(retinopathy of prematurity)
Choroidal Chroidal osteoma
Sclero-choroidal Metastatic calcification
It is not possible to
layers on CT
• Calcified optic disc.
• 1% of the population
• Calcified intra-ocular mass.
• Bilateral in 40 % of cases
• Endophytic, exophytic or combined.
• Retinopathy of prematurity.
• Oxygen therapy.
• Retinal telangiectasia.Coat’s disease
• TS patients.
• Renal tubular acidosis.
• Collapsed calcified eye globe.
• End result of trauma or infection.
Classification of breast calcification
According to location
outside the breast
According to morphology
According to distribution
According to size
> 5 mm
• Scattered or multiple similar clusters of calcification
through the whole breastDiffuse
• Scattered calcification in large volume > 2 cm.
• Not in the expected ductal distributio n.Regional
• calcium deposits in ducts and branches of a segment
• >/ = 5 calcifications in small volume of tissue < 1cm.Clustered
• Calcifications arrayed in a line.Linear
• Rounded or polygonal, with radiolucent
• Bilateral and symmetrical.
• Tattoo sign.
Soft tissue calcification
• Calcification of damaged or degenerated
• With no underlying metabolic disorder.
• Calcification of normal tissue.
• With underling metabolic disorder.
• Calcification of cutaneous, subcutaneous &
deep connective tissue.
• With underling collagen vascular disease.
• Cutaneous or subcutaneous.
• Sharply marginated &
• Around fingers.
• Associated with
• Diffuse, sheet like calcification along the
muscles, subcutaneous tissues, and fascial
• Typically involve the lower limbs.
• Causes: (CT disorders):
• Tumoral calcinosis is a hereditary disease of
phosphate metabolic dysfunction.
• Lobulated, well-demarcated calcification
distributed most commonly around the
extensor surface of large joints.
• Tumoral calcinosis is misnomer (not tumor not
• Most common cause of nephrocalcinosis in adults
• Nephrocalcinosis related more to the duration than the intensity of hypercalcemia
• Nephrocalcinosis occurs in 5% of cases of hyperparathyroidism.
• Second most common cause of medullary nephrocalcinosis
• Both familial and secondary forms have high incidence
• Renal function is well maintained.
Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis
• In TTT of hyperparathyroidism.Hypervitaminosis D
• ingestion of milk or alkali for ulcer dyspepsiaMilk-alkali syndrome
• Precipitation of calcium in dilated collecting ducts.
• Sharply defined.
• Uneven distribution.
Medullary sponge kidney
• Calcified papillaeRenal papillary necrosis
of salts in urine:
•Concentration of salts.
•Change of PH of urine
•Alkaline urine (E coli infection) precipitation of phosphate salts
•Acidic urine precipitation of oxalate salts.
•Pus cells necrotic epithelium and blood clots provide nucleus for
Types of renal stones
Stag horn stone
Addison disease Wolman disease
Calcified adrenal tumors
• Most common solid abdominal mass in infancy
• Almost always unilateral (90%)
• Stippled or coarse calcification is common (up to 70%)
• Rare tumor of adrenal medulla
• May be bilateral (10%)
• About 10% calcify
• Low attenuation (<10HU) on non-enhanced CT
• Calcification is rare
• Large, fat-containing adrenal mass
• About 20% calcify.
• MelanomaCalcified metastasis