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ClouNS - A Cloud-native Application Reference Model for Enterprise Architects

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The capability to operate cloud-native applications can create enormous business growth and value. But enterprise architects should be aware that cloud-native applications are vulnerable to vendor lock-in. We investigated cloud-native application design principles, public cloud service providers, and industrial cloud standards. All results indicate that most cloud service categories seem to foster vendor lock-in situations which might be especially problematic for enterprise architectures. This might sound disillusioning at first. However, we present a reference model for cloud-native applications that relies only on a small subset of well standardized IaaS services. The reference model can be used for codifying cloud technologies. It can guide technology identification, classification, adoption, research and development processes for cloud-native application and for vendor lock-in aware enterprise architecture engineering methodologies.

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ClouNS - A Cloud-native Application Reference Model for Enterprise Architects

  1. 1. ClouNS A Cloud-native Application Reference Model for (Enterprise) Architects 1) Lübeck University of Applied Sciences 2) Hof University of Applied Sciences Nane Kratzke1 and René Peinl2 1 Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems
  2. 2. The next 30 minutes are about ... • What is the meaning of 'cloud-native'? • Research Methodology • What are Cloud-native Applications? • A Cloud-native Application Definition Proposal • How to Avoid Cloud Vendor Lock-In? • A Cloud-native Application Reference Model • Conclusion and Outlook Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 2
  3. 3. We try to answer just one question ... Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 3 What is the meaning of cloud-native?
  4. 4. Research Methodology Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 4 Main focus of this contribution CNA == Cloud-native Application
  5. 5. Systematic Mapping Study Results on Cloud-native Applications (I) Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Published Papers Extrapolation (for 2016) Google Trends (2006 – 2016)
  6. 6. Systematic Mapping Study Results on Cloud-native Applications (II) Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 6
  7. 7. Systematic Mapping Study Results on Cloud-native Applications (III) Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 7 CNA Architecture ←→ Patterns Patterns ←→ CNA Design CNA Design ←→ Microservices Microservices ←→ Deployment Units (Containers) Microservices ←→ Service Composition Microservices ←→ (Elastic) Automation Platform (Elastic) Automation Platform ←→ Resilience (Elastic) Automation Platform ←→ Scalability
  8. 8. Microservices Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 8 „The microservice architectural style is an approach to developing a single application as a suite of small services, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechnisms, often an HTTP resource API.“ Martin Fowler
  9. 9. Cloud-native Application What? Be IDEAL • Isolated State • Distributed • Elastic • Automated management • Loosely coupled Why? There is a need for .. • Speed (delivery) • Safety (fault tolerance, design for failure) • Scalability • Client diversity How? Integrate ... • (Micro)service oriented architectures (M)SOA • Keep in mind: a service should do one thing well • Use API-based collaboration • Consider cloud-focused pattern catalogues • Use self-service agile platforms Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 9 C. Fehling, F. Leymann, R. Retter, W. Schupeck, and P. Arbitter, Cloud Computing Patterns: Fundamentals to Design, Build, and Manage Cloud Applications. Springer, 2014. M. Stine, Migrating to Cloud-Native Application Architectures. O’Reilly, 2015 A. Balalaie, A. Heydarnoori, and P. Jamshidi, “Migrating to Cloud- Native Architectures Using Microservices”, CloudWay 2015, Taormina, Italy S. Newman, Building Microservices. O’Reilly, 2015.
  10. 10. Cloud-native Application Definition Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 10
  11. 11. How to Avoid Cloud Vendor Lock-In? Industrial Top Down Approaches • CIMI + OVF (Infra) • OCCI (Infra) • CDMI (Data) • OCI (Container) Open-Source Bottom Up Approches • Deltacloud • fog.io • jClouds • Apache Libcloud Formalized Deployment • Several XML- based descriptional approaches • TOSCA (Orch.) • SALSA (Elasticity) • SPEEDL (Elasticity) Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 11 „Vendor lock-in is defined to make a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs“ (according to: The Linux Information Project, “Vendor Lock-in Definition”, 2006). According to practitioner experiences, none of these approaches avoid application adaption efforts coming along when switching a cloud service provider.
  12. 12. Cloud Standardization Approaches Basic Insight Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Praktische Informatik und betriebliche Informationssysteme 12 2 2 2 4 6 7 7 7 7 11 11 1 1 2 4 7 10 14 21 26 42 44 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Relation of considered services considered by CIMI, OCCI, CDMI, OVF, OCI, TOSCA not considered Cloud standards improved. However, cloud standardization coverage decreased (in relation to available services) over the last 10 years. Analyzed using over 2300 offical release notes of Amazon Web Services (AWS). Data for other providers like Google, Azure, Rackspace, etc. not presented. Basic conclusions for these providers are the same. So, cloud native applications are vulnerable to vendor lock- in, especially if they are provided by SMEs.
  13. 13. Overcome Vendor Lock-In using only existing Container Technologies Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Praktische Informatik und betriebliche Informationssysteme 13 Operate application on current provider. Scale cluster into prospective provider. Shutdown nodes on current provider. Cluster reschedules lost container. Migration finished.Quint, P.-C., & Kratzke, N. (2016). Overcome Vendor Lock-In by Integrating Already Available Container Technologies - Towards Transferability in Cloud Computing for SMEs. In Proceedings of CLOUD COMPUTING 2016 (7th. International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDS and Virtualization). Avoiding Vendor Lock-In for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: • The aim is to provide methodologies and tools to define secure, transferable and elastic services being deployable to any IaaS cloud infrastructure. • Migration of these services from one private or public cloud infrastructure to another should be possible. • The solution should be manageable by small and medium sized enterprises (1-person IT staffs).
  14. 14. Research Surveillance of Practitioners Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 14 Docker Swarm Swarm Mode (since Docker 1.12) Clones Kubernetes-like control processes but integrates them in just one component. Secure by default (control and data plane). Hides operation complexity. Google Control processes that continuously drive current state of container based applications towards a defined desired state. Makes Google‘s experience of running large scale production workloads available as open source. Mesosphere Apache Mesos based datacenter operating system for fine grained resource allocation. Frameworks to operate containers and data services. Datacenter focused. Mesos operates successfully large scale datacenters since years (Twitter, Netflix, ...) Practitioners ask for simple solutions (elastic platforms) ...
  15. 15. Research Surveillance of Practitioners Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 15 Practitioners often prefer layer-based reference models ... Jason Lavigne, ”Don’t let aPaaS you by - What is aPaaS and why Microsoft is excited about it”, see https://atjasonunderscorelavigne.wordpress.com/2014/01/27/dont-let- apaas-you-by/ (last access 4th August 2016) Johann den Haan, ”Categorizing and Comparing the Cloud Landscape”, see http://www.theenterprisearchitect.eu/blog/categorize-compare-cloud- vendors/ (accessed 4th August 2016) Josef Adersberger, Andreas Zitzelsberger, Mario-Leander Reimer, ”Der Cloud-Native- Stack: Mesos, Kubernetes und Spring Cloud”, see http://www.qaware.de/fileadmin/user_upload/QA ware-Cloud-Native-Artikelserie-Java_Magazin- 1.pdf (accessed 4th August 2016) MEKUNSCloud Landscape Model
  16. 16. Some Cloud-native Tools, Frameworks, Infrastructures Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 16
  17. 17. We need some guidance ... Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 17
  18. 18. The Cloud-native Application Reference Model Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 18
  19. 19. The Cloud-native Application Reference Model Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 19
  20. 20. The Cloud-native Application Reference Model Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 20
  21. 21. The Cloud-native Application Reference Model Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 21
  22. 22. The Cloud-native Application Reference Model Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 22
  23. 23. This reference model guides our research Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 23 Developing a description language for cloud-native applications. Developing a standardized way of deploying a clustered container runtime environment for cloud-native applications. Make use of commodity services of public cloud service providers only (IaaS).
  24. 24. Conclusion Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 24 For vendor lock-in aware enterprise architectures we advocate to operate cloud-native applications on portable elastic platforms. However, it is work in progress ... E.g. Layer 5 services could be categorized more precisely to provide more guidance. • service taxonomy systems • standardized data transferability requirements • upward and downward standardization requirements The reference model guides our • technology identification, • classification, • adoption, • research and development processes. The reference model contributes to make • technologies, • research approaches and • standardization for/of cloud-native application development • more comparable, • more codifyable • more integrated.
  25. 25. Acknowledgement • Airplane: Pixabay (CC0 Public Domain, Gellinger) • Definition: Pixabay (CC0 Public Domain, PDPics) • Order Chaos: Pixabay (CC0 Public Domain, geralt) • Railway: Pixabay (CC0 Public Domain, Fotoworkshop4You) • Microservices: Robert Morschel, http://www.soa-probe.com/2015/03/microservices- summary.html Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 25 We would like to thank Dr. Adersberger from QAWARE GmbH. He inspired us with his thoughts about his MEKUNS approach (Mesos, Kubernetes, Cloud-native Stack). This research is funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Project Cloud TRANSIT, 03FH021PX4; Project SCHub, 3FH025PX4).The authors thank Lübeck University (Institute of Telematics) and fat IT solution GmbH (Kiel) for their support of Cloud TRANSIT. Picture Reference
  26. 26. About Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 26 Nane Kratzke CoSA: http://cosa.fh-luebeck.de/en/contact/people/n-kratzke Blog: http://www.nkode.io Twitter: @NaneKratzke GooglePlus: +NaneKratzke LinkedIn: https://de.linkedin.com/in/nanekratzke GitHub: https://github.com/nkratzke ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nane_Kratzke SlideShare: http://de.slideshare.net/i21aneka
  27. 27. About Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 27 René Peinl iisys: https://www.iisys.de/profile/rene-peinl.html ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rene_Peinl
  28. 28. Backup Slides Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Nane Kratzke Computer Science and Business Information Systems 28

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