Re for santa barbara 2


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Presentation given at City College in Santa Barbara, CA on March 26, 2011. The event was sponsored by the Santa Barbara Permaculture Network and SBCC Sustainability Center.

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Re for santa barbara 2

  1. 1. Can we reallyRecycleEVERYTHING? Yes, we can. Here’s how…
  2. 2. Recycling Everything• See what’s needed to make it happen• Jettison current assumptions that prevent change• Take a trip into the world of industry and science• Explore breakthrough ideas 2
  3. 3. Introduction Janet UnruhInstitute for Material Sustainability Portland, Oregon 3
  4. 4. Vita• Instructional designer 25 years• Manufacturing industry 10 years• Masters of Engineering and Technology Management, Portland State University 2002• Author, Recycle Everything— Why We Must, How We Can• Passion for the Earth and its ecosystems 4
  5. 5. My Journey • ETM program • Designing and optimizing systems • Re-ignited interest in sustainability • Searched for sustainable systems • Didn’t find any • Decided to design some • Finally wrote book 5
  6. 6. This is one book that talks about systems for recycling everything. Read this book, then read my book!Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the WayWe Make Things, by William McDonoughand Michael Braungart 6
  7. 7. We’re Going to Pick UpWhere the Story Left Off Annie Leonard, Story of Stuff 7
  8. 8. But first, aquick review ofthe situation. 8
  9. 9. End Stage 9
  10. 10. Beginning Stage 10
  11. 11. Raw Materials Problems for Industry 11
  12. 12. Cost of Raw Materials Ups and downs over the past five years 12
  13. 13. Can Materials Keep On Flowing?• Impacts on supply • Price fluctuations and speculation • Decreasing quality, lower grades • More technology and fuel needed for extraction • Resources in conflict areas or unfriendly countries • Sudden increase in demand from multiple industries • War—weapons, bombs, vehicles, materiel• Dependency on oil and petrochemicals 13
  14. 14. How much do we have leftof the world’s resources? 14
  15. 15. Earths natural wealth: an audit• Dr. Armin Reller at the University of Augsburg in Germany• Dr. Thomas Graedel at Yale University• Data from the US Geological Surveys annual reports• UN statistics on global population 15
  16. 16. Earths natural wealth: an auditFor a closer look at this graphic, check my website… 16
  17. 17. We’re going torun out of Indium in 4 to 13 years??? 17
  18. 18. ‘Short-term shortages have periodically occurred because globalproduction and usage are so finely balanced.’ (We can hardlyproduce it fast enough to keep up with demand.)‘However, these shortages have historically been corrected byincreasing refining capacity and ultimately supply.’ (We’re takingcare of the problem by expanding our ability to produce it fasterand in greater quantities.) 18
  19. 19. Resource WarsThesis: as resourcesbecome depleted,countries will go towar to obtain them. 19
  20. 20. Recycling is anurgent matter. For industry, too. 20
  21. 21. The burden ofrecycling falls onconsumers, localgovernments andconcerned non-profits, all ofwhom are at theend of theprocess. 21
  22. 22. What Do We Mean by RECYCLING? • Upcycling • Downcycling • Freecycling • Blended recycling • ‘Real’ recycling 22
  23. 23. Upcycling Upcycling is defined as using every aspect of waste as value. 23
  24. 24. DowncyclingUsed products are made into something else oflesser value, such as filler or fuel. After thesecond use, they are discarded.Examples:• Plastic milk jugs made into insulated coat filler• Used running shoes made into rubber flooring• Used tires made into sandals 24
  25. 25. FreecyclingUsed products are given away or traded at swap-meets. 25
  26. 26. Blended RecyclingMaterials from used products are processedwith the addition of new, raw materials tobolster their quality.Examples• Recycled steel• Recycled aluminum• Recycled paper 26
  27. 27. (‘Real’) RecyclingRecycling is defined as extracting thematerials that make a product to make a newproduct using those same materials. This is the one we’ll focus on in this presentation. 27
  28. 28. Goal: recycle materials in cars,trucks, airplanes, furniture,vinyl siding, plastic dishware,electronics, washers anddryers, microwave ovens,lawnmowers, toys, buildings—everything. 28
  29. 29. Can we reuse these materialsto make the same or similar productscountless times into the future? I believe the answer is YES! 29
  30. 30. What Would It TakeTo Recycle Everything?Next • Sustainable Systems • Recyclable Materials • Design for Disassembly • New Mindset • People 30
  31. 31. Let’s look at the current linearproduction-consumption system… 31
  32. 32. Raw Materials Extractors RawMaterialsExtractors Mining, agriculture, logging, dairy and feedlots 32
  33. 33. Primary Processors Raw PrimaryMaterials ProcessorsExtractors Ingots of metal, bags of rice, tanks of chemicals 33
  34. 34. Parts Suppliers Raw Primary PartsMaterials Processors SuppliersExtractors New parts and assemblies for a variety of products 34
  35. 35. Producers Raw Primary PartsMaterials Producers Processors SuppliersExtractors Finished goods of all types 35
  36. 36. Distributors, Retail Outlets Raw Distributors, Primary PartsMaterials Producers Retail Processors SuppliersExtractors Outlets Distributors and retail outlets 36
  37. 37. Consumers Raw Distributors, Primary PartsMaterials Producers Retail Consumers Processors SuppliersExtractors Outlets Individuals, families, governments and businesses 37
  38. 38. Landfill Operators Raw Distributors, Primary Parts LandfillMaterials Producers Retail Consumers Processors Suppliers OperatorsExtractors OutletsLandfills,incineration,pollution andwaste dumps 38
  39. 39. Remanufacturing Raw Distributors, Primary Parts LandfillMaterials Producers Retail Consumers Processors Suppliers OperatorsExtractors Outlets Distributors, Producers Retail Consumers Outlets 39
  40. 40. Take-back Laws Raw Distributors, Primary Parts LandfillMaterials Producers Retail Consumers Processors Suppliers OperatorsExtractors Outlets Producers don’t know what to do with the stuff, either. 40
  41. 41. Once a thing can be imagined,it can be engineered.
  42. 42. Reforming the SystemEfforts to reform the current production-consumption system focus on reducing the flowof materials through the system by:• Slowing it down• Decreasing the amount How about redesigning the system? 42
  43. 43. How to Redesign this System? • Eliminate the beginning and the end stages. • Modify some of the roles. x RawMaterialsExtractors Primary Processors Parts Suppliers Producers Distributors, Retail Outlets Consumers x Landfill Operators Materials Distributors, Reprocessors Collectors • Add a couple of other roles and form a circle… 43
  44. 44. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier System for Material SustainabilityDisassembler Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 44
  45. 45. This Is It — the Cyclical SystemThat Others Have Talked About 45
  46. 46. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier How does itDisassembler Producer work? Distributor Consumer / Collector 46
  47. 47. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier The Materials Processor: • No longer processes raw materials • Re-processes recyclable materialsDisassembler Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 47
  48. 48. Materials Processor These roles don’t Used Parts New Parts change much, Broker Supplier except the producer re-uses parts from used products.Disassembler Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 48
  49. 49. Materials The Distributor: Processor • Takes on the additional role of Usedthe collector Parts New Parts Broker products to consumers • Leases Supplier • Tests used products and leases them to secondary marketsDisassembler Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 49
  50. 50. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier Consumers lease products instead of buying them.Disassembler Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 50
  51. 51. Materials Processor The Disassembler: Used Parts • Disassembles used products New Parts Broker Supplier • Sends reusable parts to producer • Sends parts that can’t be re-Disassembler used to: Producer • Used Parts Broker • Materials Processor Distributor Consumer / Collector 51
  52. 52. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier The Used Parts Broker: • Sells used parts to newDisassembler Producer parts suppliers and producers • Sells non-usable parts to materials processor Distributor Consumer / Collector 52
  53. 53. Materials Processor Used Parts New Parts Broker Supplier System for MaterialDisassembler Sustainability Producer Distributor Consumer / Collector 53
  54. 54. Big • Extraction phases outChanges • Landfills stop growing • Consumers don’t own products; they lease them • Producers own materials and track them throughout the cycle • New jobs in collection, disassembly and re-sale of used products • The production-consumption system becomes sustainable 54
  55. 55. The Interface Story• Ray Anderson, CEO• Experienced an epiphany when he read Paul Hawkens, "The Ecology of Commerce"• Mission Zero• Recycling carpet• 55
  56. 56. Inorganic versusOrganic Systems 56
  57. 57. Organic Systems• Lumber, crops, orchards, livestock, fishing• Rate of harvest limited by rate of regrowth• Used products routed through compost• Organic and inorganic materials kept separate in products 57
  58. 58. What Would It TakeTo Recycle Everything? • Sustainable SystemsNext • Recyclable Materials • Design for Disassembly • New Mindset • People 58
  59. 59. Recyclable materials arecritical to recycling everything.We have to back up all the wayto the molecules. 59
  60. 60. Innovations in Material Science• NOVA’s series, Making Materials on PBS stuff.html• MIT’s Technology Review• Discover magazine• New Scientist These links are on my website at 60
  61. 61. A Few Examples • Polymers that mend themselves • Two-dimensional graphene • Artificial diamonds, rubiesJapanese scientistscreate world’s hardest • Morphing materialsartificial diamond Even more amazing… 61
  62. 62. Quantum Dots • Artificial atoms • Up to 50 times larger than a natural atom • Can simulate the properties of any element on the periodic table—Lin-Wang Wang by attracting / releasingLawrence Berkeley Laboratory additional electrons • Hacking Matter, by Wil McCarthy 62
  63. 63. Programmable Matter Wikipedia or other reference 63
  64. 64. If science can creatematerials like these,why can’t they createrecyclable materials?They probably can. 64
  65. 65. What Is a ‘Recyclable’ Material? SOLID NON- SOLID • No waste • No need for additives • Perpetually recyclable • Usable for same or similar purpose 65
  66. 66. Requirements Are the KeyNeed: a hard plastic to serve as a housing forlaptops, TVs, stereos, Netbooks, iPads, Kindles, etc.Requirements:• Durable• Washable• Wear-resistant• Black• 100% recyclable 66
  67. 67. How It Works in Industry Reprocessing Material Facilities and planengineering equipment (requirements) Product design Examples of reprocessing methods… 67
  68. 68. ReprocessingMethods:• Programmable matter• Temperature change • Melting • Freezing• Electro-magnetism • Microwaves• Mechanical • Shredding 68
  69. 69. Result Technology reprocesses:• Circuit boards Shreds, spins• Electric cables• Aluminum alloys• Electronic scrap• Compound foils ? 69
  70. 70. What Would It TakeTo Recycle Everything? • Sustainable Systems • Recyclable MaterialsNext • Design for Disassembly • New Mindset • People 70
  71. 71. Design for Disassembly Materialengineering Disassembly Product Facilities and plan design equipment (requirements) 71
  72. 72. Disassembly Requirements• Disassembly process must be easy and fast• All joins between parts must be reversible• Parts must be designed to be recoverable and reusable• Parts must be designed to have separable materials (for material reprocessing)• Disassembly and reuse must be cost-effective 72
  73. 73. GTI 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. What Would It TakeTo Recycle Everything? • Sustainable Systems • Recyclable Materials • Design for DisassemblyNext • New Mindset • People 75
  76. 76. Mindset• Resources are finite and must be managed• Everyone adapts to a closed system for handling materials• Consumers do not own products• Producers own materials and track them 76
  77. 77. What Would It TakeTo Recycle Everything? • Sustainable Systems • Recyclable Materials • Design for Disassembly • New MindsetNext • People 77
  78. 78. People & Institute for MaterialSustainability Who or what is the Institute? 78
  79. 79. Institute for Material Sustainability• Non-profit organization• Early stages• Goal is to work with industry• Get systems for material sustainability up and running ASAP 79
  80. 80. Mission The mission of the Institute for Material Sustainability is to help industries make the transition to systems for material sustainability. 80 of 34
  81. 81. Collaborative effort to: • Develop 100% recyclableVision materials for industry • Design products using these new materials and new processes for material recovery • Construct working models of systems for material sustainability • Establish a consulting agency to work with industry to co-develop and implement these systems 81
  82. 82. First Major GoalSet up and run a full system test• Recyclable materials• Product designs• Assembly and disassembly plans• Product test plans• Facilities and equipment• Expertise• Funding 82 of 34
  83. 83. An Appeal We are looking for people who can help with…• Materials engineering • Assembly and disassembly• Computer simulations • Equipment and facilities design• Systems optimization • Finance• Requirements engineering • Business consulting• Lean manufacturing • Website design• Product design • Funding, fiscal sponsorship• Process design 83
  84. 84. A few final thoughts… 84
  85. 85. Jobs for Now and the Future• Materials engineering• Product design and engineering – Disassembly for product design – Disassembly equipment, facilities, systems• Logistics system design and optimization• Computer simulations• Financial analysis• Policy-making• Production 85
  86. 86. Reasons for Optimism• Climate change and rapid evolution• Accelerated innovation• Crisis and opportunity• Attitude 86
  87. 87. Help Make Some Noise• Go to websites of manufacturers or researchers in science and technology• Write emails to 5• Text on website• Free PDF of my book• 87
  88. 88. Feedback, Questions 88