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massive type interlayer with gabbroic rocks in the Eastern Desert; Main occurrences of Ti-Fe oxide deposits in Egypt; Abu Ghalaga Ore Deposit; Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore deposit categories ; Abu Ghalaga Mineral composition; Mining Techniques; Origins; Korabkanci titano-magnetite ore; black sand placer deposits type; Rosetta (or Rashid East); Northern Sinai Coast

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  1. 1. Lecture 4: Hassan Z. Harraz 2016- 2017 @ Hassan Harraz 2017
  2. 2. Outline of Lecture 4: 1) a massive type interlayer with gabbroic rocks in the Eastern Desert. Ti-Fe oxide deposits in Egypt Ore Description Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore deposit categories Mineral composition Mining Techniques Origins ii) Korabkanci titano-magnetite ore 2) a black sand placer deposits type i) Rosetta (or Rashid East) ii) Northern Sinai Coast 2
  3. 3. In Egypt, titanium occurs in two main mode of occurrences; namely : 1) a Massive type interlayer with gabbroic rocks in the Eastern Desert, and 2) a black sand placer deposits type included in the black sand deposits at the Mediterranean beach especially at Rosetta and Damietta. Titanium ores information are presented in Table 1 Area Reserves (M tonnes) Production (1000 t/y) Average Assay (TiO2 %) Associated constituents Eastern Desert 40 120 30 - 38 Fe2O3, SiO2, Clays, Silicates Mediterranean Coast 606 2 - 3 - SiO2, Magnetite, Rutile, Zircon, Monazite Table 1. Titanium and titaniferous iron ores (Naim, et al., 1993). 3
  4. 4.  Ilmenite and titaniferous iron ores exist in Egypt in at least 10 localities with several dimensions.  A number of Ti-Fe oxide deposits are known in Egypt, in association with mafic- ultramafic masses ranging in composition from melagabbro, melanorite to anorthosite.  They are always associated with gabbroic rocks and formed by segregation.  Among these occurrences are  Abu Ghalaga,  Korabkanci  Hamra Dome,  Kolmnab  Abu Dahr,  Um Effein,  Wadi Rahaba,  Um Ginud, and  Wadi El Miyah (G. El Rokham).  The two most economically promising deposits are those located at Abu Ghalaqa and Korabkanci.  In all these deposits (except Abu Ghalaga), the tonnage is very limited (a few hundred thousand tonnes), and the TiO2 content is relatively low (16 to 22%).  Production of titanium concentrates in 1975 was 3.4 million tons (including 90% of ilmenite and 10% of rutile concentrates). 1) Ti-Fe oxide deposits in Egypt 4
  5. 5. Localities of Titaniferous Iron Ores of Egypt (Basta, 1977) 5
  6. 6. Mineralogy: In all these occurrences, the ore is present as massive lenses or disseminations of magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, and apatite. Chromite and V are principal minor constituents, sometimes with traces of Cu. Origin: The Ti- and Fe- oxide phases were separated by crystal setting or filter pressing during crystallization of the gabbroic magma to form syngenetic bands and segregations of massive ore. The discordant dyke-like, especially at Abu Dahr, were formed through the separation of late stage, Fe-Ti-P rich immiscible liquid and its intrusion into the lithified parts of the gabbroic mass. 6
  7. 7. It occurs in a hill overlooking Wadi Abu• Ghalaga, This area lies• 17 km South West of Abu Ghosoun port on the Red Sea coast and 100 km South of Mersa Alam city. The Abu• Ghalaga area is delineated by latitudes 24˚ 15́- 24˚ 27́ N and longitude 35˚ 00́ – 35˚ 10́ E . The host rocks include metagabbro,• norite-gabbro and anorthosite that show primary banding of layering. The gabbroic mass is emplaced within older volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. The• Abu Ghalaqa Ilmenite deposit is the largest among the ilmenite localities in Egypt. 7
  8. 8. Abu Ghalaga ilmenite mine 8
  9. 9. Fig. : Accessibility map of Wadi Abu Ghalaga area 9
  10. 10. Ore Description  The mineralization occurs as bands or lenses of massive ore intercalated with the gabbro layers, or it forms disseminations gradational between the massive ore bands and enclosing gabbro.  The main ilmenite band is confined to gabbroic mass and occurs as a sheet-like body taking NW-SE and SE trend, and dips 30˚NE direction and extends 350 m in NW-SE direction and is 50 m wide. It dips at 45°NE. New discovered ore body with average 150 m in thickness and that it extends beyond the limits of the exposed bands were evaluated. Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore deposit classified into three categories (Basta and Takla, 968): 1) Massive Black ore (or the main body): contains a small amount of gangue silicates ranging from 20 to 25% and its ilmenite range from 26.2 to 71.1%, 2) Disseminated ore: contains from 40 to 45% silicate gangue and its ilmenite range from 55 to 61.8%, 3) Red Oxidized ore: represents the oxidized zone on the surface, the reddish-brown colour of which is due to the partial alteration of its-minerals (ilmenite and magnetite) to hematite, goethite and limonite. 10
  11. 11. The overall chemical analysis of the ore is Oxide Oxidized zone Fresh ore TiO2 37.09 - 41.04% 33.9 - 37.65% Fe2O3 17.47 - 23.0% 6.34 - 23.85% FeO 27.93 - 35.63% 25.94 - 31.33% V2O5 0.31 - 0.38% 0.29 - 0.39% Chemical composition of produced ore TiO2 36.36-49.90% V2O5 0.52% FeO 24.50 - 28.59% MgO 2.18-2.93% Fe2O3 17.82-28.30% S 0.03 - 0.99% AI2O3 0.61 - 3.40% CaO 0.10% SiO2 2.20 - 7.70% 11
  12. 12. Mineral composition The massive ore composed of ilmenite (67.37 - 68.62%), Mn-bearing ilmenite, titanomagnetite (4-17 vol.%), magnetite, hematite (13 - 18%), rutile, and subordinate sulfides (0.13 - 2.1%): (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite), goethite, and anatase (Hussein, 1976; Hawa, 2014). The ore contains a relatively small amount of gangue-silicates ranging from 4 to 11% of the whole rock and its ilmenite ranging from 89.4 to 90.1%. 12
  13. 13. • The ore reserves of ilmenite at Abu Ghalaga were estimated to be about 50 million tonnes, with an average grade ~35% TiO2 (Basta and Takla, 1968; Basta 1973). 06.2132561.1202893661&type=1&theater lenses (L) from ilmenite in metagabbros 13
  14. 14. Mining Techniques The ilmenite load, at Abu Ghalaqa, is about 100 meter above the wadi level and extends to more than 200 m below the wadi level. The wadi level itself is at about 240 m above Sea Level. The major lens covers an area of 150 m x 300 m. The present status of mining technology is an open cast above the wadi level . The Abu Ghalaqa ore is being mined by surface mining. The benches are drilled, charged, and blasted. To facilitate loading, transporting, and crushing, secondary blasting is applied on the oversize boulders. The ore is transported to the upgrading plant near by (about 500 m). In future it is thought to use underground mining for the lowed part of the load (below the Wadi level) to reduce the cost of overburden removal. The grade of the ilmenite ore at Abou Ghalaqa is slightly upgraded by manual hand picking of some of the gangue minerals depending on difference in colors. The ore is then crushed and screened to produce different size fractions according to the end use. The only use for this ore at the time being is for coating the oil-transport pipes running under the sea water, i.e., is used as heavy gravel in the concrete used for coating the oil- pipes under sea water. Laboratory experiments, up to the pilot scale, show that gravity separation, magnetic separation, and flotation produce concentrates assaying up to 43 % TiO2. There are several researches for extracting titanium slag or titanium metal from the upgraded ore, but the results are not encouraging due to the low content of TiO2 in the concentrate 14
  15. 15. Origins  Bands and lenses of ilmenite ore in the upper part of a small body of titaniferous gabbro in the Abu Ghalaga area of the Eastern Desert of Egypt were formed by gravitative accumulation of ilmenite-rich residual fluids during late stages in the consolidation of the gabbroic magma (Amin, 1954).  The ore deposit itself as having been formed in the magmatic phase and that the metamorphic phase only resulted the mobilization and recrystallization of the ore minerals and the transformation of the ilmenite magnetite intergrowths into hemo- ilmenite (Basta and Takla, 1968).  The Neoproterozoic gabbroic rocks of Abu Ghalaga encompasses assemblages of opaque minerals are emplaced during oceanic island arc stage which represent the Nubian Shield of Egypt (Hawa, 2014). Although some textural features of these opaques suggest a relict igneous. The high Mn (up to 5.8 MnO %, 1282 % MnTiO3) and very low Mg contents (0.21 MgO %, 0.82 MgTiO3) are dissimilar to those of any igneous ilmenite of tholeiitic rocks. Most of these ilmenites are associated mostly with metamorphic hornblende. Hornblende thermometry estimate crystallization of ~560oC. All these suggests that the ilmenite under consideration has been greatly metamorphically modified, having lost Mg and gained Mn by diffusion (Hawa, 2014).  El-Shazly (1959), suggested that the ilmenite was deposited in two stages as: a) Ilmenite grains were first during solidification of the gabbro magma., and b) The ilmenite grains were later segregated formed by later metamorphism and metamorphic differentiation to from a deeply inclined ore body. 15
  16. 16. ii) Korabkanci titano-magnetite ore This area lies in the South East corner of Egypt. The ore occurs as seven layers concordant with layered mafic- ultramafic assemblage. These layers are of steep exposure that dips mostly 80º-90º to the East (Makhlouf et al., 2008). The ore bands occur in parallel layers taking NNE-SSW and extend to about 2500 m with width 50-80 m. The deposit exhibits medium to coarse grained texture. Mineralogically, it is composed of titano-magnetite, ilmenite, hematite, goethite, sulphides with some olivine gangue. The ore could be classified into massive and disseminated ore according to the percentage of opaque minerals in the rock. The massive part of the ore contains about 80% or more of opaque minerals. 16
  17. 17. Introduction  The Mediterranean coast of Egypt extends from Salum on the western boundary to Rafah on the eastern boundary, it extends between longitude 25º 12' E and 34º 10' E and in most parts above the latitude 31º N (Fig.1).  The coast reaches about 900 kilometers in length, and cut by two branches of the Nile River, one at Rosetta and the other at Dameitta, enclosing a wide alluvial Delta in between. The Mediterranean coast of Egypt can be divided arbitrary into three parts: a-western part which extends from Dekhila to Alamin, b- middle part, Nile Delta coast, which extends from west of Abu Qir to the east of Port Said and c- the eastern part (northern Sinai coast).  Beach sands are mineral deposits formed through erosion of geological formations which may have been brought to their present location after transport by wind, rivers and glaciers to the coast, and are deposited on the beaches by actions of waves and currents.  The Egyptian black sands are the end products of the disintegrated materials from the igneous and metamorphic rocks.  Black sands in Egypt are beach placers deposited from the Nile stream during flood seasons reaching the Mediterranean Sea at river mouth.  Nile River is the main source of the Nile Delta beach sands.  In the past, Nile River transported black sand from mountain ranges of Sudan and Abyssinia to its delta in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.  It spreads on the beach East of Rashid branch of the Nile and extends east to Rafah passing through El Arish coastal plains (Hassan, 2003).  Figure 1 shows the geographic distribution of the black sands in Egypt. They spread along the Mediterranean Sea shore from Alexandria West to Rafah East.  This black sand contains anomalies of relatively higher natural radioactive nuclides than the other coastal sands (Hussein, 2011). 2) Black Sand Beach Placer deposits 17
  18. 18. Fig. 1: Locations of the Egyptian Black Sand deposits between Rashid and Rafah on the Mediterranean Sea Coast (Naim et al., 1993). 18
  19. 19. The Egyptian Nile and Nile Delta 19
  20. 20. Introduction  Most sands were transported by the main Nile and then across the Nile delta to the northern coast through the present day Rosetta and Dameitta tributaries and the former Nile branches that were active during the Late Holocene (Neev et al, 1987). The sudden cut off of the sand derived by the River Nile as a result of the High Dam construction, a substantial volumes of sediments eroded from the Nile delta have continued to be supplied eastward to the Egyptian northern Sinai coast.  This sedimentation was cut off after building of Aswan High Dam High in 1964.  In the Mediterranean Sea Coast , Egypt, the distribution of black sands contain some economic minerals such as ilmenite, hematite, rutile, magnetite, zircon, garnet, monazite, allanite and sillimanite that has been recognized as two mineral groups : i) The first group includes heavy minerals of lower density and coarser size (augite, hornblende and epidote). Heavy minerals in this group increase from west to east along the delta as they are easily to entrain and transport the coastal sediments toward the east by wave currents. ii) In contrast, the second group includes heavy minerals of higher-density (opaques, garnet, zircon, rutile, tourmaline and monazite) and these minerals are difficult to entrain and transport by wave-current actions. Hence, minerals in this group form a lag deposit within the delta and beach sand.  The Egyptian beach ilmenite is mineralogically composed of fresh ilmenite (46.1%), hemo- ilmenite (3.9%) and altered ilmenite (39.1%) (El Hinnawi, 1964).  The Egyptian black sand deposits comprise huge reserves of the six common economic minerals that include ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile and monazite  In 1965, El Shazly has estimated the reserves of the Egyptian beach minerals to be up to 606 million tonnes of which 40% at least were ilmenite.  Some areas were studied in details and are briefly summarized here. 2) Black Sand Beach Placer deposits 20
  21. 21. i) Rosetta (or Rashid East)  This area is located 6 km North East of Rashid, where the area is generally flat.  Heavy concentrated black sands are deposited in a thin mantle near and parallel to the shoreline.  The thickness of the deposited layer ranges from 0.5 m to more than 40 m.  Rosetta ilmenite is composed of four main phases: ilmenite (FeTiO3), substituted ilmenite {(Mg,Fe)(Ti,Fe)O3}, hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), titano-magnetite, and rutile (TiO2) (Fouad et al, 2010) .  The concentration and extension of the black sands to the West of Rashid are of negligible economic value.  The ore shows lateral variations where the high concentrate occurs in the West and decreases gradually to the East.  According to the reserves of economic minerals at Rashid area are as(Naim et al., 1993), follows: Mineral (in 1000 tons) Ilmenite 2087 Magnetite 1437 Hematite 214 Zircon 81 Rutile 29 Garnet 72 Monazite 31 Sulphides 86 Heavy silicates 1315  However According to (Hussein, 1976), the Rosetta ilmenite concentrate is more complicated due to the presence of titano-magnetite. 21
  22. 22. Black sands are dredged or scraped, piled, and transported to a jungle of Humphrey spirals to scavenge out most of the green sands. The concentrate is sent to the processing plant for separating the heavy constituents. For the black sands, there was a plant in Alexandria for concentrating the black sands and separating its various constituents. This continued until 1970, after which the plant was shut down due to technical problems, environmental considerations as well as market saturation for the products. Nowadays, there is a pilot plant at Rosetta for developing a proper flow sheet to produce market grade products. The main flow sheet for black sand consists of a gravity separation step to get rid of most of the green sands, followed by a low intensity wet magnetic separator to separate magnetite. The non-magnetic fraction is oven dried to be prepared for the electrostatic separation step that separates ilmenite. In a second electrostatic step, rutile is separated. After separation of rutile, the rest is taken to shaking tables to separate garnet and monazite and reject the rest of the green sands. 22
  23. 23. The beach sediments at El-Arish and surrounding on both eastern and western sides along the northern Sinai coast are characterized by the presence of extensive black sand placer deposits. The area between Port Said to east of Bir El-Kharoba on the northern Sinai coast is characterized by beach sediments containing a huge amount of black sands. The distribution patterns of non- opaque heavy mineral assemblages and heavy mineral indices in the study area were studied in details. The non-opaque heavy minerals in the investigated coastal sands include, amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidotes, zircon, rutile, tourmaline and garnet (not necessarily in this order of abundance), they constitute together more than 85% of the total assemblages. Other minerals such as staurolite, biotite and monazite occur as minor components. The maximum, minimum and averages of the relative frequency percentage of the identified non- opaque heavy minerals lead to establish three well defined non-opaque heavy mineral provinces: The area between Port Said and east of El-Tinah bay, Rommana. The beach sands of this area are characterized by the predominance of pyroxenes, amphiboles, epidotes, zircon and reduced amounts of rutile, tourmaline and garnet. The great similarity between the distribution of pyroxenes, amphiboles and epidotes in this mineralogical assemblage and those of the main Nile sediments indicates their derivation from the Nile sediments contributed at El-Tinah bay by the old extinct Pelusaic Nile branch which poured its sediments at Tel El-Farma, to be drifted eastward by the Mediterranean long shore currents. The area between Port Said to east of Bir El-Kharoba on the northern Sinai coast is characterized by beach sediments containing a huge amount of black sands. The area from Rommana to El-Arish. The beach sands in this area were characterized by the high frequency of the ultra stable minerals (zircon, rutile and tourmaline) with considerable amounts of amphiboles, garnet and epidotes and obvious lower values of pyroxenes. The sands in this province are most probably derived from the neighboring sand dune by the northwesterly winds prevailing in the area. ii) Northern Sinai Coast 23
  24. 24.  The area between El-Arish and east of Bir El-Kharoba. The beach sands present in this area are characterized by the enrichment of amphiboles, epidotes, garnet, staurolite with considerable amounts of zircon, rutile and tourmaline. The reduced amounts of pyroxenes are also a distinctive feature of this assemblage. The main source of these sands is Wadi El- Arish which drains big quantities of fluvial sediments from both northern and central Sinai.  At El-Arish and the area around it from both eastern and western sides the beach sediments are characterized by containing a huge amount of black sand deposits, which in turn contains a number of heavy economic minerals (Osman et al, 2008).  These areas extend from 2 km West of Al Arish to the East of Sabkhat El Bardaweel over an area of 18 km2.  The total reserves in this area, to a depth of 1 m, are about 88 million tonnes with 1.1 million tonnes as proved ore.  The proved reserves to a depth of 10m are estimated by 3 million tonnes of ore. The concentration and extension of the black sands to the East of Al Arish are negligible. 24
  25. 25. ReferencesAbd El-Rahman M. K.; Youssef, M.A.; and Abdel-Khalek, N.A. (2006). Up-grading of Egyptian Ilmenite Ore of Abu Ghouson Localities The Journal of ORE DRESSING Abdel-Aal Mohamed Abdel-Karim, 2009 Petrographic and chemical characterization of Fe-Ti oxides and sulfides hosted in mafic intrusions, south Sinai, Egypt: Implication for genesis. Journal of Geology and Mining Research Vol. 1(3) pp. 076-093 Amin, M. S. (1954). The Ilmenite Deposit of Abu Ghalqa, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of Society of Economic Geologists, Vol. 49, No. 1, January 1954, pp. 77-87. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.49.1.77 Atef Helal, 2007. Proposed beneficiation and upgrading For Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite ore Mineral Processing & Extractive Metallurgy Rev.,28: 1-58, 2007 Basta, E. Z. (1959). New Data on the System Fe2O3- FeTiO3-TiO2 (Ferri-Ilmenite and Titanomagetite) ,” Proceeding Egyptian Academic Science, Cairo, Vol. 14, pp. 1-15. Basta, E. Z. and Takla, M. A. (1968). Mineralogy and Origin of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Occurrence, Eastern Desert,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 87- 124. Basta, E. Z. and Takla, M. A.(1968). Petrological Studies on Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Occurrence, Eastern Desert,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 43- 72. El-Shazly, E. M. (1959). “Report on the Ilmenite Ore at Abu Ghalaga Eastern Desert,” Unpublished Report, Geological Survey and Mineral Research Department, Cairo. Fasfous, B.R.B. and Salem, I. A. (1989): Magnetite-ilmenite-apatite mineralization in the area of Wadi Abu Ghalaga, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mansoura. Sci. Bull. 16 (1). 137-154. Hassan, M. A. (2003).Black Sands Project. A Briefing to the Egyptian Association for Mining and Petroleum, Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo. June 12 2003, p. 21. Hussein, A.E.M. (2011). Successive uranium and thorium adsorption from Egyptian monazite by solvent impregnated foam. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 289:321-329. Hussein, M.K.; Kolta, G. A.,and El-Tawil, S. Z. (1976): Removal of iron from Egyptian ilmenite. Egypt. J. Chem. 19 (1), 143– 152. Hawa, Y. (2014), 'Mineral chemistry of extraordinary ilmenite from the gabbroic rocks of Abu Ghalaga Area, eastern Desert, Egypt: evidence to metamorphic modification', World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index, Geological and Environmental Engineering, 2(8), 62 Ikonnicova, (1975). UIMS Institute, “Mineralogy and Chemical Composition of the Abu Ghalga Ilmenite Deposits: Geological Survey of Egypt (Unpublished report). Khalil, K.I. (2001): Mineralogical and geochemical studies on the origin of the Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore, Southeastern Desert, Egypt. M. E. R. C., Ain Sham Univ.,15, 94 -118 Makhlouf, A.; Beniamin, N. Y.; Mansour, M. M.; Mansour, S. A.; and El Sherbini, H. (2008). Mafic-Ultra Mafic Intrusion of South Korabkanci Area with Emphasis on Titanomagnetite Ores, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annal of Geological Survey of Egypt, Vol. 30, pp. 1-20. Nasr, B.B.; Sadek, M.F.; and Masoud, M.S. (2000). Some new occurrences of layered titanomagnetite, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annals Geol. Surv. Egypt 23, 679-690. Naim, G.; El Melegy, E. T.; and El Azab, A. (1993). Black Sand Assessment. The Egyptian Geological Survey, p. 67. Osman, A.M., A.F. El-Hadary, R.S. Mouharb and M.M. Aly, 2008. Geochemical characteristics and distribution of some economic minerals in El-Massaied – bir El- Kharoba area, El-Arish, North Sinai, Egypt, Sedimentology of Egypt, 16: 131-145. Takla MA, Basta EZ, Fawzi, E (1981). Characterization of the older and younger gabbros of Egypt. Delta. J. Sci. 5, 279-314. 25
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  27. 27. Abu Dahr Ilmenite occurrence Location: Egypt, Africa Lat / long: 23.53291, 35.11661 dep_id: 10096534 mrds_id: W029140 Commodity type: Metallic Major mineral: Titanium, Iron Operation type: Unknown Production size: No Development status: Occurrence Ore Minerals: Ilmenite, Magnetite Gangue Minerals: Chalcopyrite, Pyrrhotite, Rutile Orebody formation: lenses, bands, dike - irregular Ore control: Gabbro-Dykes Host rock_type: Gabbro Rock unit: Serpentine, Gabbro, Metamorphics Rock type: Gabbro, Serpentinite Structure: NE-SW 27
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