Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources

5,033 views

Published on

Earth Resources; Reserves and resources; Nonrenewable Mineral Resources ; What are industrial minerals?; Why are industrial minerals so important?; Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits; Classification of industrial minerals; Factors important in evaluating an industrial minerals deposit; Selected industrial rocks and minerals

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,033
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
0
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources

  1. 1. Nonmetallic Mineral Deposits Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation - Nonmetallic Deposits To Final Product From raw material Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com 2015- 2016
  2. 2. Outline of Topic : 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 2 We will explore all of the above in Topic. Earth Resources Reserves and resources Nonrenewable Mineral Resources What are industrial minerals? Why are industrial minerals so important? Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits Classification of industrial minerals General characteristics of Non-metallic Deposits Factors important in evaluating an industrial minerals deposit
  3. 3. What is a mineral? Mineral: inorganic compound that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust  Solid  Regular internal crystalline structure  Definite chemical composition. Rock is solid combination of one or more minerals. What are orebody?  are aggregates of different minerals  have high concentrations of metal bearing minerals and  are hosted in barren “country” rock {Mined country rock is referred to as gangue (or waste)}. What is an Ore Deposit?  Ore deposit is an occurrence of minerals or metals in sufficiently high concentration to be profitable to mine and process using current technology and under current economic conditions.  Ore deposits may be considered as:  Commercial mineral deposits (i.e., Ore: suitable for mining in the present times) or  Non-commercial ore deposits (i.e., Protore: problems in mining, transportation, prices....etc). 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 3
  4. 4. What is an Ore?  Ore: Rock materials that exist in quantities that can be extracted and profitably mined for a mineral (often a metal) or for minerals (metals).  An ore is a mass of mineralization within the Earth's surface which can be mined:  at a particular place;  at a particular time;  at a profit  Marketed for a profit.  Ore: refers to useful metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit and, in common usage, to some non-metallic minerals such as fluorite and sulfur.  To be considered of value, an element must be concentrated above the level of its average crustal abundance:  High Grade Ore; has high concentration of the mineral  Low Grade Ore: smaller concentration Most non-metallic minerals are generally not called ores, but rather they are called Industrial Minerals 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 4
  5. 5. What is gangue (or waste)?  Gangue (or Waste): Minerals other than ore present in a rock.  Gangue (or Waste) is mineralized rock that is removed from a mine to provide access to an underlying or nearby orebody containing at least one mineral of value. Types of Gangue (or Waste):  Typically pure barren materials;  Gangue material contained within the ore Gangue (or Waste) rock can become ore at some later point in time.  Non-Metallic / commodity prices can change  Other values are discovered within the waste  New technology is developed  Cost of environmental protection becomes too high  Non-metallic minerals has been exhausted; too costly to close the mine.  Political factors 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 5
  6. 6. Finding a Deposit 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 6 The old fashioned way of finding a mine was your prospector with a pick and shovel, a gold pan, and a lot of luck. Today, technologies used include, but are not limited to, exploration geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and satellite imagery.
  7. 7. Finding a Deposit 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 7 Geophysics  Geophysical exploration involves searching for favorable mineral deposits using the physical properties of rocks.  Geophysical investigations ground-penetrating radar studies or the use of seismic waves to show contrasting rock types.  The selected rock units of interest might then be mapped and sampled. Geochemistry  Geochemists can determine the composition of what lies below the Earth's surface by sampling soil. Soil at the surface can carry a chemical signature of what lies below, because of the movement of chemicals through the rise and fall of the water table.  Positive geochemical results from surface sampling are followed by a drilling program. Because of the great expense, drilling is only carried out when the area is very likely to contain substantial mineral deposits.  Drilling produces either rock fragments, or 'cores' of rock for sampling to determine whether the mineral deposit contains worthwhile concentrations of ore mineral Geology  Geology is the study of the planet Earth—the materials of which our planet is made, the processes that act on these materials, and the products formed.  Geologists use ground-mapping techniques to identify features seen on satellite images and aerial maps of large tracts of the continent. Remote sensing: Landsat and Satellite Imagery  Ground-based surveys are expensive, and one can often experience difficulty in mapping large-scale structures. However, large geological structures are often readily visible on satellite imagery.
  8. 8. Reserves vs. Resources Reserves Natural resources that have been discovered & can be exploited profitably with existing technology. Resources The term “resource” refers to the total amounts of a commodity of particular economic use that is present in an area. These estimates include both extractable and non-extractable amounts of this commodity. Deposits that we know or believe to exist, but that are not exploitable today because of technological, economical, or political reasons Earth Resources may be Renewable and/or Non-renewable resources 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 8
  9. 9. Compared between Renewable and Non-renewable Mineral Resources Renewable resources Non-renewable resources Resource can be replenished over relatively short time spans Significant deposits take millions of years to form; from a human perspective there are fixed quantities  Renewable can be:-  It’s a one-time only deal. i) Perpetual Renewable Resources ii) Potentially Exhaustible/ Renewable Resources  Once exploited and used the resource is gone forever.  Direct solar energy.  Energy from flowing water, sun, wind  Indirect effects related to hydrological cycle (e.g., wind, oceans, tides, running water …etc).  Alternate/futuristic energy resources:  Geothermal energy  Solar energy • Fresh Air • Fresh Water • Fertile Soil • Biodiversity: Examples include :  Plants  Animals for food  Trees for lumber Examples: Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Metals (iron, copper, uranium, gold) 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 9
  10. 10. Mineral Resources  Non-metallic mineral deposits (NM)  Industrial Minerals (IM)): Sulfur, Gypsum, Coal, Barite, Salt, Clay, Feldspar, Borax, Lime, Magnesite, Potash, Phosphates, Silica, Fluorite, Asbestos, Abrasives, Mica.  Precious stones: Gem Minerals,  Construction minerals : Stone, Sand, Gravel, Limestone  Metallic mineral deposits or (Ore mineral deposits):  Ferrous metals: Iron and Steel, Cobalt, Nickel  Non-ferrous (or base metals): Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead, Aluminum, Titanium, Manganese, Magnesium, Mercury, Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tungsten.  Precious metals: Silver, Gold, Platinum  Energy Resources(or Energy minerals):  Fossil Fuels: Coal, Oil, Natural Gas  Radioactive Minerals: Uranium  Geothermal Energy  Groundwater 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 10
  11. 11. Non-metals Metals Year 0 4 8 12 BillionCan$ 16 1985 1990 1995 2000 Industrial Minerals and Metal Production in Canada 50% 75% (Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials) ★ B.C.
  12. 12. 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 12 Fig.2: Selected raw materials consumed in the U.S., 1900-95. For this graph, construction materials (crushed stone, sand and gravel) have been separated from the remainder of the industrial minerals to illustrate the upsurge in construction following the end of World War II
  13. 13. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 13http://eps.berkeley.edu/courses/eps50/documents/lecture31.mineralresources.pdf 13
  14. 14. Fig.1: The most famous 30 ore minerals in the world according to quantity. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 14
  15. 15. Fig.2: The most famous 30 ore minerals in the world according to economic value. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 15
  16. 16. WHAT ARE NON-METALLIC MINERALS?  Non-metallic minerals are minerals that have no metallic luster and break easily. These are also called industrial materials and are typically some form of sediment. Non-metallic minerals are not malleable.  Nonmetallic minerals/ rocks like limestone, magnesite, dolomite, phosphorite, talc, quartz, mica, clay, silica sand, gemstones, decorative and dimension stones, construction materials etc. are the common nonmetallic minerals.  Sand, limestone, marble, clay and salt are all examples of non-metallic minerals. They are not recyclable because they can not be reshaped significantly and repurposed, unlike metals that can be melted down and easily reshaped into a new product. An exemption is concrete because concrete is often used from a mixture of non-metallic minerals that have been crushed or ground into small, fine pieces.  These are called INDUSTRIAL MINERALS because they are used in the creation of many different products.  For example, glass is made from sand, silica and limestone. Each type of mineral has a use for industrial means, such as abrasion, fire resistance and absorbency, that makes it necessary in industry.  Nonmetallic minerals do not have a high profit margin, despite how essential they are to modern industry. The end consumer has little desire or need to pay high prices, but transporting and mining these materials both have relatively high costs. Because these materials are so necessary, though, companies continue gathering the materials for use in factories and product creation. 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 16
  17. 17. Coal, Gas, Oil, Uranium Iron ore, Niobium, Tantalum Gold, Silver, Platinum Diamond, Gems Brick, building stone, cement, clay, crushed rock aggregate, gypsum, sand, slate, gravel Bentonite, industrial carbonates, kaolin, magnesia, potash, salt, sand, silica, sulphur Bauxite/aluminium , cobalt, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum Jewellery, Monetary, industrial Construction Jewellery, industrial Ceramics, chemical, foundry casting, fillers/pigments, fuel, gas, iron, steel, metallurgy, water treatment Construction, electrical/electronic , engineering, manufacturing Aerospace, contruction, electronic, engineering, manufacturing , steel making Electricity, organic chemical/plastics, process fuel, transportation Energy minerals Non-metallic mineralsMetallic minerals Mineral Resources Precious metals Ferrous metals Base metals Construction minerals Industrial minerals Precious stones End Use Groundwater
  18. 18. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 18 Non-metallic (NM) Mineral Resources: not mined to extract a metal or an energy source. Noncombustible solid rocks or minerals used in industry and construction in natural form or after mechanical, thermal, or chemical processing or for the extraction of nonmetallic elements or their compounds. The variety of the composition and properties of nonmetallic minerals determines the complex nature of their use. Nonmetallic minerals are ordinarily divided into four groups on the basis of the field in which they are used: (1) Chemical raw materials (apatite, halite, sylvinite, carnallite, bischofite, polyhalite, native sulfur, celestite, barite, borosilicates, nitrates, natural salt, and so on), most of which are used to produce mineral fertilizers; (2) Metallurgical raw materials, including nonmetallic minerals used to produce refractories (refractory clays, dolomite, magnesite, quartzite, and so on), as fluxes (limestones, dolomites, quartzites, and fluorite) and molding materials (molding clays and sands), and agglomerations of fine ore (bentonite clays); (3) Construction materials, including nonmetallic construction materials (granite, labradorite, diorite, limestone, dolomite, marble, quartzite, tuff, sandstone, and so on), ceramic and glass raw materials (high-melting clays, sands, kaolins, feldspar, wollastoite, and rhyolites), raw material for the production of binders (low-melting clays, limestone,and marl), mineral dies (ochers and colcothar), and thermal and acoustic insulation materials (perlite and vermiculite); (4) Nonmetallic non ore raw materials, represented by the (a) industrial crystals (diamond, piezo quartz, Iceland spar, muscovite, phlogopite, and agate) and precious and (b) semiprecious stones (jewelry diamond, emerald, topaz, ruby, agate, malachite, turquoise, jasper, and amber). (c ) Asbestos, talc, graphite, and abrasive materials (corundum and emery) are also ordinarily classed with this group. As technology develops, the group of nonmetallic minerals is growing steadily through industrial use of rocks and minerals not formerly used in industry (perlite and wollastonite). WHAT ARE NON-METALLIC MINERALS?
  19. 19. Non-metallic Resources • Non-metallic resources - not mined to extract a metal or an energy source.  Construction Materials • sand, gravel, limestone, and gypsum  Agriculture • phosphate, nitrate and potassium compounds.  Industrial uses • rock salt, sulfur  Gemstones • diamonds, rubies, etc.  Household and Business Products • glass sand, diatomite 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 19
  20. 20. Non-metallic Mineral Resources 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 20
  21. 21. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 21 Typical examples of natural Industrial Mineral Deposits :  Clays  Silica sand  Talc  Limestone/chalk  Gypsum  Pumice  Potash  Carbonate Minerals  Evaporite Salts  Phosphate  Sulphur made from: Mullite bauxite, kaolin Aluminas bauxite Silicon carbide quartz + coke ppt calcium carbonate lime & CO2 Spinel magnesite + alumina Soda salt + limestone + coal + ammonia Fused minerals alumina, magnesia, spinel Typical examples of synthetic IM: What are Non-metallic Deposits?
  22. 22. Steps in Obtaining Mineral Commodities 1) Prospecting: finding places where non-metallic minerals occur. 2) Mine exploration and development: learn whether non-metallic minerals can be extracted economically. 3) Mining: extract non-metallic minerals from ground. 4) Beneficiation: separate non-metallic minerals from other mined rock. (Mill) 5) Refining: extract pure mineral commodity from the ore mineral (get the good stuff out of waste rock) (Refinery) 6) Transportation: carry commodity to market. 7) Marketing and Sales: Find buyers and sell the commodity. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 22
  23. 23. Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 23 Geology provides the framework in which mineral exploration and the integrated procedures of remote sensing, geophysics, and geochemistry are planned and interpreted.
  24. 24. Non-metallic mineral deposits life cycle Supply Sector exploration mineral finance plant engineering mining processing Logistics Sector trading port handling mineral inspection freight warehousing/distribution Consuming Market Sector direct market mineral consumer intermediate market mineral consumer end market mineral consumer SUPPLY DEMAND
  25. 25. 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 25 Mine to market supply chain Supply sector Logistics sector Consuming market sector • centres of high population • their economy - the driver • directly influence demand for NM
  26. 26. Why are Non-Metallic Deposits so important? 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 26 26
  27. 27. Nonmetallic Deposits in your kitchen 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 27 IM in your kitchen Glass/glasses/ light bulbs silica sand, limestone, soda ash, borates, feldspar, lithium Ceramic tiles/mugs/ plates ….etc. kaolin, feldspar, talc, wollastonite, borates, alumina, zirconia Paint TiO2, kaolin, mica, talc, wollastonite, GCC, silica Plastic white goods eg. fridge, washer talc, GCC, kaolin, mica, wollastonite, flame retardants (ATH, Mg(OH)2) Wooden flooring treatment materials- borates, chromite Drinking water treatment materials- lime, zeolites Wine/beer diatomite, perlite filters Salt salt Sugar lime in processing Detergents/soap borates, soda ash, phosphates Surfaces marble, granite Books kaolin, talc, GCC, lime, TiO2 in paper Oven glass petalite, borates Heating elements fused magnesia insulators Wallboard/plaster gypsum, flame retardants Metal pots/cutlery mineral fluxes & refractories in smelting
  28. 28. Why are NM so important? 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 28 Main consuming market mineral sectors Abrasives Foundry Absorbents Glass Agricultural Metallurgy Cement Paint Ceramics Pigments Chemicals Paper Construction Plastics Oil well drilling Refractories Electronics Flame retardants Filtration Welding
  29. 29. General characteristics of Non-metallic Deposits 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 29  Highest volume and tonnage  low value, but vital commodities  High total value  Prices are more stable  NM are prerequisite raw materials for a wide range of industrial and domestic products  Recycling is not much of an issue  Price of the unit value is so low that transportation becomes a major issue  Rarely exported.  Feasibility study: Often need to find a market before looking for a nearby deposit  Depending on their uses, product purity and grain size may become very important factors in deciding the suitability and price of the commodity  NM support and add value to industrial sectors  Market demand drives NM supply
  30. 30. Classification of Non-metallic Deposits 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 30  End-use and genesis (Bates, 1960)  By unit price and bulk (Burnett, 1962)  Unit value, place value, representative value (Fisher, 1969)  Chemical and physical properties (Kline, 1970)  Geologic occurrence and end-use (Dunn, 1973)  Geology of origin (Harben and Bates, 1984)  Alphabetical (Harben and Bates, 1990; Carr, 1994)
  31. 31. Classification of Non-metallic deposits (Cont.) Rock classification Mineral classification A) Igneous Rocks  Granite  Basalt and diabase  Pumice and pumicite  Perlite B) Metamorphic Rocks  Slate  Marble  Serpentinite  Schist  Gneiss C) Sedimentary Rocks  Sand and gravel  Sandstone  Clay  Limestone and dolomite  Phosphate rock  Gypsum  Salt A) Igneous Minerals  Nepheline syenite  Feldspar  Mica  Lithium minerals  Beryl B) Vein and Replacement Minerals  Quartz crystal  Fluorspar  Barite  Magnesite C) Metamorphic Minerals  Graphite  Asbestos  Talc  Vermiculite  Emerald D) Sedimentary Minerals and sulfur  Diatomite  Potash minerals  Sodium minerals  Borate  Nitrates  Sulfur
  32. 32. Factors important in evaluating a Non-metallic deposits 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 32  Customer specifications  Distance to customer (transportation)  Ore grade--concentration of the commodity in the deposit  By-products  Commodity prices  Mineralogical form  Grain size and shape  Undesirable substances  Size and shape of deposit  Ore character  Cost of capital  Location  Environmental consequences/ reclamation/bonding  Land status  Taxation  Political factors
  33. 33. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC MINERALS DEPOSITS 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 33 Metallic Minerals Non-Metallic Minerals Metallic mineral are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products. Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting. Iron, copper, bauxite, gold, tin, manganese are some examples. Coal, salt, clay, salt, sulfur, marble are some examples. These are generally associated with igneous/metamorphic rocks. These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks. They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own. They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own. They are ductile and malleable They are not ductile and malleable. When hit, they do not get broken. When hit, they may got broken into pieces.

×