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Lecture # 13
CRUDE OIL
FITUREs
TRADING
Futures trading is risky and not suitable
for everyone. Past performance is not
ind...
Outline of Lecture
1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS
Why Trade Futures?
How to Start Trading Crude Oil Futures
1.1) Hedg...
1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS
In this era of globalization and internet, trading around the world has become very s...
1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS…(Cont.)
 Crude Oil futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts in which the c...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 5
To buy or sell crude oil futures, you need to open a
trading account with a broker that handles fut...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 6
1.1) Hedging
 A producer can sell futures or buy put options to ensure a minimum level of
prices.
...
Oil futures are derivative securities that give the holder the right
to purchase oil at a specified price (similar to how ...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 8
Crude Oil Futures Short Hedge vs. Crude Oil Futures Long Hedge
Crude Oil
Futures
Short Hedge Long H...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 9
1.2) Speculation
 Speculators assume the price risk that hedgers try to avoid in return for a
poss...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 10
Long future position vs Short future position
 Brent is a field in the UK North Sea.
 The market consists of:
A “spot” market;
A “physical forward” market;
A “futu...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 13
2.3) The Forward Market, or “15-day Brent”
 The 15-day cargo is a standard parcel (500,000 barrel...
14
2.5) How is the Market Cleared?
 Brent/WTI are not the marginal crudes that balance demand and supply.
 Yet, it is Br...
Why oil producing countries like reference pricing?
 Accepting pricing out of a marker implies that producers are giving ...
 A paper barrel is an oil cargo which is sold and traded on the open market, but not actually
shipped; essentially, the c...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 17
18
3) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT SWEET CRUDE AND
BRENT CRUDE TRADING
You must have heard names such as Brent or WTI. We are ...
4) CRUDE OIL TRADING CONTRACTS
i) Future contracts:
is an agreement that represents a specific quantity of the underlying...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
5) CRUDE OIL FUTURES CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS
 Oil futures are derivative securities that give the holder the right to pur...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 24
5.3) The Underlying
Each futures contract represents a specific underlying asset to be delivered o...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572
Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is ...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 27
Crude Oil Futures are quoted in dollars
and cents per barrel.
© Hassan Harraz 2016 28
5.5) Price Quotation
 Spot Prices and futures prices are different quotes for different types of ...
© Hassan Harraz 2016 29
5.6) Grade of Deliverable
The grade not only specifies the quality of the underlying but also the ...
Every futures contract has standardized months at which the underlying can
be traded for delivery.
Crude Oil Futures trade...
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© Hassan Harraz 2016
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Crude Oil Fitures Trading

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CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS; Hedging; Speculation; Complex Strategies; FUTURES OF CRUDE OIL MARKET; Spot Market, Dated Brent; WTI prices; DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT SWEET CRUDE AND BRENT CRUDE TRADING; CRUDE OIL TRADING CONTRACTS; CRUDE OIL FUTURES CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS

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Crude Oil Fitures Trading

  1. 1. Lecture # 13 CRUDE OIL FITUREs TRADING Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. © Hassan Harraz 2016
  2. 2. Outline of Lecture 1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS Why Trade Futures? How to Start Trading Crude Oil Futures 1.1) Hedging 1.2) Speculation 1.2.1) Example of a Futures Trade 1.3) Complex Strategies 2) THE FUTURES OF CRUDE OIL MARKET 2.1) The Market for Brent 2.2) The Spot Market, or “Dated Brent” 2.3) The Forward Market, or “15-day Brent” 2.4) The Structure of the Oil Market 2.5) How is the Market Cleared? 2.6) The Feedback Issue 2.7) OPEC and Brent / WTI prices 2.8) Other influences 3) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT SWEET CRUDE AND BRENT CRUDE TRADING 4) CRUDE OIL TRADING CONTRACTS 5) CRUDE OIL FUTURES CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS 5.1) Symbol 5.2) Contract Size (or Trading Unit) 5.3) The Underlying 5.4) Exchange 5.5) Price Quotation 5.6) Grade of Deliverable 5.7) Delivery Date 5.8) Last Trading Day 5.9) Delivery Months © Hassan Harraz 2016
  3. 3. 1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS In this era of globalization and internet, trading around the world has become very simple. Now People are doing trading sitting right in their homes but there is yet a trading field which has very high profit potentials and is still unexplored. This field is none other than Oil trading. Trading oil is exactly the same as trading Forex, stocks , or anything ….else. Oil Trading, as opposed to buying shares, allows two big advantages:  The first is that we can profit from falling prices just the same as rising prices, by selling rather than buying.  The second is 'leverage' which allows us to effectively buy huge quantities with just a small deposit.  This means we can pocket a decent profit from a small move up or down in price. Of course, this is potentially risky but we always put in an automatic 'stop loss' to close the trade. So, that if the price moves against us by a set amount then we can control the damage. Likewise, we put in an automatic 'limit' to close the trade for a set profit. Many Forex brokers also allow you to trade oil. The amount of capital you require for oil trading varies from broker to broker but most will trade mini contracts and need only a few hundred dollars in your account. There are two types of Prices going on in the Oil market, namely spot price and future price: The futures price is simply an estimated price for oil for delivery at a set date in the near future. It really makes no difference to our trading. Trade in crude oil futures these various markets is relatively simple because all the same basic factors that contribute to the economic and in their prices.  Trade in crude oil futures these various markets is relatively simple because all the same basic factors that contribute to the economic and in their prices. © Hassan Harraz 2016 3
  4. 4. 1) CRUDE OIL FUTURES TRADING BASICS…(Cont.)  Crude Oil futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts in which the contract buyer agrees to take delivery, from the seller, a specific quantity of crude oil (eg. 1000 barrels) at a predetermined price on a future delivery date.  A futures contract is a standardized contract that calls for the delivery of a specific quantity of a specific product at some time in the future at a predetermined price. Futures contracts are derivative instruments very similar to forward contracts but they differ in some aspects.  Futures contracts are traded in futures exchanges worldwide.  Consumers and producers of crude oil can manage crude oil price risk by purchasing and selling crude oil futures. Crude Oil producers can employ a short hedge to lock in a selling price for the crude oil they produce while businesses that require crude oil can utilize a long hedge to secure a purchase price for the commodity they need.  Crude Oil futures are also traded by speculators who assume the price risk that hedgers try to avoid in return for a chance to profit from favorable crude oil price movement. Speculators buy crude oil futures when they believe that crude oil prices will go up. Conversely, they will sell crude oil futures when they think that crude oil prices will fall. Last thing, do keep in mind that …Oil Trading in futures involves a high degree of risk and is not suitable for all investors. © Hassan Harraz 2016 4
  5. 5. © Hassan Harraz 2016 5 To buy or sell crude oil futures, you need to open a trading account with a broker that handles futures trades. Most online brokerages out there only deal with stocks and stock options. The primary purpose of the futures market is to allow those who wish to manage price risk (the hedgers) to transfer that risk to those who are willing to take that risk (the speculators) in return for an opportunity to profit. How to Start Trading Crude Oil Futures Why Trade Futures?
  6. 6. © Hassan Harraz 2016 6 1.1) Hedging  A producer can sell futures or buy put options to ensure a minimum level of prices.  A large consumer can buy futures or a call option to ensure against very high prices  Major companies are on both sides of the market and may be doing both things at the same time.  Producers and manufacturers can make use of the futures market to hedge the price risk of commodities that they need to purchase or sell in order to protect their profit margins.  Businesses employ a long hedge to lock in the price of a raw material that they wish to purchase some time in the future.  To lock in a selling price for a product to be sold in the future, a short hedge is used.
  7. 7. Oil futures are derivative securities that give the holder the right to purchase oil at a specified price (similar to how stock options work). Oil futures are one of the most liquid investments because of the high volume that is traded every day. In fact, they are one of the most actively traded future on the market. Investing in oil futures can be a great strategy. There are opportunities for investors as well as risks. Before you start investing in oil futures, make sure you know what you are doing. Know what affects the prices of oil and when the best time is to purchase. Even the professionals get timing wrong, so be realistic with yourself before you commit to investing. © Hassan Harraz 2016 7
  8. 8. © Hassan Harraz 2016 8 Crude Oil Futures Short Hedge vs. Crude Oil Futures Long Hedge Crude Oil Futures Short Hedge Long Hedge Definition Hedging Against Falling Crude Oil Prices using Crude Oil Futures Hedging Against Rising Crude Oil Prices using Crude Oil Futures Crude Oil producers sell:  can hedge against falling crude oil price by taking up a position in the crude oil futures market. can employ what is known as a short hedge to lock in a future selling price for an ongoing production of crude oil that is only ready for sale sometime in the future. To implement the short hedge {i.e., crude oil producers sell (short)} enough crude oil futures contracts in the futures market to cover the quantity of crude oil to be produced. Businesses that need to buy significant quantities of crude oil can hedge against rising crude oil price by taking up a position in the crude oil futures market. can employ what is known as a long hedge to secure a purchase price for a supply of crude oil that they will require sometime in the future. To implement the long hedge, enough crude oil futures are to be purchased to cover the quantity of crude oil required by the business operator. Risk/Reward Tradeoff The downside of the short hedge: is that the crude oil seller would have been better off without the hedge if the price of the commodity went up. An alternative way of hedging against falling crude oil prices while still be able to benefit from a rise in crude oil price is to buy crude oil put options.  The downside of the long hedge: is that the crude oil buyer would have been better off without the hedge if the price of the commodity fell.  An alternative way of hedging against rising crude oil prices while still be able to benefit from a fall in crude oil price is to buy crude oil call options.
  9. 9. © Hassan Harraz 2016 9 1.2) Speculation  Speculators assume the price risk that hedgers try to avoid in return for a possibility of profits. They have no commercial interest in the underlying commodities and are motivated purely by the potential for profits. Although this makes them appear to be mere gamblers, speculators do play an important role in the futures market.  Without speculators bridging the gap between buyers and sellers with a commercial interest, the market will be less fluid, less efficient and more volatile.  Futures speculators take up a long futures position when they believe that the price of the underlying will rise. They take up a short futures position when they believe that the price of the underlying will fall. 1.2.1) Example of a Futures Trade In March, a speculator bullish on soybeans purchased one May Soybeans futures at $9.60 per bushel. Each Soybeans futures contract represents 5000 bushels and requires an initial margin of $3500. To open the futures position, $3500 is debited from his trading account and held by the exchange clearinghouse. Come May, the price of soybeans has gone up to $10 per bushel. Since the price has gone up by $0.40 per bushel, the speculator can exit his futures position with a profit of $0.40 x 5000 bushels = $2000. 1.3) Complex Strategies  A producer can at the same time buy a put option and sell a call option: in the first step he acquires a guarantee of future revenue, in the second he gives up the extra profit from potential price peaks.  The purchase of a put is financed by the sale of a call. The combination of a put and a call is called a “Collar”.
  10. 10. © Hassan Harraz 2016 10 Long future position vs Short future position
  11. 11.  Brent is a field in the UK North Sea.  The market consists of: A “spot” market; A “physical forward” market; A “futures” market – based at the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) in London 2.1) The Market for Brent 2.2) The Spot Market, (Cash Price) or “Dated Brent”  “Dated Brent” refers to : Platts Dated Brent is a benchmark assessment of the price of physical, light North Sea crude oil. the sale of a specific cargo that is either available in a specific loading slot or that is already loaded and in transit to some destination. physical cargoes of crude oil in the North Sea that have been assigned specific delivery dates.  Main characteristics: Transactions are bilateral, Over the counter (OTC), For variable quantities. © Hassan Harraz 2016 11 2) THE FUTURES OF CRUDE OIL MARKET
  12. 12. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. In the crude oil industry, there are oil names (such as Brent Light Crude Oil and Bonny Light) and there are oil types (such as light, heavy, sweet and sour). The world market prefers light, sweet crude oil, largely because it requires less refinement and production time before going to market. © Hassan Harraz 2016 12
  13. 13. © Hassan Harraz 2016 13 2.3) The Forward Market, or “15-day Brent”  The 15-day cargo is a standard parcel (500,000 barrels) that will be made available by the seller to the buyer on an unspecified day of the relevant month.  The clearing involves book-outs or seller’s nominations, which can take place on any day in the period starting fifteen days before the beginning of the relevant month and closing eighteen days before its end.  As dated Brent, 15-day Brent is bilateral and OTC – but it is standardized.  The futures market was launched by the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE – today International Commodity Exchange - ICE) in 1988  1 contract = 1000 barrels.  Contract based on cash settlement and not on physical delivery  If a contract is allowed to expire the settlement price is the Brent index  Central exchange and clearing house rather than bilateral trades  Several months traded 2.4) The Structure of the Oil Market  At the center, we find the market for Brent and WTI, which influence each other  Brent and WTI trade few physical and lots of paper barrels  Paper and wet barrels influence each other, but paper barrels are more important  Smaller markets, such as ANS and Dubai, are influenced by Brent and WTI  Other Crudes  All other major crudes are priced on the basis of formulas which tie them to Brent or WTI.  The producing countries oppose the free trading of their crudes, and restrict destination and secondary trading.  Formulas are modified from time to time, but the essence remains.
  14. 14. 14 2.5) How is the Market Cleared?  Brent/WTI are not the marginal crudes that balance demand and supply.  Yet, it is Brent/WTI that make the price.  The implication is that demand and supply are not necessarily balanced: OPEC and other operators manage supply and/or stocks, given the price. 2.6) The Feedback Issue Given this market structure, operators that have no interest in Brent crude trade in Brent futures and options, to manage their risk In this way, a certain feedback is obtained between the global physical oil market and Brent However, such feedback is limited and partial The feedback would be greater if all operators hedged systematically; in that case, an excess of demand would raise the price of calls, financial intermediaries would lower the price of puts, producers would be incentivated… 2.7) OPEC and Brent / WTI prices  OPEC has no direct control on Brent/WTI prices. It attempts to exert an influence through signaling and decisions on quotas.  But quotas are never fully implemented, and in any case are but one of the elements at play: Brent’s price response to quota shifts is unpredictable. 2.8) Other influences  Refined products markets also have a feedback on Brent and WTI, but the prevailing influence is in the opposite direction.  Except in the US and UK, the price of natural gas is also indexed to crude or products prices  Only the price of coal is truly independent of Brent and WTI© Hassan Harraz 2016
  15. 15. Why oil producing countries like reference pricing?  Accepting pricing out of a marker implies that producers are giving up on an important role.  They should naturally be price makers, instead are price takers.  Why? First and foremost because in the past they failed in the management of posted prices.  Setting up a market for a major crude, such as e.g. Arabian Light, is not easy because there is just one seller.  The seller does not want the responsibility of making prices, because he is afraid of international political pressure or domestic dissension. Why there is no Arabian Light market? © Hassan Harraz 2016 15
  16. 16.  A paper barrel is an oil cargo which is sold and traded on the open market, but not actually shipped; essentially, the cargo is passed back and forth on paper, hence the name "Paper Barrel."  Obviously at some point the cargo of oil will be delivered, but it may have changed hands several times in paper barrel form before delivery actually happens.  Trading in paper barrels, as you might imagine, can drive the price of oil up considerably, and in periods when oil prices appear to be rising precipitously, many people suspect that trading in paper barrels may be the culprit.  The idea of trading goods on paper but not actually taking delivery is actually fairly old, as is speculation in such cargoes.  Many areas have a long history of futures trading for things like pork bellies, wheat, corn, and so forth. Futures trading had its origins in farmers who would travel to an urban area to get contracts to sell their crops in advance of actually having a crop to sell.  By reaching an agreed-upon price early, many farmers hoped to ensure a base profit for their crop, but they were also making a bet that crop prices wouldn't rise substantially. What is a paper barrel? © Hassan Harraz 2016 16  Most participants in the futures market are there to manage their risk, not to acquire Brent crude.  Buying and selling Brent futures and options is an effective strategy because other crude prices follow Brent movements. Why so many Paper Barrels?
  17. 17. © Hassan Harraz 2016 17
  18. 18. 18 3) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT SWEET CRUDE AND BRENT CRUDE TRADING You must have heard names such as Brent or WTI. We are going to have a short view of the difference between Light Sweet Crude and Brent Crude Trading for more understanding of the market you’re earning  Brent or WTI, both are the most important varieties of oil. According to oil density, it is divided into various categories. Each type of oil does not differ only in the gravity, but also in the molecular characteristics, in the composition of elements and the content of sulfur.  The prices of the Oil varieties are also different. But here, there is an interesting thing to note that unlike other commodities, a higher quality oil variety may not be costing more than the lower quality Oil and it’s quite possible that lower quality oil may be costing more. Below I discuss the two main varieties in relation to oil trading.  First oil variety is called WTI (West Texas Intermediate). This is the most important variety. This oil is also known as Texas Light Sweet (Sweet Texas Crude). This oil is extracted in the U.S. Its most important center is Cushing in Oklahoma. WTI is in the best varieties.  WTI oil price is the most important price. That is, if you read a story in which the oil reaches $100 a barrel, it is the variety WTI. The WTI price is the global reference point (benchmark) of oil. However, many debates that despite of WTI quality, it does not represent the type of oil which should represent the world price.  It should also be noted that it is increasingly difficult to extract oil of this quality and gradually the quality is also going down. It is listed on the NYMEX in New York.  Second Oil variety is called BRENT. This is one of the most important types of oil. In fact it is a mixture of varieties: Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg, Ekofisk, Forties .It is also known as Brent Blend.  The price of Brent is used to price two thirds of all international oil business. This type of oil is also used as a point of reference, and we can see it in the news and newspapers. Brent crude produced in the North Sea, is a high quality oil (less than WTI).It trades on the ICE.  Although, the WTI crude oil is of better quality but it happens that BRENT oil costs more than WTI. Around four to five years ago, the difference between the price of Brent and WTI was around 10 USD.  In recent days, due to the lack of capacity for refinement, WTI began to lose its attachment to the world price and now despite having more quality, it is cheaper than Brent. Another thing to note here is that the oil prices are directly related to the political situation of the world.  Various political forces change the prices in their favour by increasing or decreasing the supply. So, if you are interested in oil trading whether it is light sweet crude or Brent crude trading then you must remain up-to-date in international news or at least news of major oil producing countries. © Hassan Harraz 2016
  19. 19. 4) CRUDE OIL TRADING CONTRACTS i) Future contracts: is an agreement that represents a specific quantity of the underlying commodity to be delivered some time in the future for a pre-agreed price. Unlike options, buyers and sellers of futures contracts are obligated to take or make delivery of the underlying asset on settlement date. ii) Option contracts: is an agreement between a buyer and seller that gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy or sell a particular asset at a later date at an agreed upon price. Options contracts are often used in securities, commodities, and real estate transactions. Options characteristically exist in one of two forms: Call options, which give the beneficiary the right to require the grantor to sell or convey the property to them at the agreed price on exercise Put options, which give the beneficiary the right to require the grantor to buy or receive the property at the agreed price on exercise. Call and put options may be combined to design complex risk management strategies. Trading Symbol:  Futures: CL  Options: LO What are options for?  Any buyer or seller on the petroleum market faces a price risk.  Options and futures allow parties facing a structural risk to limit that risk, “selling” it to speculators (or “insurers”). © Hassan Harraz 2016 19
  20. 20. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. One other important note to keep in mind is that purchasing an oil contract gives you ownership of 1,000 barrels of crude oil. This means that for every one dollar change in the price of oil, you will have a profit or loss of $1,000 per contract. This aspect of futures even further adds to the risk and volatility of investing in oil futures. © Hassan Harraz 2016 20
  21. 21. 5) CRUDE OIL FUTURES CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS  Oil futures are derivative securities that give the holder the right to purchase oil at a specified price (similar to how stock options work).  Oil futures are one of the most liquid investments because of the high volume that is traded every day. In fact, they are one of the most actively traded future on the market.  The world market prefers light, sweet crude oil, largely because it requires less refinement and production time before going to market.  Light crude oil is more desirable than heavy oil because it produces higher yields of gasoline, while sweet oil commands a higher price of oil.  Investing in oil futures can be a great strategy. There are opportunities for investors as well as risks. Before you start investing in oil futures, make sure you know what you are doing. Know what affects the prices of oil and when the best time is to purchase. Even the professionals get timing wrong, so be realistic with yourself before you commit to investing. © Hassan Harraz 2016 21 5.1) Symbol Each futures contract traded in a futures exchange is identified by a unique ticker symbol (CL).
  22. 22. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. Chart of Light Crude Oil futures updated April 4, 2013. © Hassan Harraz 2016 22
  23. 23. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. Trading Unit - Crude Oil Futures trade in units of 1,000 U.S. barrels (42,000 gallons). Options: One NYMEX Division light, sweet crude oil futures contract The contract size states the amount and unit of the underlying commodity represented by each futures contract. Crude Oil Futures trade in units of 1,000 U.S. barrels (42,000 gallons) {(1 contract = 1000 barrels)}. Options: One NYMEX Division light, sweet crude oil futures contract. 5.2) Contract Size (or Trading Unit) © Hassan Harraz 2016 23
  24. 24. © Hassan Harraz 2016 24 5.3) The Underlying Each futures contract represents a specific underlying asset to be delivered on the delivery date. Besides commodities, other instruments such as interest rates, currencies and stock indices are also traded in the futures exchanges. 5.4) Exchange The futures exchange where the futures contract is traded. Crude oil began futures trading on the NYMEX in 1983 and is one of the most heavily traded commodities. Some of the world's largest futures exchanges include:  Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)  New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX)  Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM)  Multi-Commodity Exchange (MCX)  Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)  Dubai Mercantile Exchange (DME),  India's National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX) Exchange & Product Name Symbol Contract Size Initial Margin NYMEX Light Sweet Crude Oil Futures CL 1000 barrels (Full Contract Spec) USD 9,113 (approx. 23%) (Latest Margin Info) NYMEX Brent Crude Oil Futures BZ 1000 barrels (Full Contract Spec) USD 12,825 (approx. 29%) (Latest Margin Info) TOCOM Crude Oil Futures - 50 kiloliters (Full Contract Spec) JPY 210,000 (approx. 17%) (Latest Margin Info)
  25. 25. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. Crude oil began futures trading on the NYMEX in 1983 and is one of the most heavily traded commodities. The NewYork Mercantile Exchange ( NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago. NYMEX is located at One North EndAvenue in Brookfield Place in the Battery Park City section of Manhattan, NewYork City. © Hassan Harraz 2016 25
  26. 26. www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. Futures contracts for crude oil are traded at the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), Intercontinental Exchange (ICE), Dubai Mercantile Exchange (DME), Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), India's National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX) and the Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM). The NewYork Mercantile Exchange ( NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CMEGroup of Chicago. NYMEX is located at One North EndAvenue in Brookfield Place in the Battery Park City section of Manhattan, NewYork City. © Hassan Harraz 2016 26
  27. 27. © Hassan Harraz 2016 27 Crude Oil Futures are quoted in dollars and cents per barrel.
  28. 28. © Hassan Harraz 2016 28 5.5) Price Quotation  Spot Prices and futures prices are different quotes for different types of contracts. i) The SPOT PRICE is the current price of a spot contract, at which a particular commodity could be bought or sold at a specified time, place for immediate delivery and payment on the spot date. A security's spot price is regarded as the explicit value of the security at any given time in the marketplace. ii) The FUTURES PRICE is quoted for a financial transaction that will occur on a future date and is the settlement price of the futures contract. The futures price is determined using the commodity's spot price, the risk free rate and time to maturity of the contract. The futures price is simply an estimated price for oil for delivery at a set date in the near future. A securities futures price is the expected value of the security, in relation to its current spot price and time frame in question.The futures price is simply an estimated price for oil for delivery at a set date in the near future. It really makes no difference to our trading.  The quoted price of a futures contract is the agreed price (per unit) of the underlying asset that the buyer has to pay to the seller in order to take delivery of the goods.  Correspondingly, it is also the price at which the seller must sell the underlying asset to the buyer.  Crude Oil Futures are quoted in dollars and cents per barrel.  One other important note to keep in mind is that purchasing an oil contract gives you ownership of 1,000 barrels of crude oil. This means that for every one dollar change in the price of oil, you will have a profit or loss of $1,000 per contract. This aspect of futures even further adds to the risk and volatility of investing in oil futures. BREAKING DOWN 'Spot Price': Spot prices are most often used in relation to pricing of futures contracts of securities, typically commodities. The futures price is determined using the commodity's spot price, the risk free rate and time to maturity of the contract (along with any costs associated with storage or convenience). Using the same inputs, a security's spot price can also be determined given the futures price.
  29. 29. © Hassan Harraz 2016 29 5.6) Grade of Deliverable The grade not only specifies the quality of the underlying but also the manner and the exact place(s) of delivery. 5.7) Delivery Date Each futures contract has a specific delivery date where the seller of the futures contract is required to make delivery of the underlying product being traded and the buyer of the futures contract is required to take delivery. 5.8) Last Trading Day Trading shuts down some time before the delivery date to give the futures contract seller sufficient time to prepare the underlying products for delivery. Futures positions which have not been closed out (offset) before end of the last trading day will have to be settled by making or taking delivery of the underlying product.
  30. 30. Every futures contract has standardized months at which the underlying can be traded for delivery. Crude Oil Futures trade 30 consecutive months plus long-dated futures initially listed 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months prior to delivery. Additionally, trading can be executed at an average differential to the previous day’s settlement prices for periods of two to 30 consecutive months in a single transaction. These calendar strips are executed during open outcry trading hours. Options: 12 consecutive months, plus three long-dated options at 18, 24, and 36 months out on a June/December cycle. 5.9) Delivery (OR Trading ) Months: www.cannontrading.com | Call - (800) 454-9572 Futures trading is risky and not suitable for everyone. Past performance is not indicative of futures results. © Hassan Harraz 2016 30
  31. 31. Follow me on Social Media © Hassan Harraz 2016 http://facebook.com/hzharraz http://www.slideshare.net/hzharraz https://www.linkedin.com/in/hassan-harraz-3172b235

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