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Limbic system

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Limbic system

  1. 1.  Limbic lobe refers to structures that form a limbus (ring) around the brain stem.
  2. 2. Cingulate gyrus Para-olfactory area Hypothalamus Uncus Amygdala Para-hippocampal gyrus Hippocampus Mamillary bodies of hypothalamus Fornix Thalamus Anterior nucleus of thalamus
  3. 3. } septal area
  4. 4. Cingulate gyrus
  5. 5. Cingulotomy
  6. 6. Subcallosal gyrus Cingulate gyrus
  7. 7.  Hippocampus.  Indeusm griseum.
  8. 8. 1. Hippocampus proper (horn of Ammon). 2. Dentate nucleus. 3. Subiculum (transition from hippocampus proper to the parahippocampal gyrus). 4. Alveus. 5. Fimbria . 6. Fornix.
  9. 9. Word Meaning Hippocampus sea horse Horn of Ammon horn of Egyptian goddess ram Subiculum support Alveus canal Fimbria edge Fornix arch
  10. 10. Development of the HippocampusDevelopment of the HippocampusDevelopment of the HippocampusDevelopment of the Hippocampus 1.1. dentate gyrus 2. hippocampus proper 3. subiculumdentate gyrus 2. hippocampus proper 3. subiculum HS:HS: hippocampal sulcushippocampal sulcus TH:TH: temporal horntemporal horn
  11. 11. Amygdala Hippocampal head
  12. 12. Amygdala Hippocampal head
  13. 13. Hippocampal body Alveus
  14. 14. Fornix Hippocampal tail
  15. 15. H Choroidal fissure Hippocampal fissure ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ The crab’s claw
  16. 16. Hippocampal body ↑ Temporal horn ↓
  17. 17.  lateral extension of the ambient cistern that separates the thalamus from the parahippocampal gyrus.  The transverse fissure = retro-thalamic (retro-pulvinar cistern).  The transverse cerebral fissure is the next major fissure formed after the longitudinal (interhemispheric) fissure.  The transverse cerebral fissure is the axis around which the temporal lobes curve forwards.
  18. 18. i T = thalamus i = isthmus of parahippocampal gyrus.
  19. 19.  Is superior lateral extension of the transverse fissure, which extends superior to the hippocampus.  The choroidal fissure contains double layered pia matter (tela choroidae), which invaginates the medial wall of the lateral ventricle to form the choroid plexus.  The choroidal fissure is divided into 3 parts:  Body portion.  Atrium portion.  Temporal portion.
  20. 20. Separates between Body portion Body of fornix, superiorly Thalamus, inferiorly Atrial portion Crus of fornix Pulvinar of thalamus. Temporal portion Fimbria of fornix Inferior surface of thalamus.
  21. 21. Choroidal fissureVellum interpositum cistern
  22. 22.  Is the inferior lateral extension of the transverse fissure, which separates the hippocampus from the subiculum.
  23. 23.  Crus.  Body.  Anterior column. The fornix represents the major aspect of hippocampal output, comprised of axonal projections from the hippocampus to the mamillary bodies.
  24. 24. crus Anterior commissure column MTT MB body body MTT
  25. 25. Crus of fornix
  26. 26. A H E F
  27. 27. The indusium griseum, (a dorsal extension of the hippocampus), forms a symmetric pair of narrow strips of gray matter running caudal-rostrally along the dorsal aspect of the corpus callosum in the sub-cingulate region
  28. 28.  Almond shaped.  Subcortical nucleus located in the temporal lobe.  Anatomically it belongs to the basal ganglia.  Functionally it belongs to the limbic system.
  29. 29.  It is located inside the uncus (a medial protrusion of the temporal lobe).  It is located between the temporal pole (anterior tip of temporal lobe) and Uncal recess of the temporal horn.
  30. 30. ← Uncus
  31. 31. Afferent pathways: Efferent pathways: 2 routes: Dorsal route: Dorsal amygdalofugal pathway (stria terminalis). Ventral route: Ventral amygdalofugal pathway.
  32. 32.  Septum pellucidum.  Setpum verum.
  33. 33.  Is a thin leaf between the frontal horns of lateral ventricles.  It is formed of gila & lined by ependyma.
  34. 34.  It is located  inferior to the septum pellucidum,  anterior to the lamina terminalis and  posterior to the subcallosal gyrus. Septum verum = paraterminal gyrus.
  35. 35.  Paraterminal & subcallosal gyri.
  36. 36. Nucleus accumbens C P
  37. 37.
  38. 38. MB MTT
  39. 39. Foramen of Monro Mamillo- thalamic tract
  40. 40.  The anterior nuclei.  The dorsomedial nucleus
  41. 41.  Piriform cortex.  Periamygdaloid cortex.  Entorhinal cortex.  Perirhinal cortex.
  42. 42.  MTS is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.  Mesial = medial.  MTS is characterized by atrophy of the hippocampus and limbic related structures.
  43. 43. CG = cingulate gyrus. TP = temporal polar cortex.
  44. 44.  SA = septal area (subcallosal gyrus).  SL = limen insulae.  E = Entorhinal cortex.
  45. 45.  PT = Paraterminal gyrus.  E = Entorhinal cortex.
  46. 46. AN = nucleus accumbens. A = amygdala. E = entorhinal cortex.
  47. 47. F = Fornix. A = Amygdala. H = Hippocampus. PH = para-hippocampal gyrus.
  48. 48. H= hippocampus. PH= Parahippocampal gyurs. F= fornix. M= foramen of Monro
  49. 49. H = Hippocampus. PH= parahippocampus. CG = Cingulate gyrus.
  50. 50. H = hippocampus. PH = parahippocamp al gyurs.
  51. 51. H= hippocampus tail. PH= para- hippocampal gyrus. F = Fornix. Q = quadrigeminal plate.
  52. 52. F= fornix. TH = thalamus. PH = Para- hippocampal gyrus.

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