Crohn’s disease

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Crohn’s disease

  1. 1. Dr / Hytham Nafady
  2. 2. Definition • Crohn’s disease is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease chracterized by transmural non caseating granulomatous inflammation.
  3. 3. Demographics • Age onset: 15-30, another peak at 60-70. • Sex: M=F
  4. 4. C.P
  5. 5. Location Any where in the gut from mouth to anus. Most common: • Ileo-colic (50%). • Terminal ileum (30%). • Right colon (20%). Distribution: • Segmental distribution with skip lesions.
  6. 6. • Systemic complications: • Arthritis. • Ankylosing spondylitis. • Sclerosing cholangitis. • Uveitis. • Erythema nodosum. • Pyoderma gangrenosum. • Malabsorption. • Oxalate stones.
  7. 7. Postoperative complications • Normal ileocolic anastomosis
  8. 8. Anastomotic recurrence
  9. 9. Anastomotic fibro-stenosis
  10. 10. Plain radiography • The role of plain radiography is limited and only done for 2 reasons: • To assess intestinal obstruction. • To diagnose pneumoperitoneum.
  11. 11. SBO 1. Multiple air fluid levels > 2. 2. Wide air fluid levels > 2.5 cm. 3. Differential air fluid levels (2 air fluid levels of different height > 2 cm in the same bowel loop). 4. Small bowel / colon diameter ratio > 0.5. 5. Step ladder configuration of small bowel loops from LUQ to RLQ. 6. String of pearls sign (trapped air between the valvulae conniventes along the superior wall of the dilated bowel).
  12. 12. Step ladder configuration LUQ RLQ
  13. 13. String of pearls sign
  14. 14. Pneumo-peritoneum • Air under diaphragm (erect). • Air on both sides of the bowel wall (Rigler sign). • Air around the falciform ligament (supine).
  15. 15. Signs of pneumo-peritoneum
  16. 16. Barium studies • Ulcers. • Nodular pattern. • Ulcero-nodular pattern. • Stricture. • Straightening of the mesenteric border. • Sacculation of the ante-mesenteric border. • Wide separation. • Fistula.
  17. 17. Ulcers
  18. 18. Aphthoid ulcers (target sign) • Pathology: mucosal ulcers with surrounding translucent mound of edema.
  19. 19. Fissure ulcers (Rose thorn appearance) • Pathology: transmural ulcers
  20. 20. Nodular pattern •Pathology: Submucosal edema of the villi.
  21. 21. Ulcero-nodular pattern (Cobble stone appearance) • Pathology: transverse & longitudinal fissure ulcers with intervening edematous mucosa.
  22. 22. Straightening of the mesenteric border & sacculation of the ante-mesenteric border
  23. 23. Stricture (String sign of Kantor) • Pathology: edema &/or fibrosis with ulcerated mucosa (resembling frayed string).
  24. 24. DD of stricture Crohn’s disease: Terminal ileum. Ulcerated mucosa. Multiple strictures. Ischemic stricture Watershed areas. Smooth non ulcerated. Gradually tapering. Usually single. Malignancy Shouldering Radiation enteropathy Thick folds.
  25. 25. Wide separation Pathology: • Circumferential mural thickening. • Creeping fat. • Mesenteric lymphadenopathy.
  26. 26. Fistula
  27. 27. Entero-enteric & entero-colic fistulas Terminal ileum Cecum Proximal ileum
  28. 28. Entero-enteric fistula • Between the terminal ileum & right colon. • Double tracking of the ileocecal valve.
  29. 29. Entero-cutaneous fistula
  30. 30. Entero-vesical fistula
  31. 31. U/S
  32. 32. Mural thickening
  33. 33. Mural hyper-vascularity
  34. 34. Loss of layering •Pathology: transmural edema, inflammation or fibrosis. The bowel wall is formed of 5 alternating hyper & hypoechoic layers AKA the gut signature).
  35. 35. Mesenteric creeping fat • Uniform hyper-echoic mesenteric fat. • (usually at the cephalic margin of terminal ileum).
  36. 36. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy • Multiple oval hypoechoic masses in the mesentery.
  37. 37. Obstruction • Dilated hyperperistaltic fluid filled segments.
  38. 38. Abscess • Fluid collection with thickened wall • containing air or echogenic debris
  39. 39. Fistula • bright echoes with distal acoustic shadows outside the boundaries of bowel loops.
  40. 40. Phlegmon • Heterogenous hypoechoic mass with irregular borders. • No identifiable wall or fluid.
  41. 41. CT CT is less sensitive than barium studies in detection of early mucosal changes (i.e ulceration). CT is more sensitive than barium studies in detection of extraluminal changes (mural or extraintestinal).
  42. 42. CT
  43. 43. Circumferential mural thickening In acute non cicatrizing phase: Mural thickening with preserved stratification and minimal luminal narrowing. In chronic cicatrizing phase: Mural thickening, with loss of mural stratification and increased luminal narrowing.
  44. 44. • Normally the bowel wall measures less than 2 mm if well distended). • The mean diameter in Crohn’s disease is 10 mm. • If > 10 mm suspect pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
  45. 45. Mural hyper-enhancement. • Segmental hyper-attenuation of distended small bowel loops relative to nearby normal-appearing loops • Mural hyper-enhancement indicates active disease.
  46. 46. Stricture • Sometimes associated with proximal dilatation due to partial obstruction.
  47. 47. Mesenteric fibro-fatty proliferation (Creeping fat): • Adjacent to the actively inflamed segment. • Of high density than the normal fat. • Produce mass effect with displacement of the adjacent bowel loops (DD with T.B).
  48. 48. Mesenteric hypervascularity (Comb sign) • Pathology: engorged vasa recta.
  49. 49. Phlegmon • ill-defined inflamed mass of mixed attenuation
  50. 50. Abscess • Well defined mass of fluid attenuation, • Thick enhancing wall • Containing air or contrast material.
  51. 51. Obstruction • Proximal dilatation of small bowel loop > 2.5 cm.
  52. 52. Perforation • Pneumoperitoneum.
  53. 53. Fistula • The track of the fistula is better demonstrated on barium studies while the sequelae of these tracks are better demonstrated on CT (e.g air in the urinary bladder in entero-vesical fistula).

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