Egypt Civilization and Geology

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Egypt: Civilization and Geology, Geologic Time Scale and Pharonic civilization, bedrock outcrop in Egypt, non-metallic, resource

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Egypt Civilization and Geology

  1. 1. Egypt Civilization and Geology Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com
  2. 2. TYPES OF ROCKS - The Rock Cycle
  3. 3. The Geologic Time Scale
  4. 4. EGYPT BEDROCK
  5. 5. BEDROCK OF EGYPT Top Layer Limestones Intermediate Layer Sandstone The Basement Complex Igneous Rocks And Metamorphic
  6. 6. BEDROCK OF EGYPT Top Layer Limestones Intermediate Layer Sandstone The Basement Complex Igneous Rocks And Metamorphic
  7. 7. BEDROCK OF EGYPT Top Layer Limestones Intermediate Layer Sandstone The Basement Complex Igneous Rocks And Metamorphic
  8. 8. BEDROCK OF EGYPT Top Layer Limestones Intermediate Layer Sandstone The Basement Complex Igneous Rocks And Metamorphic
  9. 9. BEDROCK OF EGYPT Top Layer Limestones Intermediate Layer Sandstone The Basement Complex Igneous Rocks And Metamorphic
  10. 10. According to the “Rock Cycle,” New IGNEOUS ROCK can be made from: A.) Sedimentary Rock B.) Metamorphic Rock C.) Older Igneous Rock D.) All of the Above E.) Only A and B F.) None of the Above – It Only Comes from the Mantle
  11. 11. The Geologic Time Scale Precambrian 0.59 billion (590 million) to 4.6 billion years ago SW (West Nile Craton) 2 billion years ago Eastern Desert and Sinai 0.5 to 1 billion years ago The BASEMENT COMPLEX
  12. 12. The Past
  13. 13. THE BASEMENT COMPLEX Continuous Beneath The Entire Country Southwest at Gebel Uweinat
  14. 14. THE BASEMENT COMPLEX Continuous Beneath The Entire Country Southwest at Gebel Uweinat Scattered southern portions of the Western Desert
  15. 15. THE BASEMENT COMPLEX Continuous Beneath The Entire Country Southern Portion of the Sinai Southwest at Gebel Uweinat Scattered southern portions of the Western Desert
  16. 16. THE BASEMENT COMPLEX Continuous Beneath The Entire Country High Mountains Eastern Desert Southern Portion of the Sinai Southwest at Gebel Uweinat Scattered southern portions of the Western Desert
  17. 17. THE BASEMENT COMPLEX Continuous Beneath The Entire Country High Mountains Eastern Desert Southern Portion of the Sinai Aswan at the First Nile Cataract Southwest at Gebel Uweinat Scattered southern portions of the Western Desert
  18. 18. BASEMENT COMPLEX Sinai Area Metamorphic Rocks Cut by Igneous Intrusions Photos by: Alan Kehew
  19. 19. THE PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS OF EGYPT ARE COMPOSED OF: A.) Igneous Rocks B.) Metamorphic Rocks C.) Sedimentary Rocks D.) All of the Above E.) Only A and B
  20. 20. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  21. 21. The Past
  22. 22. Figure 3-39ACONTINENTAL DRIFT Late Paleozoic Tethys Sea Late Paleozoic
  23. 23. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  24. 24. The Geologic Time Scale late Cretaceous 80 million to 90 million years ago INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Nubian Sandstone
  25. 25. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Nubian Sandstone • medium-sized silica gains • loosely cemented with quartz and iron oxide (ferruginous) cements and chlorite clays • highly porous and friable easy to quarry and carve • strength – sparse but always present due to quartz cement • iron produces yellow-red-brown color • manganese sometimes present produces purple to black color
  26. 26. EGYPT BEDROCK Nubian Sandstone exposed in southern Egypt (1/3 of country) and in northern Nubia (Sudan)
  27. 27. THE NUBIAN SANDSTONE OF EGYPT IS: A.) Well Cemented, Very Dense and Hard B.) Moderately Cemented and Reasonably Durable due to Quartz Cement C.) Poorly Cemented and NO Use as a Building Stone D.) Only Found as Loose Sand in Wide-spread Sand Sheets throughout the Western Desert E.) Never Exposed at the Surface
  28. 28. The Geologic Time Scale late Cretaceous 80 million to 90 million years ago INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Nubian Sandstone Basement Complex UNCONFORMITY (MISSING ROCK) Basement Complex Uplifted, Weathered and Eroded Away
  29. 29. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  30. 30. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  31. 31. The Geologic Time Scale late Cretaceous 80 million to 90 million years ago INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) overlays a layer of Shale Nubian Sandstone
  32. 32. Facies Development Marine Transgressions and Regressions General Model
  33. 33. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  34. 34. INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene – 55 to 65 million years ago Shale (mud) Late Cretaceous – 80 to 90 million years ago Fine, White Limestone (often called Chalk) Shale (mud) Nubian Sandstone
  35. 35. The Geologic Time Scale Paleocene 55 million to 65 million years ago INTERMEDIATE ROCK UNITS Paleocene Shale (Text book refers to this as part of the Cretaceous Limestone and Shale Package)
  36. 36. Facies Development Marine Transgressions and Regressions General Model
  37. 37. EGYPT BEDROCK Paleocene Shale Cretaceous Shale and Limestone
  38. 38. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows • Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  39. 39. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  40. 40. The Geologic Time Scale Eocene 38 million to 55 million years ago UPPER ROCK UNITS Eocene Limestone Giza Plateau and Pyramids are composed of Eocene Limestone
  41. 41. UPPER ROCK UNITS Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago Limestone • thickness varies due to deposition on folded substrate (north-south compression at end of Cretaceous Period) • composition varies due to deposition during transgression of Tethys Sea • various members (sub-layers) can be distinguished • units become thicker basinward toward the north due to that portion always being covered by the transgressing Tethys Sea • units dip gently to the north due to post-depositional tectonic uplift
  42. 42. EGYPT BEDROCK Eocene Limestone exposed in central Egypt north to Cairo
  43. 43. LIMESTONE WOULD BE EXPECTED TO OCCUR ______________ THE ROCK SEQUENCE DUE TO A TRANSGRESSIVE EVENT (RISE IN SEA LEVEL) A.) at the Top of B.) at the Bottom of C.) at the Middle of D.) Throughout E.) Nowhere in
  44. 44. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows • Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  45. 45. The Geologic Time Scale Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago UPPER ROCK UNITS • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows in SW near Gebel Uweinat, Gilf Kebir, north of Fayum to NE of Cairo • Tethys Sea coast-latitude of Fayum Depression & Cairo • Conglomerates with land animal fossils and large tree trunks deposited in streams along coast
  46. 46. EGYPT BEDROCK Basalt sheet flows in SW near Gebel Uweinat
  47. 47. EGYPT BEDROCK Basalt sheet flows near Gilf Kebir Basalt sheet flows in SW near Gebel Uweinat
  48. 48. EGYPT BEDROCK Basalt sheet flows near Gilf Kebir Basalt sheet flows in SW near Gebel Uweinat Basalt sheet flows north of Fayum to NE of Cairo
  49. 49. EGYPT BEDROCK Tethys Sea coast at latitude of Fayum Depression & Cairo Conglomerates with land animal fossils and large tree trunks deposited in streams along coast
  50. 50. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows • Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  51. 51. The Geologic Time Scale Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago UPPER ROCK UNITS Limestones deposited south of modern Mediterranean Sea coast and Gulf of Suez coast (early-mid Miocene)
  52. 52. EGYPT BEDROCK Limestones deposited south of modern Mediterranean Sea coast and Gulf of Suez coast (early-mid Miocene)
  53. 53. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows • Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  54. 54. TRUE or FLASE Extensive, area-wide erosion took place during the Pliocene due to a regression (relative drop in sea level or tectonic rise in land elevation)
  55. 55. The Geologic Time Scale Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago UPPER ROCK UNITS • Seas retreated probably land uplifted • Erosion and denudation variable throughout Egypt • Bedrock exposed as erosion proceeded
  56. 56. UPPER ROCK UNITS Present • Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai Pliocene 5.1 to 2 million years ago • Seas retreat - Erosion and Denudation Miocene 24.6 to 5.1 million years ago • Limestones Oligocene 38 to 24.6 million years ago • Regional Tectonics as Red Sea begins to open • Basalt sheet flows • Conglomerates along coast Eocene – 38 million to 55 million years ago • Limestone
  57. 57. The Geologic Time Scale Present UPPER ROCK UNITS Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley, Sand Sheets and Dunes in the Western Desert and Sinai
  58. 58. EGYPT BEDROCK Alluvium deposited in Nile River Valley Sand Sheets and Dunes deposited in the Western Desert Sand Sheets and Dunes deposited in the Sinai Delta Growth
  59. 59. Egypt Civilization and Geology

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