History of IT industry, Internet and Hacker Culture

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History of IT industry, Internet and Hacker Culture

  1. 1. 情報システム論 IT産業の歴史 History of IT industry Internet and Hackers 10/24/2013 よしおかひろたか(楽天株式会社) hyoshiok@gmail.com http://d.hatena.ne.jp/hyoshiok/ twitter: @hyoshiok
  2. 2. •  Be a Hacker •  Change the World Better 2
  3. 3. •  The future is already here — it's just not very evenly distributed. by William Gibson 3
  4. 4. Agenda •  History of IT Industry, Internet and Hackers –  OSS –  Hacker Culture –  Community, Engineer’s career 4
  5. 5. whoami Name: Hiro Yoshioka Title: Technical Managing Officer Company: Rakuten, Inc 2009 – present My mission: Empower Our Engineers Twitter: @hyoshiok http://d.hatena.ne.jp/hyoshiok (Diary in Japanese) http://someday-join-us.blogspot.jp/ (in English) 5
  6. 6. whoami Name: Hiro Yoshioka 2009-present, Rakuten 2000-2008, Miracle Linux, CTO 2002-2003, OSDL board member 1994-2000, Oracle 1984-1994, DEC 1984 Keio University (MS) I have one patch to Linux Kernel J x86: cache pollution aware patch 2006/6/23, 2.6.18 http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/ linux.git/commit/? id=c22ce143d15eb288543fe9873e1c5ac1c01b69a1 6
  7. 7. Who are we? l  Rakuten, Inc. l  Internet services company l  Founded : Feb. 7th 1997, Tokyo, Japan l  The first service: Rakuten Ichiba (shopping mall) 7
  8. 8. Who are we? 8
  9. 9. Rakuten in Japan 9
  10. 10. Agenda •  History of IT Industry –  OSS –  Hacker Culture –  Community, Engineer’s career 10
  11. 11. IT industry •  •  •  •  •  Vertical Integration – by ’80’s Horizontal – from ‘80’s Open Systems Internet, ‘90’s Open Source Software – from 1998 •  Web 2.0, 2005 11
  12. 12. Internet Age •  Collaboration with somebody –  OSS (Open Source Software) –  Wikipedia –  Facebook, twitter –  Community –  Youtube –  2ch –  … 12
  13. 13. •  Blog •  SNS •  Cost of finding people becomes all most zero. 13
  14. 14. Free software •  •  •  •  GNU project, 1985 Linux, 1991 Ruby, 1993 Open Source Software, 1998 14
  15. 15. GNU Project •  Distributed by Magnetic Tapes –  you send money to FSF –  FSF send you a tape (lately CDROM) •  Not bazaar model 15
  16. 16. Internet •  Xmosaic – 1993 •  Windows 95 – 1995 •  Open Source Netscape – 1998 16
  17. 17. OSS – Open Source Software •  OSS and Free Software •  1998, Opened Netscape’s browser source code •  Open Source Software –  Free Software: Freedom is important –  OSS: Not only freedom 17
  18. 18. OSS •  Value –  Freedom of Software –  Global software development model •  Evolution of software by collaboration •  Cathedral and Bazaar –  Eric Raymond, 1997 18
  19. 19. Bazaar •  Software Development Model •  Engagement –  Users become Developers •  Develop by Community –  individual vs. organization –  volunteers 19
  20. 20. Hacker Culture •  Common Value 20
  21. 21. Hacker Ethics •  •  •  •  •  •  Sharing Openness Decentraization Free access to computers World improvement Levy, Steven. (1984, 2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (updated edition). Penguin. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/729 21
  22. 22. Hacker Ethics •  Access to computers—and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works—should be unlimited and total. Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative! •  All information should be free •  Mistrust authority – promote decentralization •  Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not criteria such as degrees, age, race, sex, or position •  You can create art and beauty on a computer •  Computers can change your life for the better 22
  23. 23. Hacker Culture, Common Value •  Computers can change your life for the better •  rough consensus and working code •  http://www.ietf.org/tao.html •  It’s better to ask forgiveness than permission. •  If it's a good idea, go ahead and do it. It is much easier to apologize than it is to get permission. By Grace Hopper 23
  24. 24. Internet, Joichi Ito •  The ethos of the Internet •  everyone should have the freedom to connect, to innovate, to program, without asking permission. •  No one can know the whole of the network, and by design it cannot be centrally controlled. •  This network was intended to be decentralized, its assets widely distributed. Today most innovation springs from small groups at its “edges.” •  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/joichi-ito-innovatingby-the-seat-of-our-pants.html?_r=2& 24
  25. 25. What Happened to Yahoo, Paul Graham •  In 1998. Yahoo had two problems Google didn't: easy money, and ambivalence about being a technology company. •  Which companies need to have a hacker-centric culture? •  Any company that needs to have good software. •  http://www.paulgraham.com/yahoo.html 25
  26. 26. What Happened to Yahoo, Paul Graham •  Good programmers want to work at hackercentric culture. •  Without good programmers you won’t get good software. •  http://www.paulgraham.com/yahoo.html 26
  27. 27. The Hacker Way (Facebook) IPO 2012 •  •  •  •  •  •  Code wins arguments Continuous Improvement and Iteration Open and Meritocratic Hackathon Bootcamp http://www.wired.com/business/2012/02/zuckletter/ 27
  28. 28. http://blogs-images.forbes.com/jasonoberholtzer/files/ 2011/06/Talent_traffic.gif 28
  29. 29. Hacker-centric Culture •  Software Development in Internet Age •  Hire good programmers •  Good programmers want to work with good programmers at hacker centric culture •  Build good work place •  Good programmers make good services 29
  30. 30. Web 2.0 •  Software products vs Internet Services •  http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-isweb-20.html 9/30/2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Web_2.0_Map.svg 30
  31. 31. Netscape vs Google •  A native web application, never sold or packaged, but delivered as a service •  None of the trappings of the old software industry are present. •  No scheduled software releases, just continuous improvement. •  No licensing or sale, just usage. •  No porting to different platforms, …, just a massively scalable collection of commodity PCs running OSS operating systems plus homegrown applications and utilities that no one outside the company ever gets to see. http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html 31
  32. 32. Community •  Seminar, meetings, conference, 32
  33. 33. IT Seminar Calendar of Japan http://bit.ly/QmRFiS more than 300 meetings/month 33
  34. 34. Conferences in Japan http://connpass.com/event/2253/?disp_content=presentation#tabs http://ll.jus.or.jp/2013/ http://phpcon.php.gr.jp/w/2012/ http://yapcasia.org/2013/ http://2012.pycon.jp/index.html http://nodefest.jp/2012/ http://rubykaigi.org/2013 34
  35. 35. Conference •  •  •  •  •  •  Running by volunteers Inexpensive, e.g., 5000 yen/day ($50/day) Numbers attendees; more than 100 - 1000 Sharing technical knowledge and networking Beer Bash or Drinking Party (optional) Examples, LL event, PHP Conference, YAPC (Yet another perl conference), RubyKaigi, Tokyo Node Gakuen (Javascript) 35
  36. 36. cf. Commercial Conference •  •  •  •  •  •  Running by corporation Expensive, e.g., $300-$500/day Numbers attendees; more than 1000 Sharing technical knowledge and networking Party (optional) Examples, OSCON $2045 (5 days), http://www.oscon.com/ oscon2013 36
  37. 37. Volunteer driven meetups, conference •  Good Points •  Organizer; You can organize what you want. •  Contents, speakers, date, time, place, fee •  Presenters; You can share your idea. •  Participants; •  Bad Points •  You need to do everything. (You may have help from community) 37
  38. 38. Sustainable meetups, conference •  Value of meetup > Cost of meetups •  Increase value •  Decrease cost 38
  39. 39. Self Introduction •  Ethnography 民族誌 •  a branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures. 39
  40. 40. Ethnography, computer industry •  Field study of Computer Industry instead of undeveloped region. •  Understand corporate culture •  Describe corporate culture •  Develop better corporate culture •  Corporate culture is difficult to understand from outside 40
  41. 41. Ethnography •  •  •  •  •  The Soul of New Machine(超マシン誕生) Show Stopper(闘うプログラマ) i-mode 事件 Engineering Culture(洗脳するマネジメント) Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (ハッカーズ) 41
  42. 42. whoami Name: Hiro Yoshioka 2009-present, Rakuten 2000-2008, Miracle Linux, CTO 2002-2003, OSDL board member 1994-2000, Oracle 1984-1994, DEC 42
  43. 43. Digital Equipment Corporation •  Corporate Culture •  The first company gives you strong impressions… •  Computer vendor, 2nd largest, 1957-90’s •  Acquired by Compaq in 1998, merged with HP in 2002 43
  44. 44. Digital Equipment Corporation •  Corporate Culture •  Midnight project •  internal computer network •  information sharing 44
  45. 45. Hacker-centric Culture •  Why do we need it? •  Common Good •  Competitiveness •  Best practice 45
  46. 46. Hacker-centric Culture •  Why do we need it for me? •  It is fun. •  Reasons •  Common good (make better world) •  Competitiveness (win a competition) •  Best practice (increase productivity) 46
  47. 47. How do we foster it? •  Corporate culture is developed by implicit and explicit way •  Only insiders know it 47
  48. 48. Challenge of a Global Knowledge-Creating Organization Knowledge needs to move from “Tacit to Explicit” and “Explicit to Tacit” This is especially hard for Global Companies! Tacit/暗黙知 Tacit Tacit Socialization 共同化 Externalization 表出化 Explicit Tacit Internalization 内面化 Combination 連結化 Explicit Explicit/形式知 Explicit Ø 共同化(Socialization) This process focuses tacit to tacit. Ø 表出化(Externalization) This process focuses tacit to explicit. knowledge. Ø 連結化(Combination) Knowledge transforms from explicit to explicit. Ø 内面化(Internalization) Tacit knowledge is created using explicit knowledge and shared across the organization.
  49. 49. How do we foster it? •  Tacit (implicit) Knowledge •  material: manager, mentor, colleagues •  methods: work, job, study sessions, lunch, drinking, hackerthons, SNS, … •  Explicit Knowledge •  strategy, guideline, rule, procedure, tools 49
  50. 50. How do we foster it? •  Tacit (implicit) Knowledge •  Super Sale live on Enterprise SNS 50
  51. 51. Corporate Community •  •  •  •  Community of practice Organization: Vertical Project: Horizontal Community: Not Vertical, Not Horizontal •  sharing value 51
  52. 52. The Hacker Way (Facebook) •  •  •  •  •  •  Code wins arguments Continuous Improvement and Iteration Open and Meritocratic Hackathon Bootcamp http://www.wired.com/business/2012/02/zuckletter/ 52
  53. 53. The Hacker Way (Facebook) •  Hackathon •  Demo or Die •  Pizza and Beer at Yammer, 10/28/’12 53
  54. 54. •  How to be a good Engineer (specialist)? •  Learn how to learn •  knowledge is less important than skill •  Be lifetime learner http://learningpatterns.sfc.keio.ac.jp/ 54
  55. 55. Rakuten •  Learning •  Global Experience Program •  International (oversea) Technical Conference •  Hands on Trainings 55
  56. 56. Global training Training is very important. ■SF Agile Development Center training 【The number of participants】6 employees 【Training period 】25 Sep 2011 – 15 Dec 2011 SF Agile Development Center DU members
  57. 57. Work and Life in San Francisco SFADC office Member’s desk Project Meeting Famous steep hills are all around the city Bayside view from Fisherman's Wharf Internal meeting in the house The local specialty Clam Chowder Robotics and AI meetup at San Francisco Univ. 57 Joined Linkshare’s Soccer Team
  58. 58. DU’ve promoted Globalization : GEP/OSC/ Englishnization 2012 result As part of it, DAD’ve helped GEP, OSC and EP program. GEP: 8 trainings, 28 trainees. OSC: 140 conferences, 468 members countries. ,17 Last year, DU sent many people to overseas.
  59. 59. Technical Trainings Training One  day  hands-‐‑‒on https://www.facebook.com/RakutenTec
  60. 60. Technical Trainings Leaderʼ’s  Workshop Mary  Poppendieck   come  to  Japan  in  April.  She   developed  “Lean  Software   Development”  which  like   TOYOTA  Production   System(TPS). And  she  is  known  famous   leader,  consultant  about   software  development  in  USA.  
  61. 61. Technical Trainings Software  Test Janet  Gregory is  the  founder  of  DragonFire,  Inc.,  an   agile  quality  process  consultancy  and   training  firm.  Her  passion  is  helping   teams  build  quality  systems.  Since   1998,  she  has  worked  as  a  coach  and   tester  introducing  agile  practices  into   both  large  and  small  companies.  
  62. 62. Community •  Collaboration tools (Wiki, bug tracking system) •  Techtalks •  Technology Conference 62
  63. 63. Challenge of a Global Knowledge-Creating Organization Knowledge needs to move from “Tacit to Explicit” and “Explicit to Tacit” (Nonaka, Takeuchi) This is especially hard for Global Companies! Tacit/暗黙知 Explicit/形式知 Combination 連結化 Explicit Tacit Internalization 内面化 Externalization 表出化 Explicit Tacit Socialization 共同化 Tacit Explicit Ø 共同化(Socialization) This process focuses tacit to tacit. Ø 表出化(Externalization) This process focuses tacit to explicit. knowledge. Ø 連結化(Combination) Knowledge transforms from explicit to explicit. Ø 内面化(Internalization) Tacit knowledge is created using explicit knowledge and shared across the organization.
  64. 64. Enterprise SNS •  Tacit (implicit) Knowledge •  Super Sale live on Enterprise SNS 64
  65. 65. Tech Talk ? •  Informal technical talks by experts, running by volunteer staffs 65
  66. 66. Topics •  Tips about internal tools – Wiki, Network Tools, JIRA, Confluence, git, … •  New technologies – Mobile Applications, PaaS, agile software development, HTML5, 66
  67. 67. Many Tech Topics Agile CI Big Data JIRA Change Cloud
  68. 68. Rakuten Technology Conference •  Annual conference since 2007 by Rakuten •  All sessions were in English (2012) •  industries’ experts and employees sessions 68
  69. 69. Experts Sessions
  70. 70. Rakuten’s sessions & LT
  71. 71. Omotenashi Beautiful Cosplayer
  72. 72. http://tech.rakuten.co.jp/rtc2012 http://www.manaslink.com/rtc2012
  73. 73. 2013 web site http://tech.rakuten.co.jp 73
  74. 74. October 2013 Oct th 26 74
  75. 75. keynote speakers Matz 75
  76. 76. keynote speakers 76
  77. 77. •  Internet changes everything. – The World is Flat. – Open Source Software – Bazaar Model – Hacker Mind http://www.rakuten.co.jp/recruit/engineer/hackermind.html 77
  78. 78. Moore’s Law •  Computers are getting cheaper Transistor is double every 18 to 24 months http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law 78
  79. 79. The Mythical Man-Month Frederick Brooks, JR. Brooks’ Law "adding manpower to a late software project makes it later" http://www.kobobooks.com/ebook/The-Mythical-Man-Month-Essays/ book-5XViaJPL_UeFtLEagIcF9A/page1.html 79
  80. 80. Human Centric •  Engineers make Services and Software. –  Computers are getting cheaper by Moor’s law –  Software Development is governed by Brooks’s law. •  Hackers make the Internet. 80
  81. 81. ENGLISHNIZATION
  82. 82. IT’S ONLY ENGLISH
  83. 83. ZONE DEFINITION RED ZONE: YELLOW ZONE: ORANGE ZONE: GREEN ZONE: Employee Grade More than 200 points away from target Between 100-199 points away from target Between 1 – 99 points away from target Score meets or exceeds target Not Reached (RED) Not Reached (YELLOW) Not Reached (ORANGE) Reached Target (GREEN) AAA -550 551-650 651-749 750- AA -500 501-600 601-699 700- A -450 451-550 551-649 650- BBB -400 401-500 501-599 600- BB -400 401-500 501-599 600- B -400 401-500 501-599 600-
  84. 84. ZONE STATUS As of June 30th, 2012 29% GREEN 87% 42% 45% 48% 49% 51% 53% 54% 56% 58% 60% 63% 66% 72% 80% 9% 11% 14% 36% 16% No Score M 2011 A ORANGE 19% 20% 19% 17% 15% 13% 10% 7% M J J A S O N D Data: Ranten, Inc (Total may not equal 100% due to rounding) YELLOW 6% 6% J F 2012 5% 4% M 2% RED A M 8% 4% 1% J
  85. 85. TOEIC SCORE 697.7 694.7 700 680 TOEIC Average score 687.3 672.3 660 632.6 638.9 645.6 625.3 640 612.7 620 596.3 600 580 651.5 526.2 593.9 589.6 589.3 604.3 586.9 593.7 583.6 560 537.8 558.0 540 522.6 520 526.2 500 2010/10 2010/11 2010/12 2011/1 2011/2 2011/3 2011/4 2011/5 2011/6 2011/7 2011/8 2011/9 2011/10 2011/11 2011/12 2012/1 2012/2 2012/3 2012/4 2012/5 2012/6/22 Oct-2010 June-2012 Data: Rakuten, Inc.
  86. 86. Agenda •  History of IT Industry, Internet and Hackers –  OSS –  Hacker Culture –  Web 2.0 –  Community, Engineer’s career 86
  87. 87. •  The future is already here — it's just not very evenly distributed. by William Gibson 87
  88. 88. •  Be a Hacker •  Change the World Better 88

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