Parts of Speech - Nouns And Prepositions


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Parts of Speech - Nouns And Prepositions

  1. 1. NOUNS AND PREPOSITIONS Changing a Noun Appositives Subject Complements Direct / Indirect Objects Prepositions and Preposition Objects Plural / Singular subjects Noun (subject) Verb Agreement Types of Nouns – Proper / Common / Concrete / Abstract / Count / Non-Count / Collective
  2. 2. WHAT IS A NOUN? <ul><li>A part of speech used to name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People, Places, Things (including ideas) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every noun has a type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common / Proper / Concrete / Abstract / Count / Non-Count / Collective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every noun has a Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculine / Feminine / Neuter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every noun has a Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singular / Plural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every noun has a Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Person / 2 nd Person / 3 rd Person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every noun has a case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominative, Objective, Possessive, </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. NOUN TYPES – PROPER / COMMON <ul><li>Proper Nouns name specific People, Places, or Things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Eiffel Tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony Playstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Nouns name non-specific People, Places, or Things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video game </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. NOUN TYPES – CONCRETE / ABSTRACT <ul><li>Concrete Nouns are able to be touched, smelt, seen, heard, or felt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abstract Nouns are ideas, feelings, or attributes – nouns you cannot touch, smell, feel, hear, or see. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love – Hate – Peace – Honesty – Beauty – Dream – Education – Friendship – Thought – Culture – Evil </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NOUN TYPES – COUNT / NON-COUNT <ul><li>Count names are nouns that can be pluralized or that have a plural form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat – Cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goose – Geese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helicopter –Helicopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau – Bureaus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Count nouns are nouns that have no plural form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather – Furniture – Happiness – Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework – Lightning – Popcorn – Cotton – Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn – Intelligence – Knowledge – Oxygen – Blood </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. NOUN TYPES – COLLECTIVE <ul><li>Collective Nouns are nouns that represent groups of people, places, or things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flock = many birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band = many musicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience = many people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiver = many arrows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class = many students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army = many soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaggle = many geese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team = many athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department = many people </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. CHANGING A NOUN <ul><li>Singular to Plural </li></ul><ul><li>Regular nouns = add –s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bell = bells / taco = tacos / teacher = teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, sh = add –es </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church = Churches / Fox = Foxes / Glass = Glasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns ending in “y” with a consonant before it = change y to i add –es </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lady = Ladies / Baby = Babies / Army = Armies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns ending in “y” with a vowel before it = add –s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key = Keys / Monkey = Monkeys / Alley = Alleys </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. CHANGING A NOUN <ul><li>Nouns that end in “o”, proceeded by a consonant </li></ul><ul><li>= add –es </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero = Heroes / Tomato = Tomatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns that end in “o”, proceeded by a vowel = add –s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio = Radios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns that end in “f” = add –s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief = Chiefs / Belief = Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some nouns that end in “f” or “fe” = change f to v </li></ul><ul><li>add = -es </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knife = Knives / Thief = Thieves / Half = Halves </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CHANGING A NOUN <ul><li>Plural forms of Irregular Nouns need to be memorized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot = Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ox = Oxen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse = Mice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman = Women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns that end in “is” = change “is” o “es” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis = Bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthesis / Parentheses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nouns that end in “um” = change “um” to “a” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Datum = Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorandum = Memoranda </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. CHANGING A NOUN <ul><li>Nouns that end in “us” = change “us” to “i” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radius = Radii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus = Foci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alumnus / Alumni </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some compound or hyphenated words = make the first part of the hyphenated word plural </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passer-by = Passers-by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-in-law = Mothers-in-law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suit of armor = Suits of armor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some exceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-husbands / Ex-wives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. WHAT IS “CASE”? <ul><li>The use of a noun in a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive </li></ul>
  12. 12. NOMINATIVE CASE – 1ST CASE <ul><li>Subject of the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bear attacked the astronauts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appositive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bear, a mean grizzly from Hawaii , attacked the astronauts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noun that follows the linking verb (Sub. Comp) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bear is an electrical engineer . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. OBJECTIVE CASE – 2 ND CASE <ul><li>Direct Object </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Object </li></ul><ul><li>Object of a Preposition </li></ul>
  14. 14. DIRECT OBJECT <ul><li>The complement of a transitive verb </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question “what” or “whom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The man rode the bicycle . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rode what? Rode the bicycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycle is the DO (Direct Object) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane called her friend . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called whom? Called her friend. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friend is the DO (Direct Object) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. INDIRECT OBJECT <ul><li>Names the person or thing for which something in done or given. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have a Direct Object in order to have an Indirect Object </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the flowers to Sue . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who received the flowers? Sue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue is the IDO (Indirect Object) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fred gave Jodie a ride. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who received the ride? Jodie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jody is the IDO (Indirect Object) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION <ul><li>Preposition = a word that shows the relationship between two nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy drove down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Down shows the relationship between boy and street. </li></ul><ul><li>The preposition and its complement is called a prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy drove down the street. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION <ul><li>Every prepositional phrase must have a complement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy drove down the street . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street completes the prepositional phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street is the object of the preposition. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. POSSESSIVE CASE – 3 RD CASE <ul><li>Expresses Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If noun DOES NOT end in “-s” – add an ‘s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog = Dog’s food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Village = Village’s church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the PLURAL noun ends in “s” already – add ‘ only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers = Computers’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teams = Teams’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a SINGULAR noun already ends in “s” add an ‘s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bass = Bass’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss = Swiss’s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. POSSESSIVE CASE – 3 RD CASE - CONTINUED <ul><li>When two people possess something, the last person listed is given the possessive form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam, Debbie, and Mark’s bike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(they all own ONE bike) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When two people have separate ownership, each person is given the possessive form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerry’s and Mike’s jerseys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(they EACH own separate jerseys) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CAPITALIZATION <ul><li>All Proper Nouns are capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Places or Monuments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eiffel Tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statue of Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erie, Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony Playstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CAPITALIZATION - CONTINUED <ul><li>Days and Months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friday / June </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific Times and Events </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The War of 1812 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Olympics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Faiths, Religions. Or Religious Figures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT <ul><li>Singular subjects takes a verb with an “s” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plural subject takes a verb without an “s” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brothers practice </li></ul></ul>