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  1. 1. ELLIPSIS By Noraza Ahmad Zabidi
  2. 2.  Ellipsis or ellipses (plurals ‐ellipses), the omission from a sentence of a word or words that would be required for complete clarity but which can usually be understood from the context.  It is usually grouped together with substitution  (e.g. Shakespeare, ‘I will [go] to Ireland’)
  3. 3.  the omission from a sentence or other construction of one or more words that would complete /clarify the construction.
  4. 4.  b. the omission of one or more items from a construction in order to avoid repeating the identical or equivalent items that are in a preceding or following construction, as the omission of been to Paris from the second clause e.g  I've been to Paris, but they haven't
  5. 5.  By nine o’clock, they had washed their hands and they had eaten their lunch.  Can be abbreviated to  By nine o’clock, they had washed their hands and eaten lunch.  This can only be done if both clauses have the same subject. The second clause in the sentence  He had finished the work and his assistant had gone home  can not be abbreviated because it does not have the same subject as the first clause.
  6. 6.  An ellipsis [ … ] proves to be a handy device when you're quoting material and you want to omit some words.  The ellipsis consists of three evenly spaced dots (periods) with spaces between the ellipsis and surrounding letters or other marks.
  7. 7.  "The ceremony honored twelve brilliant athletes from the Caribbean who were visiting the U.S." and leave out "from the Caribbean who were":  The ceremony honored twelve brilliant athletes … visiting the U.S.
  8. 8. Leaving words out  Ellipsis means leaving words out.  Instead of repeating a noun phrase(the guard), we can use a pronoun or we can leave the pronoun out.  1. Instead of repeating a verb phrase(take), we can use a substitution form or leave the substitution form out as in 2
  9. 9. 1. The guard looked over and he smiled  The guard looked over and smiled 2.She could take the money, but she won’t do it  She could take the money, but she won’t.
  10. 10.  You’ll need a pen or _ _ pencil  Ashley’s aunt and -uncle own property in France and _Italy  We can also use ellipsis after a comma in a list  E.g I’m afraid of bees,wasps and spiders
  11. 11. Leaving out subjects and objects  After and, but in compound sentences, we usually leave out a repeated subject, a repeated subject and auxiliary or a repeated subject and  She was shouting and_ _ throwing things  Should we bring our bags or__ _leave them here?  We sat and _ talked.  He came, but _left early.
  12. 12.  They ran or _walked the rest of the way.  He looked okay, but_ _tired.  I enjoy films_ _ going to the theatre, and _ _walks in the park.
  13. 13.  We can also leave out repeated subjects in later clauses after then and yet.  We don’t usually leave out subjects (and auxiliaries) after subordinating conjunctions. e.g  We tidied up before we left.(Not We tidied up left)  He’s tired because he’s ill.(Not He’s tired because ill)
  14. 14.  We usually leave out repeated objects or preposition phrases from the first clause.  We use an object pronoun rather than leave out the objects from second or later clauses  We gave food_ _ and water to everyone.  I lived_ _ _ _and studied in Rome for a year.  She makes_ and sells jewelry  We usually boil _ _ or poach some eggs for breakfast.
  15. 15. Leaving verb phrases  After an auxiliary verb in the second or later clause, we usually leave out a repeated verb phrase.  We can leave out repeated adjectives and preposition phrases after be as a linking verb.e.g  We thought they would be late, but they weren’t_  I’m afraid he’s in love and she isn’t_ _
  16. 16.  I’ve seen the film but Mike hasn’t_ _ _.  The boys weren’t feeling cold, but I wasn’t_ _  We would help you if we could_ _.  Sarah will eat broccoli, but Jessica won’t_
  17. 17.  We can also leave out a repeated verb phrase after infinitive to or not to. After verbs such as agree and want, we can also leave out to.  She’ll leave unless he begs her not to_.  Some boys kept talking after I told them not to_.  I don’t smoke now, but I used to _.  We haven’t applied for the university but we plan to_.
  18. 18.  Thus, various ellipsis can be used with post-predicate complement clauses when the content is clear from the preceding discourse.  Ellipsis can occur with to-clauses and wh- clauses, where the complement clause is omitted but the complementizer(to or wh- word) is retained:  A Are we having that tonight too?  B If you want to_ _ _.
  19. 19.  With that-clauses, ellipsis involves the omission of the entire complement clause including the complementiser that. Such ellipsis is usually found with extreme common verbs like think, know.  E.g A: There’s seven teams in front of them. Yeah, I know.
  20. 20.  After a negative, we include to e.g  He’d like me to stay but I don’t want to.(Not…..but I don’t want)
  21. 21.  In formal situations, a repeated verb can be left out of a second clause when both clauses have the same structure.  E.g  The girls go first and the boys _ after them.  You can go if you want to_.  Salmah chose UKM and Salmi _ UITM.
  22. 22.  Try and like are common with ellipted to- clause A: Keep him in line B:I’ll try to_. A: Did you use my jacket again? B:Well, I would like to.
  23. 23.  We can leave out repeated words after questions when we ask or repeat questions. e.g  I have to leave now. Why?  It will cost a lot of money to repair the damage. How much?  Siva said he will go overseas, but hasn’t told us when_ yet
  24. 24.  With wh-clause ellipsis,wonder and remember also also occur: A : I took a shower early this morning and I feel like I didn’t shower. B:I wonder why.