquisition and Cost Recovery © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 2. Learning Objectives 1. Explain the concept of basis and adjusted basis and describe the cost recovery methods used under the tax law to recover the cost of personal property, real property, intangible assets, and natural resources 2. Determine the applicable cost recovery (depreciation) life, method, and convention for tangible personal and real property and calculate the deduction allowable under basic MACRS 3. Explain the additional special cost recovery rules (§179, bonus, listed property) and calculate the deduction allowable under these rules. 4. Explain the rationale behind amortization, describe the four categories of amortizable intangible assets, and calculate amortization expense 5. Explain cost recovery of natural resources and the allowable depletion methods 9-2
  • 3. Cost Recovery  Businesses must capitalize the cost of assets with a useful life of more than one year on the balance sheet rather than expense the cost immediately  Also known as depreciation, amortization, or depletion – depending upon the underlying nature of asset  Business use these methods to recover cost of assets due to wear, tear and obsolescence of assets 9-3
  • 4.  Different methods to recover the costs of assets  Depreciation - Deducting the cost of tangible personal and real property (other than land) over a specific period of time  Amortization - Deducting the cost of intangible property over a specific period of time  Depletion - Deducting the cost of natural resources over time Cost Recovery 9-4
  • 5. Cost Recovery  Basis for Cost Recovery –  Once the use of purchased assets is started, recouping the cost of assets also starts  Cost basis reduces when cost is recovered through Cost Recovery Deductions which is called Assets Adjusted Basis or Tax Basis  Assets Adjusted Basis = Assets Initial Cost or Historical basis minus Accumulated Depreciation (Amortization or Depletion) 9-5
  • 6. Basis Example  Scrap-Happy Inc., a scrapbooking retail chain, purchased an old office building for $175,000 for use in expanding its current operations. An additional $15,000 was spent painting and remodeling the building in preparation for its opening.  Two years later, a Scrap-Happy employee discovered that several leaks in the roof were causing serious water damage to the store’s inventory; the company spent $50,000 to re-roof the building.  Every six months, Scrap-Happy pays $500 to have the carpet professionally cleaned. 9-6
  • 7. Basis Example (cont.)  What is the original basis of the building?  $175,000 initial cost + $15,000 painting and remodeling $190,000 Original Basis  What effects do the other two transactions have on the original basis?  $50,000 re-roofing expense: Added to basis (extends the useful life of the building)  $500 biannual carpet cleaning: No effect on basis (Expensed immediately  routine maintenance) 9-7
  • 9. Depreciation  Before 1981, tax depreciation methods closely resembled financial accounting methods which required businesses to determine “Salvage Values” and “Useful Lives”  In 1981, ACRS – Accelerated Cost Recovery System was introduced to depreciate assets over predetermined, fixed recovery periods  Today, businesses calculate their tax depreciation using the MACRS- Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System – which is pronounced “makers” by tax accountants 9-9
  • 10. Depreciation  To compute MACRS depreciation for an asset, following are to be known  asset’s original cost,  applicable depreciation method,  asset’s recovery period (or depreciable “life”),  applicable depreciation convention (depreciation deductible in the year of acquisition and the year of disposition) 9-10
  • 11. Depreciation  Personal Property Depreciation  Includes all tangible property such as computers, automobiles, furniture, machinery and equipment, other than real property  Personal property (not real property) and personal use property (used for personal purposes) not the same 9-11
  • 12. Depreciation  Depreciation Method  Three acceptable methods for depreciating personal property  200 percent (double) declining balance  150 percent declining balance  straight-line 9-12
  • 13. Depreciation  Depreciation Recovery Period  For financial accounting purposes an assets recovery period (depreciable life) is based on its taxpayer-determined estimated useful life  For tax purposes, an assets recovery period is predetermined by IRS in the Rev. Proc. 87-56 which helps payers to categorize each of their assets based upon the property’s description 9-13
  • 14. Depreciation  Once the business has determined the appropriate categories for its assets, it can use the Revenue Procedure to identify the recovery period for all assets in a particular category 9-14
  • 17. Depreciation  Depreciation Conventions  Half-year Convention  One–half year’s depreciation is allowed in first and last year of an asset’s life  An IRS depreciation tables automatically account for the half-year convention in year of purchase and disposition  If an asset is disposed of before it is fully depreciated, only one-half of the table’s applicable depreciation percentage is allowed in the year of disposition 9-17
  • 18. Depreciation  Mid–Quarter Convention  Steps to determine whether the mid–quarter convention applies 1) Sum of the total basis of tangible personal property that was placed in service during the year 2) Sum of the total basis of tangible personal property that was placed in service during the fourth quarter 3) Divide step (2) by step (1), if the quotient is more than 40%, then the business must use this method or else half–year convention is used 9-18
  • 19. Depreciation  Calculating depreciation for personal property  Locate the applicable table provided in Rev. Proc. 87- 57  Select the column that corresponds with the assets recovery period  Find the row identifying the year of the assets recovery period  Applying the half-year and mid–quarter convention  Half-year convention for year of disposition  Mid-quarter convention for year of disposition 9-19
  • 23. Depreciation Example  In 2013, Scrap-Happy purchased and placed in service the following assets: Asset Cost Date placed in service Di-Cut Machine $3,500 February 2 (1st Qtr.) Computer $1,200 October 25 (4th Qtr.) • What is the recovery period for each of the assets?  Computer = 5 years  Di-Cut Machine = 7 years  Which convention should Scrap-Happy use to determine depreciation for 2013?  Answer: Half-year   $1,200 4th qtr. assets/$4,700 total assets = 25.53% < 40% 9-23
  • 24. Depreciation Example  What convention should be used in computing depreciation for the year?  Answer: Mid-quarter   $3,500 4th qtr. assets/$4,700 total assets = 74.46% > 40%  How much depreciation can they take for each of the assets in 2013?  Computer: $1,200 x 35%* = $420  Di-Cut Machine: 3,500 x 3.57%* = $125 *See respective mid-quarter MACRS tables for rates Asset Cost Date placed in service Recovery Period Computer $1,200 February 2 (1st Qtr.) 5 Years Di-Cut Machine $3,500 October 25 (4th Qtr.) 7 Years  Now assume all the same facts, except that the computer was purchased in February and the machine in October, as shown: 9-24
  • 25. Depreciation  Real Property  It uses mid–month convention and depreciated using straight line method 9-25
  • 26. REAL PROPERTY: Depreciation Example  On July 12, Scrap-Happy purchases and places in service a warehouse and the land it resides on for $170,000 ($120,000 is allocated to the building and $50,000 to the land).  What is the amount of depreciation on the property for the first year?  Answer: $120,000 x 1.177% = $1,412  1.177% is the rate given in the nonresidential real property MACRS table under the column for the 7th month*  Land is not included in the calculation because it is not depreciable 9-26
  • 27. Depreciation  Immediate Expensing  This incentive is commonly referred as §179 expense or immediate expensing election  Limits on immediate expensing  Choosing the assets to immediately expense  Bonus Depreciation  To stimulate the economy, policy makers occasionally implement bonus depreciation 9-27
  • 28. Depreciation  Listed Property  Business can use the following steps to determine its current depreciation expense for the asset 1) Compute depreciation for the year if it drops to 50% or below using the straight-line method 2) Compute amount to be deducted if straight line method is used over ADS recovery period for all prior years (limited to business – use percentage) 3) Compute the amount of depreciation, taxpayer actually deducted on the assets for all prior years 4) Subtract amount of step 2 from step 3, which is prior year accelerated depreciation in excess of straight line depreciation 5) Subtract amount of step 4 from step 1 which is business’s allowable depreciation expense on the asset for that year 9-28
  • 31. Amortization  For intangible assets businesses recover cost of the asset through amortization  Intangible assets in the form of capitalized expenditures, such as capitalized research and experimentation (R&E) costs or covenants do not have physical characteristics  Intangible assets has one of the following characteristics  Section 197 Intangibles  Start-up expenditures and organizational costs  Research and experimentation costs  Patents and Copyrights 9-31
  • 32. Amortization  Section 197 intangibles  According to §197, these assets have a recovery period of 180 months (15 years), regardless of their actual life  Uses full month convention allows taxpayers to deduct an entire month’s worth of amortization for the month of purchase and all subsequent months in the year 9-32
  • 33. Amortization  Organizational Expenditures and Start-up Costs  Organizational expenditures include expenditures to form and organize a business in the form of a corporation or a partnership and are incurred prior to the starting business  Start-up costs are costs businesses incur to, start up a business 9-33
  • 34. Amortization  Research and Experimentation Expenditures  To stay competitive, businesses often invest in activities which will generate innovative products or significantly improve their current products or processes  Businesses may immediately expense these costs or they may elect to capitalize and amortize these costs using the straight-line method over a period of not less than 60 months, beginning in the month benefits are first derived from the research 9-34
  • 35. Amortization  Patents and Copyrights  It depends on the way how business directly purchases the patent or copyright or whether itself creates the intangibles  Businesses directly purchasing patents or copyrights amortize the cost over the remaining life of the patents or copyrights  Businesses receiving “self-created” patents or copyrights amortize the cost or basis of the self- created intangible assets over their legal lives - up to a maximum of 17 years for patents and 28 years for copyrights 9-35
  • 37. Depletion  A method used to recover their capital investment in natural resources  Businesses compute annual depletion expense under both the cost and percentage depletion methods and they deduct the larger of the two  Taxpayers must estimate or determine the number of units or reserves that remain at the beginning of the year and allocate a pro rata share of that basis to each unit that is extracted during the year 9-37
  • 38. Cost Depletion Example  Scrap-Happy purchases a tract of forest land which they plan to use to harvest trees for the production of scrapbook paper. It is estimated that the tract contains 30,000 board feet of timber. The original cost of the property is $75,000, of which $60,000 is allocated to the timber and $15,000 to the land.  What is the cost depletion per board foot?  Answer: $60,000 basis/30,000 ft = $2/ft  If the company uses 10,000 board feet during the first year, how much will they expense under the cost depletion method?  Answer: 10,000 ft. x $2/ft = $20,000 OR $60,000 basis x 33.33% resource used = $20,000 9-38
  • 39. Depletion  Once entire cost is recovered, businesses are not allowed to use cost depletion to determine depletion expense  The amount of percentage depletion for a natural resource business activity is determined by multiplying the gross income from the resource extraction activity by a fixed percentage based on the type of natural resource as indicated in Exhibit 9-15 9-39