Topic 11 evaporite salt deposits

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Evaporation, PROCESS, Environments, minerals, FORMATION, types, marine, lakes, inland, Dead Sea, Salt,lakes, alkali lakes, potash lakes, Evaporite Deposits, resources and reservesPROCESS OF MINERAL FORMATION BY EVAPORATION, ENVIRONMENTS FOR EVAPORITE PRECIPITATION, Marine Evaporites, Barred Basins, Non-marine, Continental, Inland lakes, Evaporites, CHEMISTRY OF EVAPORITES, Evaporation Sequence of Seawater, Evaporation of Seawater , Rates of Evaporite Deposition, EVAPORATE MINERALS, DIAGENESIS OF EVAPORITES, DEPOSITION FROM OCEANIC WATERS, Calcium Sulfate Deposition, Salt (Halite) Deposition, Salt Domes, Potash Deposition, World Potash Mine Production, Potash Deposits in Dead Sea, Borate and Bromine Deposition, DEPOSITION FROM CONTINENTAL WATERS AND INLAND LAKES, MAJOR IONS OF INLAND WATERS, EVAPORATION SEQUENCE OF INLAND LAKES, DEPOSITION FROM INLAND LAKES, Deposition from Salt Lakes, Salton Sea California, Deposition from Alkali (or Soda) Lakes, Deposition from Bitter Lakes, Sulfate lakes, Deposition from Potash Lakes, Deposition from Borate Lakes, MODELS FOR EVAPORITE SEDIMENTATION, EVAPORITE FORMATION

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  • Back in 1849 an Italian chemist named Usiglio made a classic, widely cited, but somewhat misleading experiment on evaporite deposition. He took a volume of 1: Potassium and magnesium salts (kainite, carnallite, sylvite). Typenormal sea water and slowly evaporated it, and kept track of the composition and mass of precipitated salts as a function of extent of evaporation.An ideal evaporite sequence (in decreasing order of solubility) is as follows: Type 2: Rock salt (halite). Type 3: Gypsum (<42°C) or anhydrite (>42°C). Type 4: Calcite and dolomite. As evaporite beds of types 1 and 2 consist of highly soluble minerals, they are commonly re-dissolved by the influx of new salt-water. To be preserved, they must be covered over quickly by an impervious layer. Since sea-water only contains 31 parts per thousand of dissolved salts, even evaporation of large areas of sea-water will only result in the deposition of a thin evaporite layer. For thick, economically viable evaporite layers to be deposited, a continuous evaporation-replenishment system must operate.
  • Topic 11 evaporite salt deposits

    1. 1. 2-? ’ r 3 rd ', ‘ v': xH V r—-. k I’_"‘Z, V‘r‘ 2'3: _§ rt _g / ‘«; :‘Y . L e 3[: x| l“"/ "1/‘, ‘T 14, $1.11.’, 1 J T, ‘ [J‘}v: «=a P; ).. _ D: L / Jzztl . ~.)t'lJ Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006 ahoo. com 2015- 2016
    2. 2. E 1 1] DEPOSITION FROM OCEANIC WATERS: 1.1] Calcium Sulfate Deposition 6 INTRODUCTION 1.2] Salt (Halitel Deposition 9 DEFINITION > Salt Domes O PROCESS OF MINERAL FORMATION BY EVAPORATION 1.3] Potash Degosition O ENVIRONMENTS FOR EVAPORITE PRECIPITATION > WOTICI POIBSII Mine Pl‘OdUCtlOl'1 i) Marine Evagorites > Potash Deposits in Dead Sea > Barred Basins 1.4] Borate and Bromine Degosition ii) Non-marine (or Continental, Inland lakes[ 2 DEPOSITION FROM CONTINENTAL WATERS Evaporites AND INLAND LAKES O CHEMISTRY OF EVAPORITES 2.1! MAJOR IONS OF INLAND WATERS i) Evaporation Seguence of Seawater 2.2 EVAPORATION SEQUENCE OF INLAND ii) Evaporation of Seawater LAKES iii) Rates of Evaporite Deposition 2.3) DEPOSITION FROM INLAND LAKES O EVAPORATE MINERALS 2.3.1] Deposition from Salt Lakes 0 DIAGENESIS OF EVAPORITES > Salton Sea California 2.3.21 Deposition from Alkali (or Social Lakes 2.3.31 Deposition from Bitter Lakes > Sulfate lakes 2.3.4] Deposition from Potash Lakes 2.3.5] Deposition from Borate Lakes 0 MODELS FOR EVAPORITE SEDIMENTATION O EVAPORITE FORMATION We will explore all of the above in Topic 11 Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation 15 February 2016 Evaporite Salt Deposits
    3. 3. E WIPORITE DEPOSITS I Evaporite deposits are formed by evaporation of lake water or seawater. I Evaporite is a name for a water-soluble mineral sediment (i. e. chemical sediment) that result originally precipitated from saline (brine) solutions concentrated and crystallization by solar evaporation from an aqueous solution. I Evaporite deposits that are composed of minerals that originally precipitated from saline (brine) solutions concentrated by solar evaporation. I Evaporite Considered as Inorganic/ Chemical Sedimentary Rock types: >“Chemica| ": derived from the precipitation of dissolved minerals in water. >“lnorganic": minerals precipitate because of evaporation and/ or chemical activity. I Evaporites form in a variety of settings: I Most evaporites are derived from bodies of sea water or a saline inland lake experiences net evaporation, the concentration of the ions dissolved in that water rises until the saturation point of various materials is exceeded, and minerals precipitate or crystallize. I There are two types of evaporite deposits: namely Buried evaporite deposits and Brine evaporite deposits. I Brine Evaporite deposits (, fOLII. ICI, ??) in both Marine and Non-/ narine environments. - I Minerals precipitated from "super-saturated" saline water in enclosed basin environments under dry arid conditions with high evaporation rates (e. g., Playa lakes). Playa lake basins between mountain -2- r@Paepsorea o%°h%l's"B'é<§na? rl? p%Il‘ér'Ii? R erop i? ci'rri1g‘]: ?nany valuable types of non-metallic mineral deposits. -2‘ Evaporites are excellent indicators of paleoclimate: it takes a hot and arid climate for major evaporite deposits to form. Evaporite deposits are known from all the continents, with ages ranging from Precambrian to Late Cenozoic (although Precambrian evaporites are scarce, either because they were not deposited or because they have been dissolved away during diagenesis through geologic time). Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    4. 4. EVE I OTIIG ae 0 OSIIS 1|Buried deposits: 2 Brine de °5It-53 . Evaporite deposits that formed during various Evaporite deposits that formed from evaporation: wanning Seasonal and climatic change periods of geologic times. > Like: Shallow basin with high rate of evaporation — Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, > Seawater orocean (Ocean water is the prime source of minerals formed by evaporation) . Then, solutions derived “chm “Mann. ” 3“, Red 8“ from n_on'na| sea water by evaporation I The most significant known evaporite depositions are sad to be hypersalme happened during the Messinian salinity crisis in the > Lake water basin of the Mediterranean ; 5," , aka Extracted by Solution minim techniques (or Frasch Process) > Playa lake / Two wells ) spring; / Selective dissolution r Hot leaching / Pond ~’ Marsh Reguirements / I arid environment, high temp / - low humidity V - little replenishment from open ocean, or streams
    5. 5. Ex: Buried deposits Khewra Salt Mine El It is Pakistan's largest and oldest salt mine and the world's second largest. El It is a major tourist attaction, drawing up to 250,000 visitors a year. El Its history dates back to its discovery by Alexander's troops in 320 BC, but it started trading in the Mughal era. CI The main tunnel at ground level was developed by Dr. H. Warth, a mining engineer, in 1872, during British rule. CI The mine comprises nineteen stories, of which eleven are below ground. Cl From the entrance, the mine extends about 730 meters (2440 ft) into the mountains, and the total length of its tunnels is about 40 km (25 miles). Quarrying is done using the room and pillar method, mining only half of the salt and leaving the remaining half to support what is above Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    6. 6. Ex: Buried deposits r ” ’ *_ - E l - I. K ‘ _ , s - . - .1‘. N’ -, ' , '.n, ‘Rig A / V V ‘ / /Y! 4- 2' .1’ is 3 _ _ ; . l ‘I ; » ~ V t ‘ Roof of Salt Mine, Khewra, Pakistan t- A_ . . .4 Pillar of Salt ll/ line, Khewra, Pakistan. i1,ii. ‘," . 'I: (i)iIli' lilll. ‘ u‘ MI I -"/ .vIi. "K Hill. Mm ‘ .5:-. ; ‘. 'll'C ‘u my _ _ Pakistan : World's 2"‘ Largest Salt Mine, Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    7. 7. Pakistan : World's 2"“ Largest Salt Mine, Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan Rock-Salt, Khewra Salt Mines. Pakistan . 5 _ T. Himalayan salt lamps Salt Lamps ff’ L, A. ‘E fh‘. ,» I _ I . . '9 I . -'7 . I. L . V, T‘ 12-’, V ‘ l v—~ — : ' . ’ I i, ‘ W ‘Ti -. I I. .5 _ 5 ‘I . ' , .. _ _ _, I . .I, 3. "2 Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    8. 8. alzistan : ‘y’orld's 2"“ Largest Salt . ... ine. 1«~(he'. /la Salt l. .i. n.es. Pakistan , , _ / I Salt l/ losque / I - . . . , «. - »~. ::r -. ~ . v' :3 AM! ‘ ‘I’ «Ti» . .? ~ 4 it 1.3“ i*, _'. f”“‘. .¥" ll . -11 I til i _ __ _ 1, 1 ti) r» - ‘ , ,,‘, h_'; - ‘ y F , -, __ , 7' , ‘ l / -.1.-3 rm i: _‘§? "% L’ f I Willi . r l * ‘ A _- r . _.. »L_ j‘ V _. l l ; Colourful Salt ll/ losque inside Khewra Salt Mines, Palcistan Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 10
    9. 9. The Salt and the Earth In Africa's Afar depression, pastoral tribes and salt traders survive amid a surreal landscape of fissures, faults, and a boiling lake of lava Lake Asele Caravan_s+. Ethiopia Evokirig a scene from biblical times. caravans arrive at the sat mines of Lake Asele 381 feet below sea level For centuries salt blocks, called a mole, were used throughout Ethiopia as money 4 _. :—~_ L‘ .1; , ' V. .., At a satextraction facility in northern Ethiopia, briny water is pumped from hypersalty Lake Afrera into evaporation ponds. Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation F»‘, '~ - — -_ ~ ‘_' - J - _. V! -EL‘- . f’_ L_‘. ‘&' J’ l . I i L/ Z’ '- Ii ‘ ‘ [. .. I" ’ 0 ‘ -_-.1- 1;. 1 Workers at Lake Afrera process raw salt. Production was temporarily halted last year when a volcano in neighboring Eritrea erupted, blanketing the salt in ash. Nonmetallic Deposits 11
    10. 10. Ex: Brine deposits: 3. ' l_ _ . -I I. 4. 4 Salt selling, Mopti - Mali Maras Salt Mine Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 7 5? ~1 . . q . .3 '0 12
    11. 11. PROCESS OF MINERAL FORMATION BY EVAPORATION CIEvapora_tion proceeds most rapidly in warm, arid_ climates. In the evaporation of bodies of saline water, concentration of the soluble salts occurs, _and when super-saturation of any salt is reached, that salt is precipitated. EIDeposition of minerals by evaporation is dependent on factors: 1)So| ubi| ity contents, 2)Temperature, 3) Pressure, 4) Depositional environment, and 5) Seasonal and climatic changes. The potash and salt depos/ srs ~ Ll ‘rt’ 1 worldwide "6' l . p°°"' ' ‘- ‘ Quelles K+S Kading/ Beer 9 Read: all i “ L Sum soiulon Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    12. 12. CHEMISTRY OF EVAPORITES 1 Chemist of Seawater I - The first step toward looking at evaporites - Source of evaporites: is seawater - Ocean water is the prime source of minerals formed by evaporation. Dissolved Species - Seawater NaC| is most abundant because of compostion of seawater: »’ Includes all dissolved ions ~34] ppt »’ Most common ions: Cl’, Na’, Mg 2*, SO42‘, Ca2*, K‘. .. »’ Trace components: Br, F, B, Sr »’ 85.65 % Na? ‘ and Cl‘ ions Dissolved Species - Rivers - Main dissolved species in freshwater is Ca, . , CO and SiO v’ remaining solutes 14.35% 3 4 / About 3.45% of seawater consists of dissolved salts of which 99.7% by weight IS made up of only seven, ions , , , ,,, ,,, ,t, ,,, .,, .. ., (,, .,, ,,9,, that are as listed below : — xufiuul -». .-mu: N‘. 30 Cr 56 0‘ ppm dissolved solids dIS§0Ii: j solids ' ' r 48 N0 M9?‘ 3.69 so. =- 7.68 7?» :23 am :2 2 3_ I3] ll! !! 1 «DD! Ce ’ 1.16 HCO 0.41 M U W, ,, K‘ 1_1 O 73 raj issim 550 - These components of seawater can all contribute to S’, 33; evaporite mineralization. 1.: 1» 350 n It} on 05 <00] D67‘ My OD] <00} D2! D1 001 <00] D09 l. ‘iI7 I3 r_i‘l| '|I Lia’! EDT I! om UIII-UUI tins -: l)|1l 2» (H17 ME CUZ — — — 05 (I02 1208 3147"! In: AA! mm D A, l$m| n. u.vy. .n. m.-yri. ... i:. ci . iuuq. .in. mui. ... u.i. im. , in ‘ H sum Hi-» mu: 1 ‘Io-am ii Nu. l'uuIyIn .1 gnxht irr nu min I. ». ..i« run mi Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    13. 13. Evagoration of Seawater In terms of volumes of precipitated salts, experiments like that show that if a column of sea mater 1000 m thick is evaporated to dryness, the precipitated salt deposit would be about 17 m ic . Of this, 0.6 m would be gypsum, 13.3 m would be halite, and the rest, 2.7 m, would be mainly salts of potassium and magnesium. But is this how most evaporite deposits are formed? Evaporating column of seawater 1000 m (1 km) of seawater will produce 175., -D K_, ,,gs, ,,s 17 m of evaporites / ppt. sequence controlled by solubility — least soluble first § «o.1 m cacog § 5 . /05 m gypsum .2 73.2% Halite «E /13.3 m NaC| {'5 S /3 m KCI, KMgCl Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    14. 14. El/ APGRITE DEPOE§I"f$ EVAPORATIION Freshwater Replenishment , , l”ll°‘” from open ocean I I I (small) / ___T / Ocean / Barrier Evaporating shallow basin (high salinity) bar or other flow restriction I ‘Crystals of Evaporite sediment: ‘ gypsum or halite gypsum and halite settle to bottom
    15. 15. Evaporite sequence Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    16. 16. Decreasing order of solublllty Volume of water remaining 50% Evaporite Precipitated a) carbonates: > Precipitates if < 50% of seawater is removed. > At this point, minor carbonates begin to form. > A little iron oxide and some aragonite are precipitated. > Minor quantities of carbonate minerals (Calcite and dolomite) form. > Only accounts for a small % of the total solids b) Calcium sulfate 3 > Precipitates if 80-90% of seawater has been removed > Solution is denser > Gypsum (<42°C) orAnhydrite (>42°C). c) Rock salt (halite): The first phase > Precipitates if 86-94% of original seawater has been removed > Brine (solution) is very dense increasing Evaporation Rates d) Potassic and Magnesium salts: > Precipitate if > 94 % of original seawater has been removed. > So: ionic strength (potential) of evaporating seawater has a strong control over minerals that form > Precipitation of various magnesium sulfates and chlorides, and finally to NaBr and KC/ . > Potassium and magnesium salts (Kainite, Carnallite, Sylvite) Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    17. 17. Back in 1849 an Italian chemist named Usiglio made a classic, widely cited, but somewhat misleading experiment on evaporite deposition. He took a volume of normal sea water and slowly evaporated it, and kept track of the composition and mass of precipitated salts as a function of extent of evaporation. I An ideal evaporite sequence (in decreasing order of is as follows: V Type 1: Potassium and magnesium salts (kainite, carnallite, Sylvite). V Type 2: Rock salt (halite). V Type 3: Gypsum (<42°C) or anhydrite (>42°C). V Type 4: Calcite and dolomite. I As evaporite beds of types 1 and 2 consist of highly soluble minerals, they are commonly re-dissolved by the influx of new salt- water. To be preserved, they must be covered over quickly by an impervious layer. I Since sea—water only contains 31 parts per thousand of dissolved salts, even evaporation of large areas of sea-water will only result in the deposition of a thin evaporite layer. For thick, economically viable evaporite layers to be deposited, a continuous evaporation-replenishment system must operate. Sulphate rich layer Carbonate rich layer Chloride rich layer Fig.9. Rock salt crust mined from the lake bed Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    18. 18. Mafor grougs of evagorite minerals More than eighty natura_lly_occurring_ evaporite minerals have been identified. The intncate equilibrium relationships among these minerals have been the subject of many studies overthe years. This is a chart that shows minerals that form the marine evaporite rocks, they are usually the most common minerals that appear in this kind of deposit. Mineral Mineral Chemical class name Composition Ham“ Halite NaCl Halite; rock»sa| t Sylvite KCI Carnallite KMgC|3 ” 6H; O C"'°'“*°“l Kainite i<Mg(so. )CI'3H20 Potash Salts Hanksite, Na22K(SO4)g(CO3)2Cl, one of the P I ' K; C QM so ‘H20 . . °yl'a'"° a 9l ‘)6 few minerals that is both a carbonate and a Langbeinite K; Mg; (SO4)3 sulfate sulfates Anhydrate CaS04 Anhydrate _ _ I _ Gypsum C3304 . ZHZO Gypsum Economic imgortance o ovagorites Cl Ha| ite- rock salt for roads, refined into table salt Kieserite MgSO4 ‘ H20 -- _ _ _ D I it C M CO _ I _ D Thick halite deposits are expected to become an °°"‘ ° 3 9( 3)‘ 9° °”"‘°' important location for the disposal of nuclear D°'°5T°"9 waste because of their geologic stability, Calcite CaCO3 Limestone predictable engineering and physical behaviour, Magnesne MQCOB __ and imperviousness to groundwater. - Evaporite minerals start to precipitate when their concentration in water Cl GyP5llm' Alabasleli ornamental Stone; Plaster of reaches such a level that they can no longer exist as solutes. Perle heeled ferm of 9Y95Um Used for Caste, - The minerals preci itate out of solution in the reverse order of their plasterboard, etc; makes plaster wallboard. . such hat the order of precipitation from sea water is D P0taSh_ for fertilizer (potassium Chloride V Calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3); ) potassium Sunates) Gypsum lcasollzl-ho) and anhydllle lcasoll El Evaporite minerals especially nitrate minerals Halite (i. e. common salt. NaCl) _ y _ 4 potassium and magnesium sans are used in the production on fertilizer and explosives. The abundance of rocks formed by seawater recipitation is in the same El Salt formations are famous for their ability to form order as the precipitation given above, Thus. imestone (calcite) and dolomite are more common than gypsum. which is more common than . . . . . . diapirs, which produce ideal locations for trapping petroleum deposits. halite. which is more common than potassium and magnesium salts. I Evaporites can also be easily recrystallized in laboratories in order to _ investigate the conditions and characteristics of thePf'qJfr; iiDm, H,Z_ Harra P esentaflon Evaporite D p ' Rock name (or ‘ Carbonates
    19. 19. . ‘ff. , fl . ."‘-’ A ’” ‘ ” "~ 1:; g ‘ Carnallite Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    20. 20. Calcium Sulfate Deposition DCalcium sulfate may be deposited either in the form of gypsum (<42°C) or anhydrite (>42°C), depending upon the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the solution. ClOccurs as part of the evaporite succession (Sequence of formation of evaporites: Calcite-) dolomiteé gypsumé ha| ite9 sylvite-) Mg- salts). ClThe first salts to separate by the evaporation of seawater are carbonates. CI When the water has been evaporated to about 20% of its original volume, calcium sulfate starts to separate. At the temperatures of evaporation of marine basins, much gypsum will always be deposited first if the temperature is <42°C, and that marine beds of pure anhydrite imply either that the early deposited gypsum was converted to anhydrite or that deposition occurred above the conversion temperature of >42°C. CI Equilibrium temperature for the reaction CaSO; *2H3O <—>CaSO4 + 2H2O‘; _,. ( SC , is a function of activity of H20 of the solution. ‘r’ Anhydrite can be hydrated back to ggpsum upon uplift and exposure to / ow—sa/ inity surface waters. Resulting Products. Cl Calcium sulfate deposition occurs in: 1) Beds of relatively pure gypsum or anhydrite from a few meters to many hundreds of meters in thickness (gypsum beds constitute one of the most important nonmetallic resources and anhydrite finds little use); 2) Gypsum beds with impurities of anhydrite; 3) Alabaster, massive fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum and 4) Gypsite, an admixture with dirt. 5) The beds are generally interstratified with limestone or shale, and they are commonly associated with salt. ovpsum gypsum ' outcrop deposition Y/7”‘ ’i__7__i_, /X, ;i _/ *~ I 0 ‘ii. /fir. -" ‘/ k Gypsum ‘A ll‘ (Trunsition, A->6) Gypsum , , (Transilion 0-9 A) ‘NHVDRITE ls ' 1ooo ANHVDHITE if ANHVDRITE depth, m 2000
    21. 21. Gypsum Uses: El Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaS04-2H2O). CI Gypsum is used in a wide variety of applications: > Gypsum board is primarily used as a finish for walls and ceilings, and is known in construction as drywall, sheetrock or plasterboard. > Gypsum blocks used like cement blocks in building construction. > Plaster ingredient (surgical splints, casting moulds, modeling) > Plaster of Paris: heated form of gypsum used for casts, plasterboard, etc. > Alabaster: ornamental stone > As alabaster, a material for sculpture, especially in the ancient world before steel was developed, when its relative softness made it much easier to carve. > A binder in fast—dry tennis court clay > Adding hardness to water used for brewing > Used in baking as a dough conditioner, reducing stickiness, and as a baked-goods source of dietary calcium. The primary component of mineral yeast food. > A component of Portland cement used to prevent flash setting of concrete > Soil/ water potential monitoring (soil moisture) Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    22. 22. Gypsum Jim’: W. ____a. ..-— - f~. .:f<;5 1. L—. .~ ’$,17>. ~-’-. V‘! ' CaSO4 - 2H 20 S. G. 2.312 - 2.322 Hardness 2 A ‘.4 ‘ 1,~. _,_r, _)*~, -. Color Colorless to white, Av--. -(.1;-«"-{ll often tinged other hues due to impurities; colorless in transmitted light. (i}[| nH l'li«-In liu vl| | mi 'l: _ . w lc y i'i rm ' A’. -'£; a_. ... . -, -5.
    23. 23. Com ared between Eva oration Se - 1) Calcite (CaCO3) and Magnesite (MgCO3) 2) Gypsum (CaSO4 *2H2O) precipitates next. 3) Na2CO3 (in form of 'l'rona and Natron) next in order precipitates if any CO3 left 4) Na2SO4 (in form Hanksite [Na22K(SO4)g(CO3)2Cl]) precipitates next leaving mostly the chloride compounds 5) MgSO4 (in tom of Epsom salts) precipitates out all that is left is NaCl 6) NaC| saltern is left. These are fairly common (Great Salt Lake) 7) MgCl, and Caclz lakes are rare (Called Bitterns Dead Sea). 8) If all water evaporates - bed of salt (Naclj usually results. in § tr 2 0 ‘'3 gr: «#3 >_ we gra , I- 3% 0 be 2.- @- uence of Seawater and Lakes 1) carbonates: > Precipitates if < 50% of seawater is removed. > At this point, minor carbonates begin to form F A little iron oxide and some aragonite are precipitated. > Minor quantities of carbonate minerals (Calcite and dolomite) form. > Only accounts for a small % of the total solids 2) Calcium Sulfate . > Precipitates if 80-90% of seawater has been removed ’; Solution is denser > Gypsum (<42°C) or Anhydrite (>42°C). 3) Rock salt (halite) v’ Precipitates if 86-94% of original seawater has been removed V Brine (solution) is very dense 4) Potassic and Magnesium salts: / Precipitate if > 94 % of original seawater has been removed. ~/ 80. ionic strength (potential) of evaporating seawater I7 has a strong control over minerals that form.
    24. 24. EVAPORATION SEQUENCE OF CONTINENTAL WATERS AND INLAND LAKES Continental waters (saline lakes) and Inland brine lakes evaporation: - Epsomite {or Epsom salts} (MgSO4.7H2O - Borax (Na2B4O7-10H2O or Na2[B4O5(OH)4]-8H2O) - Trona (NaHCO3.Na2CO3.2H2O) Natron (Na2CO2.1OH2O) Precipitation iiequcncc Order of precipitation of common compounds 1) CaCO3 and MgCO3 are the 15‘ to precipitate 2) CaSO4 precipitates next (Calcium all precipitated). Leaving mostly Na and Mg cations 3) (Na2CO3) next in order precipitates if any CO3 left 4) (Na2SO4) precipitates next leaving mostly the chloride compounds 5) MgSO4 precipitates out all that is left is NaC| 6) NaC| saltern is left. These are fairly common (Great Salt Lake) 7) MgC|2 and CaCl2 lakes are rare (Called Bitterns Dead Sea). 8) If all water evaporates - bed of salt (NaC| ) usually results.
    25. 25. Prof. Dr. , g? " A ‘ I. .~ -. Evaporite; Deposits , ’ T —
    26. 26. DEPOSITION FROM CONTINENTAL WATERS AND INLAND LAKES 1) Deposition from Salt Lakes CI The deposits formed from the evaporation of salt lakes are similar to those obtained from ocean water. CI The relatively small size of lakes, however, makes them more responsive to climate changes, with the result that they exhibit greater fluctuations of deposition. CI Evaporites formed during periods of desiccation may be re-dissolved during subsequent periods of scansion. Cl Moreover, lakes constantly receive new supplies of fresh water, salts, and also sediments. CI The resulting saline deposits, therefore, are generally thin—bedded alternations of impure salts and clays. Cl Also, on salt playas, desert winds distribute sands and silt, upon which later salts may be deposited during subsequent lake periods. D This also gives alternations of salines with sand, clay and minor calcium carbonate.
    27. 27. Brines form by strong evaporation. These ponds on the shores of Great Salt Lake are sources of magnesium as well as salt. r . ... ,r. ,mu nrr n-. ... ... .. : v.. .m. .. Ilal ii: Prof. Dr, H. Z. Harraz Presentation Prof. Dr. I-I:2.°H&1lP&2‘Piifsentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    28. 28. Salt Lakes Seasonal flooding in arid areas produces short—lived lakes ° Groundwater springs ° evaporation concentrates brine ° e. g. Salt Lake, Utah Depositional Model 'Dry mudflats - crusts ‘Saline mudflats — saltpan deposits ‘Evaporites form when lake dries up — usually forming ’Bulls Eye’ pattern of deposits / least soluble ppt first / most soluble last Idealised diagram of the ‘buIlseye‘ pattem characteristic of salt lakes Cnosssedion Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Prof. Dr. Ha'6oItIama7.'uEmsentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    29. 29. Salton Sea California Three kinds of sodium lakes I Salterns — rich in sodium chloride (NaC| ) I Saline lakes - rich in sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) I Soda lakes — rich in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) / Soda lakes have enormous phytoplankton populations not so with other sodium rich lakes Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation 15 ‘t‘l)1U(9ly zim‘. Prof. Dr. Hiéflqéwézflbresentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    30. 30. 2! Deposition from Alkali (or Soda! Lakes CI Alkali (or Soda) lakes is lake rich in sodium compounds. CI In alkali or soda lakes sodium carbonate predominates, potassium carbonate may be abundant, and common salt is always present. Cl Source materials: Most of the sodium carbonate has been derived directly by decomposition of volcanic rocks, but some is also formed by slow and complex chemical reactions with other sodium and calcium salts; it may be formed also by the action of algae on sodium sulfate. CI The potassium carbonate is considered to be the indirect product of the work of organisms. Cl Example: Owens and Mono Lakes in California, the Soda Lakes of Nevada, and the Natron Lakes of Egypt. CI The Natron Lakes of Egypt are alternately wet and dry, and evaporation leaves a layer of natron and salt, bordered by sodium carbonate. Note: C In arid regions- precipitates of carbonate combined with sodium are found commonly called natron and trona
    31. 31. 3] Deposition from Bitter lor Sulfate l Lakes D Bittern results when water evaporates and most salts have crystalized and precipitated. IThe liquid that remains is called bittern and contains bromides and magnesium salts. CI In bitter lakes, sodium sulfate predominates, but carbonate and chloride are present. Cl Source materials: The sulfate may be derived from the decomposition of rocks that contain sulfates, or from the leaching of buried beds of sulfates. El Such lakes are common in the Arid Regions ofAmerica and Asia. El Examples are Verde Valley Lake in Arizona; Soda and Searles Lakes in California; and numerous lakes in New Mexico; Lakes Altai and Domoshakovo in Russia. LI‘. llj. l1‘alr.5; l5.: ::»: -:1:s1:; n. 15 February 2016 Prof. Dr. HsZs. Har: I'az; F!resentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    32. 32. Fraction of dry salts (Wt. %) s W O 8 -B O N. ) O O 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 Magnesium content of brine (Wt. %) Modern Marine Bittern Evolution Series Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits 7.5
    33. 33. 4) Deposition from Potash Lakes Potassium I4‘l‘ ranking cation IHigh potassium levels are lethal to many aquatic animals Source of potassium I The potash is believed to have come from the surrounding country that formerly was burred over by the Indians, releasing plant ashes. / Potash potassium carbonate (KZCO3) / Thought to be ashes of ancient fires Some of the alkali lakes contain potash in amounts that permit commercial extraction. The potash lakes of Nebraska, which are just hollows in sand dunes, are of interest. The evaporated salts are high in potassium sulphate and carbonate and contain soda, salt, and sodium sulfates; one crust contained 21% K20. The Great Salt Lake, Utah, is the most important lake source of potash in the United States. DUDE P; n:r' Ll: H4‘. H: rrr. :: l~: v:: v:»:1:51.i an Prof. Dr. Hafit Hamaz Rxesentation Nonmetallic Deposits
    34. 34. Potash Deposition Cl UDDUCJ DU Potassium is the seventh most common element occurring in the Earth’s crust, accounting for 2.4% of its mass. gotassium present in most rocks and soils. Consequently, they are not common and important eposits. Some of the world's supply of potash is derived from marine evaporates. The world has an estimated 250 billion metric tons of K20 resources. Occurrences: > Sedimentary salt beds remaining from Ancient In/ and Seas (evaporite deposits) > Evaporation of Salt lakes and Natural brines Potash deposits, i. e. natural concentrationsof raw potash, consist of potassium salt rock, predominantly made up of the potassium minerals: Sylvite (KCI), Carnallite (KMgCl3.6H2O), Kainite (4KCl.4MgSO4.11H2O) Langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), Langbeinite (K2804-2MgSO4) Polyhalite (K2SO4-2MgSO, ,-2CaSO4-H20) Niter (KNO3) Potassium-bearing salt solutions either underground or in salt lakes. Flotation is one of the major methods to upgrade the potash. Normally fatty acids are used as collectors for flotation. This type of collectors is not suitable for the treatment of complex fihosiphate ores when calcite, dolomite present. Potash can be separated from halite by reverse ota ion. Potash is the most important source of potassium in fertilizers (potassium chloride, potassium sulfates) VVVVVVV Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    35. 35. White: w: il Illli t_ . . A’ in; '. 'l; +:1[: -I ~ I ii I ‘it ‘xlttl rt ’l§2tC‘l lfg er: vj ‘ int, y ‘ . _ ml: ~ fin ' 2%. , I". ‘ I "II. _ - it rt . - ‘ ‘$3.1 r 11¢‘ 1‘ . e, L 35" . 'I"' «:77 ~ ’~ o r . lg; _rl 1 L‘ . ... ;_ , __ , .. ‘, two I l I , ;¢V/ ' y . w - Potash salt and halite crystallization in pilot test evaporation ponds Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    36. 36. Potash Reserves Cl ~100 large buried deposits + 100 brine deposits of commercial potential worldwide CI The world has an estimated 250 billion metric tons of K20 resources > Reserves — deposits of sufficient quantity and quality that are currently mined > Reserve base - reserves + deposits that are marginally economic or sub economic CI Global reserve estimated at 17 billion t K20 8.3 billon tonnes considered commercially exploitable. El Middle East — K extracted from Dead Sea: ‘r contains an estimated 1 billion t KCI El Latin America: ‘r Sylvinite and carnallite in the Sergipe basin in Brazil ‘r KNO3 in Chile in Atacama Desert (est. 1 billion t NaNO3 and 100 million t KNO3) and Salar de Atacama, a high-attitude dry lake (brine est. at 120 million t KCI and 80 million t K2804 D Asia: ‘r Carnallite and K—bearlng brines in Qinghai Province El Undeveloped Deposits: ‘r Thailand, Argentina, Amazon Basin in Brazil, Morocco, Poland, and additional deposits in the FSU Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    37. 37. _ 3* _J‘- 1--: ‘ 7 7 e ‘i ‘. .‘ . ». -, 1. . ... » I. ’ -Z Potash Reserves and Reserve Base Reserves, -K . ' 2 met K2O > O 8 - 90 o 91- 300 O 301- 750 0751 - 4400 Reserve Base, ‘000 t K2O . 30 - 300 O 301- 1000 O 1001- 2200 0 2201- 9700 Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    38. 38. World Potash Mine Prodm: tiou22003~ U) ll! Lu 0 78% of total K20 produced roduction fJ id 0 U1 %of Million metric tons, K20 O —= ix)» co .6. or 05 Nl co to 60‘ ‘P (o 00* 6‘ 10° ~85’ bo‘° 6‘ <3’ : §P ’i> -0“ 09°? ) ®’6?Q>Q}® a‘° ‘"6’ 5° 6 9®+. <°-” PQQ 5° Ow Q’(0o‘**<b Source: IFA | ‘r. .l It. ’ l‘. .1i*. .;. l"2‘: -Cliljllirli l Min rife I): -'1»-»: Z~
    39. 39. Potash Deposits — North America World’s largest reserves occur in Saskatchewan Ore is exceptionally high grade (25-30% K20) at depths of 950-1 ,100 m increasing to > 3,500 m Uniform thickness (2.4-3 m) and mineralization and no structural deformations Sylvinite, some carnallite, and clay telling A . .i, ivru~. l‘ Mr. n.)oA POTASH RESERVES IN SASKATCHEWAN Area 01 distribution of potash Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    40. 40. North America Potashcorp ~ 5 underground mines Agrlum and 2 solution mines ° 1 Underground mine in in Saskatchewan Saskatchewan - 1 underground mine in New Brunswick Intrepid Mining 2 I - 2 underground mines . " — . in New Mexico ‘ , Celobal . ~ 3 underground mines . A brine operation and and 1 solution mine in solution mine in Utah Saskatchewan - 1 underground mine in Compass Minerals Group New Mexico and a - 1 brine operation in Utah solution mine in Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Michigan Evaporite Deposits
    41. 41. Latin America I Produced 3% of world’s ‘Bram _Cl“'e K20 in 2003 450 I Companhia Vale do Rio ,4 400 Doce (CVRD) one mine 8 350 in Sergipe 9_ 300 I Sociedad Quimica y Minera 250 de Chile S. A. (SQM) in § 200 northern Chile produces E 150 KCI/ SOP by solar O 100 evaporation and KN03 from :2‘ 5o NaNO3 0 ‘I I l I i I I l I Both producing close to gs. gs (bib Q9 61, capacity CVRD plans to '9 v9 v9 r19 vi? increase capacity
    42. 42. Potash Deposits - FSU - FSU has extensive proven reserves of K minerals second only to the deposits in Saskatchewan - Russia — Verkhnekamsk deposit in the Urals near Solikamsk ‘P Potash depth at 75 to 450 m in 13 potentially minable beds ranging in thi_ckness from 26 to 30 m (sylvinite) and 70 to 80 m (zone of sylvinite-carnallite). Mined beds 1.2 to 6 m thick with 15% K20 with 3 to 5% insolubles - Belarus — Starobinsk deposit is 2"“ largest in ore body in FSU near Soligorsk >> 30 potash beds in 4 horizons. Most mining 350 to 620 m depth in second horizon (1.8 to 4.4 m thick) Sylvinite ore averaging 11% K20 and 5% insolubles Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    43. 43. Potash Deposits — W. Europe - Oldest deposits are the Hessen and Thuringen beds in southern Germany ‘r contain 15 to 20% sylvite, kieserite, and carnallite (~10% K20) ‘r Beds are relatively flat—lying, but also folding, with some barren zones, sudden thickness changes, etc. making mining difficult - Also carnallite and kieserite deposits in central Germany and sylvite and carnallite in northern Germany - Sylvite deposits in England and sylvinite in Spain - Western Europe . ..17% of world 2, A production in 2003 Jr’ ‘r 13% from Germany 5 57? , ‘.§~I- Dead Sea Works? " K3“ and 33IZ K20 Production, ‘O00 metrict 1994 2000 2003 France 870 321 0 1 ii‘ : , Germany 3,286 3,409 3,565 IBERPOTASH SA’. Spain 684 522 506 . _ . UK 580 601 621 Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    44. 44. Eastern Europe A A; _. .~ - Russia and Belarus are the 2"“ and 3“ leading producers 17% and 15% of 2003 global production - 2003 Operating capacity: Russia — 71% (63% in 1999) Belarus — 78% ( 66% in 1999) Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    45. 45. L, IVA . ‘ i r v I _ it / ' )2 _: :J ‘ V‘ A ‘. J i "“t'V. IV—: : ‘ ' I Diorama of an underground salt mine in Europe
    46. 46. Asia Qinghai Yanhu Potash Fertilizer ‘ re. China is a small producer, but production has been increasing ~8% per year since 1994 ‘P est. 440,000 t K20 in 2003 KCI by solar evaporation around Lake Qarhan in Qinghai Province 3» 1 million t project under development by Qinghai Yanhu Potash Fertilizer 0.3 million in 2003/04 and 0.7 million t by 2006/07 Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    47. 47. Death Valley ElDeath Valley is a large salt pan on the floor of Death Valley, located in the Mojave Desert within Death Valley National Park, in eastern California. ClA| though its exact boundaries are poorly defined, it extends from the vicinity of the Ashford Mill site to the Salt Creek Hills, a distance of about 40 miles. C| The salt pan is essentially a gigantic, dried up bed of a lake that once covered the valley to a depth of 30 feet. Some 2,000 to 4,000 years ago 2' . . arraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    48. 48. .. ll‘ . - ‘If G _ T‘ i tr 7", ... /ii’ I" l.0.»’1'. «~’l‘ «"1 ‘N W I 0./ I.. .“ "'_r). n: 4 - I‘) l, /'r. «'i / L) 1. '. s/‘ill Li il, J-'l, /L) J, -/LI. J . )’ I. ,~, / ‘I. Am I. /3.841 I. ,./ ‘I. _/I; -I1 J- I K extracted from I The world’s largest reserve of potash in the form of salt solutions is the Dead Sea (up to 1 billion tonnes of K20), which has been used for potash production since the israei _Jo. -dan beginning of the 1930s. I contains an estimated up to 1 billion 2500 tonnes KC] 2000 I Israel and Jordon represented 11% of world production in 2003 1500 I Today DSW 1000 I Arab Potash, the only producer in Jordan is being privatized I Dead Sea Works (DSW), with production in Israel and recent acquisitions in Spain and UK is the world’s 5"‘ largest producer 500 K20 production, ‘000 t 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
    49. 49. Potash Trade I Export I Domestic 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1 ,000 c¢“‘¢e>’; t’°§“"‘ f‘, §/ 0 ¢? °o<~““’ o<‘*“”’e“"VZ I Grown ~ 3% for two-thirds of potash imports in 2003 annually for the last 10 years I 4 countries accounted for two-thirds of imports ‘O00 metric tons, K20 J 21% / Chi. na15% « Brazil 16% " '"d'a 7% I U. S. market is mostly mature modest future growth expected I Markets in Asia and Latin America are rising and are expected to continue in the future Prot. Dr HZ Harruzpruontatnon Evq: or‘naDoposits
    50. 50. Concluding Remarks Increasing potash consumption in Brazil, India, and China v’ Global K20 consumption is ~24 million t and forecast to reach 29 million t in next 5 years Potash industry has been operating in a surplus ~/ Exporting countries 70 to 75% of capacity / Production capacity is expected to grow ~8% in next 4 to 5 years v 70% of new growth in exporting countries and the balance in China and Brazil At present levels of production (~ 28 million t K20 per year) and with current/ planned capacity, the industry can easily meet future demand At present levels of production, minable reserves and the known reserve base are sufficient to supply potash for at least 600 years ¢ Considering known resources there is sufficient potash to meet demand for thousands of years
    51. 51. Potash Use About 95% of potash is used as a fertilizer in agriculture Smaller amounts are also used in manufacture of potassium—bearing chemicals such as detergents, ceramics, and pharmaceuticals as well as water conditioners, de-icing salt, and etc Global leading potash users are those economies with large agricultural sectors such as China, India, Brazil, the US, Indonesia and Malaysia I In the US, more than 45% of potash is applied to produce com I In China, 50% of the potash is applied to produce fruits and vegetables, and 28% to produce rice I In Brazil, more than 75% of the potash is applied to produce soybean, sugar cane and com I In Malaysia and Indonesia, oil palm accounts for more than 70% of potash consumed. All major consuming countries lack of potash resources and need to import potash to support their agricultural production
    52. 52. 5 De osition from Borate Lakes ClMagnesium borates are considered to be typical of marine conditions and calcium 5’ orates o. f‘lal? e- bod deposits. Cl Most borates of commerce are obtained from lakes, lake-bed deposits, or dry lakes. CIBorate lakes are relatively uncommon, but several are known in California, Nevada, Oregon, Tibet, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia. ClFormerly, most of the borax in the United States was obtained from lake waters in California and Nevada or from playas. Clsubsequently, borax was made less expensively from colemanite and ulexite, and later from kernite. At present, the only lakes yielding commercial borax are Searles and Owens, in California, where it is extracted in conjunction with other salts. CI Source materials: The borax of the lakes is considered to have been leached from, surrounding igneous rocks or ClMineraIogy: The chief boron minerals of playas and brines are: I Borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) to have been contributed by I Colemanite (Ca2B6O11.5H2O) magmatic hot springs- = Ulexite (Na2.2CaO.5B2O3.16H2O) Duses: I Searlesite ' _ Borax has a wide variety of uses. It is a component of many Is also detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is also used to make found at Sea fies Ma rsh buffer solutions in biochemistg, as a fire retardant as an anti- fungal compound for fiberglass, as an insecticide as a flux in metallurgy, and as a precursor for other boron compounds.
    53. 53. E= '.1po1‘iIc. s 3 I , l. L)unn_«_' . l1m‘cr1c. ll1c “ l“d”“d ‘ , .lcd1lcrr; u1c'. lri hccurnc it °“h‘m: "“‘ “uh "‘ L‘llwr‘m(m 4 }. ~rC. h “ “Cr open sea rcmmcd miter ‘ ' -‘h'~‘ll"“ C““P“”l“' b'*‘»‘1” inllmr Ll. 'lllllllC(. l Freshwater inflow (small) Salt water Gypsum and l A from open ocean halite crystals Evaporite sediments 5.Gypsum and halite crystalize first fonnig evaportites
    54. 54. EIII I RON IVI EI‘"; 'S FOR E/ !%‘. POR| 'l' nvlronments l"I'| l3REC| E3l"f' ‘. ‘.'| O*I' 0 X 0.0 Coastal Mud flats — Sabkhas Continental: Salt pans Barred basins '3' Salt lakes 4* Springs 0 4.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - Volumetrically, each can be significant: 1) Coastal evaporites ~’ Form in a Sabkha environment: A coastal, supratidal mudflat Evaporites do not precipitate directly from seawater Evaporites replace other material (mineral) in the shallow subsurface Marine processes dominate One of the most interesting areas to sedimentologists Forms many oil traps / Also provides one model for dolomite formation ' 2) Eolianlinterdune / Between sand dunes and ridges 3) Continental: Sabkha/ playa ~’ Shallow saline lakes Note: these models don't explain all evaporites The importance of shallow vs. deep water is still debated A problem: To deposit 2000 m of evaporite, you would need to evaporate a LOT of seawaterll Ex: Evaporation of the entire Mediterranean Sea would only produte 60 m of evaporites So: We need models or mechanisms that can replenish the supply of ions The most significant known evaporite depositions happened during the Messinian salinity crisis in the basin of the Mediterranean.
    55. 55. l/ iarine Eva porites CONTINENTAL I Marine evaporites tend to have thicker 5“B‘“"'P"'"A deposits. I They also have a system of evaporation. '”T5“°U"E I The most common minerals that are le°"a"'d, °mm° generally considered to be the most representative of marine evaporates are calcite, gypsum and anhydrite, halite, sylvite, carnallite, langbeinite, Qolyhalite, kari, and J(Ms504l- I However, there are approximately 80 different minerals that have been reported found in evaporite deposits (Stewart,1963;Warren,1999), though only about a dozen are common enough to be COASTAL SABKHA considered important rock formers. (marine—domiraled) Sea level (High tide) —. I _ _ y l
    56. 56. Barred Basins Barred Basins Basin with limited and intermitted connection to ocean I Miocene (6 Ma) - Mediterranean Sea — strait of Gibralatar closed by tectonic uplift I The Mediterranean beeinaenote they are separated by e number of sills-some are up to 4000m deep. I 2 km of evaps formed- equivalent of evap. of 118 km of seawater Evaporation Barred Basins — Modern Analogs? No existing modern analog for extensive barred basin 0 occurs on small scale — tidal salt marshes Bardiwilsalt marsh. Egypt Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz Presentation Evaporite Deposits
    57. 57. m Northern Continental Margin E Early Cretaceous Flysch Troughs - Ophrolrtes B Southern Continental Margin The hlediterranean basins—note they are separated by a number of sills—s0me are up to 4000m deep.
    58. 58. iil Non-marine (or Continental, Inland lakesl Evaporites I Non-marine evaporites are usually composed of minerals that are not commt environments, because in general the water from which non-marine evaporit ‘ proportions of chemical elements different from those found in the marine e ‘ I Common minerals that are found in these deposits include blodite, borax, gp glauberite, mirabilite, thenardite and trona. I Non-marine deposits may also contain halite, gypsum, and anhydrite, and ma even be dominated by these minerals, although they did not come from ocea I This, however, does not make non-marine deposits any less important; these help to paint a picture into past Earth climates. I Some particular deposits even show important tectonic and climatic changes. I These deposits also may contain important minerals that help in today's economy. I Thick non-marine deposits that accumulate tend to form where evaporation rates will exceed the inflow rate, and where there is sufficient soluble supplies. I The inflow also has to occur in a closed basin, or one with restricted outflow, so that the sediment has time to pool and form in a lake or other standing body of water. I Primary examples of this are called ”$aline lake deposits". I Saline lakes includes things such as perennial lakes, which are lakes that are there year-round, playa lakes, which are lakes that appear only during certain seasons, or any other terms that are used to define places that hold standing bodies of water intermittently or year-round. I Examples of modern non-marine depositional environments include the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea which lies between Jordan and Israel. —, E€i"V, —, , rjw
    59. 59. Compared between Marine and Non-marine evaporites Marine evaporites Cl Marine Environments: > Coastal > Mud flats — Sabkhas > Salt pans > Barred basins Clcan be described as ocean or sea water VVVVVV Non-marine evaporites CI Continental Environments: Salt lakes Saline Inland lakes Playa lakes Inland lakes Groundwater Spnngs deposits (solutions derived from normal sea DSaline'ak95l"‘3'”d95‘l“”95 Such 351 water by evaporation are said to be hypersaline) Elshallow basin with high rate of evaporation: e. g. Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, ancient Mediterranean Sea, and Red Sea. C| The most important salts that precipitate from sea water: Gypsum, Halite, and Potash salts {Sylvite (KCI), Camallite (KMQCI3 ' 6H2O), Langbeinite (KgMg2(SO4)3), Polyhalite (K; Ca2Mg(SO4)g ' H10), Kanite (KMg(SO4)C| * 3H20), and Kieserite (Mgso. )} El Marine evaporite deposits are widespread. > in North America, for example, strata of marine evaporites underlie as much as 30% of the land area. Cl Marine evaporites produce: > Most of the salt that we use. TL- _. .__. ... . . . --. l I-. . . .l_-L-. . > Perennial lakes, which are lakes that are there year—round; or Playa lakes. which are lakes that appear only during certain seasons, El Examples of modern non-marine depositional environments include the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead See. which lies between Jordan and Israel. CI The layers of salts precipitate as a consequence of evaporation: > Salts that precipitate from lake water of suitable composition include: Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and Borax (Na2B4Or.1OH2O). El Borax and other boron-containing minerals are mined from evaporite lake deposits in Death Valley and Searled and Borax Lakes, all in California; and in Argentina, Bolivia, Turkey, and China. El Huge evaporite deposits of Sodium carbonate were laid down in the Green River basin of Wyoming during the Eocene Epoch. / Oil shales were also deposited in the basin. CI The most important salts that precipitate from lake: Blodite, Borax (Na2B4O7. 1 Glauberite. (NaHCO3.Na2CO3.2H2O). D Non-marine deposits may also contain Halite, Gypsum, and ’ Epsomite ll/ lirabillte, (MgSO. ,.7H2O), Thenard/ te and Ga ylussite. Trona 7
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