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  1. 1. Revolutionary Ideas NOTES
  2. 2. Classical Republicanism <ul><li>Good Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, homogeneous communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wise rulers who rule on behalf of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens who place the needs of the community above their own selfish desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good education </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Classical Republicanism <ul><li>Bad Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers rule on behalf of themselves, not the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tyranny </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No civic virtue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human passions are uncontrolled </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Thinking Like a Philosopher Our class has crashed on a deserted island. While we have more than enough resources, we must survive together.
  5. 5. Thinking Like a Philosopher <ul><li>Consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon arrival would there be any government or laws to control how you lived, what rights or freedoms you exercised, or what property you had? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would anyone have the right to govern you? Would you have the right to govern anyone else? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you have any rights? What would they be? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking Like a Philosopher Consider the following questions: What might people who were stronger, wealthier, and/or smarter than others try to do? Why? What might the weaker, less wealthy, and/or less sophisticated people try to do? Why? How certain do you feel you can maintain your rights?
  7. 7. The Enlightenment <ul><ul><li>In the 1600s & early 1700s, many European philosophers wrote that people could use reason to improve society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This use of reason to guide people’s thoughts defined a time period known as the Enlightenment . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideas of these thinkers contributed to the creation of modern democracy. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Natural Rights Philosophy <ul><li>Good Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is based on consent and contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is subject to the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty is fundamental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes individual rights and human equality </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Natural Rights Philosophy <ul><li>Bad Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not responsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates the rights of its people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not law-abiding </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Thomas Hobbes <ul><ul><li>English writer Thomas Hobbes established the foundation for the ideas that were to come. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He believed that people were naturally wicked and prone to war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He declared that in order to protect themselves, men agree to a social contract or government. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Thomas Hobbes <ul><ul><li>Hobbes believed that an absolute monarchy was best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He said that any abuses of power by the monarch were to be accepted as the price of peace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbes believed that a democracy would never work. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. John Locke <ul><ul><li>English writer John Locke was another major influence on political thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like Hobbes, he wrote that government was a contract between people & their leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also declared that people have certain natural rights , including life, liberty, & property. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. John Locke <ul><ul><li>According to Locke, government should protect the natural rights of its citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it didn’t, the people had the right to overthrow it. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Jean-Jacques Rousseau <ul><ul><li>Rousseau wrote that governments should express the will of the people . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He wrote that people enter into a social contract with their governments, giving them the power to create & enforce laws. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Baron de Montesquieu <ul><ul><li>Montesquieu claimed that government should have separate branches in order to protect people’s freedoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this idea, known as the separation of powers , each branch of government is limited so that they must share power with the others. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Enlightenment in America <ul><ul><li>The ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, & Rousseau spread throughout Europe & then to the colonies in North America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists already understood basic ideas about participation in government through the English Parliament. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the British government began to chip away at what they saw as their rights, the colonists fought back. </li></ul></ul>