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London iCAAD 2019 - Rowdy Yates - DYSLEXIA AND ADDICTION: BAD MOUTHING, BAD HABITS AND BAD, BAD BOYS

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This presentation will explore the apparent relationship between dyslexia, drug dependence and offending. The intention of the original study was to verify various anecdotal sources which have suggested that the incidence of dyslexia is higher amongst drug users than the general population.

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London iCAAD 2019 - Rowdy Yates - DYSLEXIA AND ADDICTION: BAD MOUTHING, BAD HABITS AND BAD, BAD BOYS

  1. 1. Bad Mouthing, Bad Habits andBad Mouthing, Bad Habits and Bad, Bad BoysBad, Bad Boys An Exploration of the Relationship Between DyslexiaAn Exploration of the Relationship Between Dyslexia and Drug Dependenceand Drug Dependence P. R. Yates, President, European Federation of Therapeutic CommunitiesP. R. Yates, President, European Federation of Therapeutic Communities Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, UniversityHonorary Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland.of Stirling, Scotland. e-mail: p.r.yates@icloud.come-mail: p.r.yates@icloud.com url: https://eftc.ngo/url: https://eftc.ngo/
  2. 2. ContentContent • The research question(s)The research question(s) • A brief description of dyslexiaA brief description of dyslexia • Study aims and methodsStudy aims and methods • Barriers and limitationsBarriers and limitations • A brief description of the studyA brief description of the study • The dyslexia findingsThe dyslexia findings • Some thoughts about relationshipsSome thoughts about relationships • Some implications for treatment deliverySome implications for treatment delivery
  3. 3. The research question(s)The research question(s) • Main research question:Main research question: • Is dyslexia found at a higher prevalence in drugIs dyslexia found at a higher prevalence in drug treatment populations than in the general population?treatment populations than in the general population? • Secondary research questions:Secondary research questions: • Do dyslexic addicts experience addiction differently?Do dyslexic addicts experience addiction differently? • Do dyslexic addicts experience addictionDo dyslexic addicts experience addiction treatmenttreatment differently?differently? • Do dyslexic addicts see any connection between theirDo dyslexic addicts see any connection between their addiction and their dyslexia?addiction and their dyslexia?
  4. 4. Understanding Dyslexia - 1Understanding Dyslexia - 1 • Congenital Word-BlindnessCongenital Word-Blindness • Clumsy Child Syndrome (dyspraxia)Clumsy Child Syndrome (dyspraxia) • The Absent-minded professorThe Absent-minded professor • Genetic theories of dyslexiaGenetic theories of dyslexia • Social theories of dyslexiaSocial theories of dyslexia • Personal attainment theories of dyslexiaPersonal attainment theories of dyslexia • Drug, Set and SettingDrug, Set and Setting
  5. 5. Understanding Dyslexia - 2Understanding Dyslexia - 2 • Word and sentence formationWord and sentence formation • Practical writing difficultiesPractical writing difficulties • The processing of soundsThe processing of sounds • Organisational difficultiesOrganisational difficulties • Apparent impetuosityApparent impetuosity • ForgetfulnessForgetfulness • Difficulties with physical dexterityDifficulties with physical dexterity
  6. 6. The Study - AimsThe Study - Aims • To measure prevalence within drug treatmentTo measure prevalence within drug treatment populationspopulations • To examine any correlation in severity of the twoTo examine any correlation in severity of the two conditionsconditions • To record the views of individual dyslexicsTo record the views of individual dyslexics regarding connectionsregarding connections • To record the views of individual dyslexicsTo record the views of individual dyslexics regarding the impact on their treatmentregarding the impact on their treatment ““experienceexperience””..
  7. 7. The Study - MethodsThe Study - Methods • Extensive literature reviewExtensive literature review • LADS dyslexia softwareLADS dyslexia software • Maudsley Addiction ProfileMaudsley Addiction Profile • Pilot groupPilot group • Brief interview scheduleBrief interview schedule • Testing and profiling of 25 men in community drugTesting and profiling of 25 men in community drug treatmentstreatments • Testing and profiling of 25 men in therapeuticTesting and profiling of 25 men in therapeutic community settingscommunity settings • 10 in-depth interviews with10 in-depth interviews with ““positivespositives””
  8. 8. The Dyslexia ConsentThe Dyslexia Consent
  9. 9. The Dyslexia ConsentThe Dyslexia Consent
  10. 10. Barriers and limitationsBarriers and limitations • Sample size and costSample size and cost • Sparse or no literatureSparse or no literature • Retrospective use of MAPRetrospective use of MAP • Moderate/High use of MAPSModerate/High use of MAPS • Intoxication in the community sampleIntoxication in the community sample • GenderGender • Interview sample – only positivesInterview sample – only positives • Disclosure by the researcherDisclosure by the researcher
  11. 11. Study OutcomesStudy Outcomes • 20 (21) of the sample tested positive for dyslexia:20 (21) of the sample tested positive for dyslexia: 40%40% • Estimates for general population: 4 – 5%Estimates for general population: 4 – 5% • Dyslexics scored higher than non-dyslexics on allDyslexics scored higher than non-dyslexics on all indicesindices • Significant differences were found between theSignificant differences were found between the community and the TC populationscommunity and the TC populations
  12. 12. The Dyslexia FindingsThe Dyslexia Findings Readjusted dyslexia test results across the residential (n = 25) and non- residential (n = 25) cohorts. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Low Probability Borderline Moderate probability High Probability Residential Non-residential
  13. 13. The Dyslexia FindingsThe Dyslexia Findings Total percentage of substances used in the dyslexic (n = 20) and non- dyslexic (n = 30) cohorts. 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D y s le x ic N o n - d y s le x ic
  14. 14. The Dyslexia FindingsThe Dyslexia Findings % MAP drugs/days in medium and high-risk consumption categories by dyslexic (n = 20) and non-dyslexic (n = 30) respondents. 0 % 2 0 % 4 0 % 6 0 % 8 0 % 1 0 0 % M o d e r a t e R i s k H i g h R i s k D y s l e x i c N o n - d y s l e x i c
  15. 15. The Dyslexia FindingsThe Dyslexia Findings % MAP physical health indices in medium and high-risk categories by dyslexic (n = 20) and non-dyslexic (n = 30). 0 % 1 0 % 2 0 % 3 0 % 4 0 % 5 0 % 6 0 % 7 0 % 8 0 % M o d e r a t e I n c i d e n c e H i g h I n c i d e n c e D y s l e x i c N o n - d y s l e x i c
  16. 16. The Dyslexia FindingsThe Dyslexia Findings % MAP psychological health indices in medium and high-risk categories by dyslexic (n = 20) and non-dyslexic (n = 30). 0 % 2 0 % 4 0 % 6 0 % 8 0 % 1 0 0 % M o d e r a t e I n c i d e n c e H i g h I n c i d e n c e D y s l e x i c N o n - d y s l e x i c
  17. 17. Understanding Recovery CapitalUnderstanding Recovery Capital • Built on the work of Hanifan, Foucault etc. onBuilt on the work of Hanifan, Foucault etc. on social capitalsocial capital • A non-depleting resource (A non-depleting resource (““Use it or lose it!Use it or lose it!””)) • Social, human and cultural resourcesSocial, human and cultural resources • ““Although the focus here is primarily onAlthough the focus here is primarily on individual factors, it is the meshing of three ofindividual factors, it is the meshing of three of these components – social, human and culturalthese components – social, human and cultural capital – that may be particularly important incapital – that may be particularly important in assessing recovery capital at a group or socialassessing recovery capital at a group or social level.level.”” (Best & Laudet)(Best & Laudet)
  18. 18. Applying Recovery Capital toApplying Recovery Capital to TreatmentTreatment • Moves treatment from problem-based to asset-Moves treatment from problem-based to asset- basedbased • An understandable concept for the service userAn understandable concept for the service user • Social, human and cultural resourcesSocial, human and cultural resources • An empowering concept for the service userAn empowering concept for the service user • Social, human and cultural capital echoesSocial, human and cultural capital echoes ZinbergZinberg’’s drug, set and settings drug, set and setting • Of these three, theOf these three, the ““humanhuman”” oror ““setset”” is the mostis the most importantimportant
  19. 19. Recovery Capital & the Three JarsRecovery Capital & the Three Jars
  20. 20. Thoughts about relationshipsThoughts about relationships • Dyslexic drug users will usually have lower levelsDyslexic drug users will usually have lower levels of recovery capitalof recovery capital • Drug use may be born out of profoundDrug use may be born out of profound frustrationfrustration • Self-triggered disorientationSelf-triggered disorientation • Part of a Constellation:Part of a Constellation: ""It's hard to tell the difference between maps ofIt's hard to tell the difference between maps of crime, ill-health, drug addiction or lowcrime, ill-health, drug addiction or low educational achievement. They all look likeeducational achievement. They all look like maps of povertymaps of poverty". Wilkinson". Wilkinson
  21. 21. Implications for TreatmentImplications for Treatment • Cognitive approaches may be of limited valueCognitive approaches may be of limited value • There may be serious issues about treatmentThere may be serious issues about treatment episode durationepisode duration • Reinforced/reinforcing therapies may have moreReinforced/reinforcing therapies may have more successsuccess • Help with memory and organisational issues willHelp with memory and organisational issues will be crucialbe crucial • Multiple commands or instructionsMultiple commands or instructions • A prediliction to intoxication??A prediliction to intoxication??
  22. 22. Study DetailsStudy Details Complete study report is available for downloadComplete study report is available for download from:from: SACASR On-line Library at:SACASR On-line Library at: https://www.onlinelibraryaddictions.stir.ac.ukhttps://www.onlinelibraryaddictions.stir.ac.uk// Bad mouthing, bad habits and bad, bad boysBad mouthing, bad habits and bad, bad boys

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