IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao


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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao

  1. 1. Session on Hydro Power in the 21st Century:<br />The Rise of Emerging Markets<br /> 15.30- 17.00 Hrs<br />Thursday 16th June, 2011<br />Sustainable HYDRO POWER Development in India<br />IHA WORLD CONGRESS <br />Advancing Sustainable Hydro Power<br />14- 17th June, 2011, Iguassu, Brazil<br />
  2. 2. Water is energy<br />Two Great Energy Synonyms <br />Hydrogen and Oxygen<br />Human Body 70% Water<br />Earths’ Surface 70% Water<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Massive gravitating influx of surface water(47,000 billion cubic meters per annum)-unleashed by the hydrological cycle has enormous potential for energy generation<br />Water Containing Energy<br />Every drop of circulating water above mean sea level has potential energy<br /> inherent in it by virtue of its position. <br />The energy <br /> of waterways can be <br /> converted into useful <br /> ‘ kilowatts’ to energize <br /> the Nations !<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Sustainable Hydro Power Represents<br />Non - Consumptive , Non - Radioactive, Non - Polluting <br />Use Of Water Resources<br /> Towards <br />Inflation Free , “Highest Density” Renewable Energy Development <br /> With <br />Most Mature Technology, Highest Prime Moving Efficiency,<br />Spectacular Operational Flexibility, Reliability & Efficiency of <br />Power System <br />And <br />Multifarious Benefits Such as Flood-Mitigation, Drinking Water Supply,<br /> Ground Water Recharge, Irrigation, Navigation And Tourism <br />4<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Irrigation
  6. 6. Flood Control
  7. 7. Social Forestry
  8. 8. Frequency of </li></ul> drought reduced <br />Positive Impacts of Hydro Power Projects<br /><ul><li>Economic returns
  9. 9. Multiplier effect of Electricity on Economy
  10. 10. Growth & export of cash crops </li></ul>Economic <br /><ul><li>Water Supply
  11. 11. Community health
  12. 12. Benefits of electricity: comforts, literacy
  13. 13. Check on migration from villages</li></ul>Social<br /><ul><li>Tourism
  14. 14. Employment
  15. 15. Improved food production
  16. 16. Agro-units</li></ul>Sustainable Development <br /><ul><li>Fisheries
  17. 17. Mass afforestation leading to forest products</li></ul>Ecological<br /><ul><li>Ground Water Recharge
  18. 18. Lake shore environment & Improved micro climate
  19. 19. Silt Control
  20. 20. Water liking birds
  21. 21. Improved ecology</li></ul>5<br />
  22. 22. India at a Glance<br />6<br />
  23. 23. Hydro Potential in India<br />7<br />
  24. 24. Power Scenario in India- Installed Capacity<br />**Renewable Energy Sources(RES) include SHP, BG, BP, U&I and Wind Energy<br />SHP= Small Hydro Project , BG= Biomass Gasifier, BP= Biomass Power, U & I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy <br />8<br />
  25. 25. Power Scenario in India- Deficit<br /><ul><li>India has a total Installed generation capacity of approx. 1,73,626 MW of which about 65.0% is Thermal, 21.6% is Hydro, 10.6% is RES (MNRE) and 2.8% is Nuclear.
  26. 26. Gap between the demand and supply of electricity in last 4 years is varies between 8.5% to 11.06%.</li></ul>9<br />Source: Ministry of Power and CEA <br />
  27. 27. Power Scenario in India- Rising Power Demand<br />Per Capita Consumption – A Comparision<br /><ul><li>India per capita power consumption is 612 kWh which is much lower than the world average of 3937 kWh.
  28. 28. Power generated is insufficient to meet the increasing demand.</li></ul>Per Capita Electricity Requirement<br /> * based on GDP growth projection of 8% (bn kWh)<br />10<br />Source: 1. CIA World Factbook 2008<br /> 2. Integrated Energy Policy, Planning Commission, GoI<br />
  29. 29. Power Scenario in India- Energy Supply Gap<br />Energy – Requirement Vs Availability<br />8.5 % Shortage<br />Peaking Demand – Supply Gap<br />10.3 % Shortage<br />11<br />Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)<br />
  30. 30. GOI- 50000 MW Hydropower Development Initiative<br />Objectives:<br /><ul><li> Power for All By 2012
  31. 31. To Meet The Demand Supply Gap
  32. 32. To Expedite The Hydro Power Development
  33. 33. To Improve The Thermal/Hydro Power Ratio
  34. 34. To Encourage Private and Public Sector Participation
  35. 35. Policy Liberalization
  36. 36. Creation Of Power Utilities in Central Sector </li></ul>12<br />
  37. 37. Power to all by 2012<br />The Ministry of Power has set a goal - Mission 2012: Power for All.<br />A comprehensive Blueprint for Power Sector development has been prepared encompassing an integrated strategy for the sector development with following objectives:<br /> - Sufficient Power to Achieve GDP Growth Rate of 8% - Reliable of Power - Quality Power - Optimum Power Cost - Commercial Viability of Power Industry - Power for All<br />13<br />
  38. 38. Strategies to Achieve the Objectives<br />Power Generation Strategy-focus on low cost generation, optimization of capacity utilization, controlling the input cost, optimization of fuel mix, Technology up gradation and utilization of Non Conventional energy sources.<br />Transmission Strategy- focus on development of National Grid including Interstate connections, Technology upgradation & optimization of transmission cost.<br />Distribution strategy to achieve Distribution Reforms with focus on System up gradation, loss reduction, theft control, consumer service orientation, quality power supply commercialization, Decentralized distributed generation and supply for rural areas.<br />Regulation Strategy aimed at protecting Consumer interests and making the sector commercially viable. Financing Strategy to generate resources for required growth of the power sector.<br />Conservation Strategy to optimize the utilization of electricity with focus on Demand Side management, Load management and Technology upgradationto provide energy efficient equipment / gadgets.<br />Communication Strategy for political consensus with media support to enhance the genera; public awareness. <br />14<br />
  39. 39. Need of Action for More Energy from Less Water<br />2 m Φ<br /> Size<br />300 m<br />10 m<br />2 MW<br />100 MW<br />P = 9.81 Q H ɳ (KW)<br />15<br />
  40. 40. Pumped Storage Scheme with Reversible Pump-Turbines- 90,000 MW<br />16<br />
  41. 41. Tidal Power- 10,000 MW<br />17<br />
  42. 42. Small Hydro on the Renewable Energy Matrix- 20,000 MW<br />Highest Density Renewable<br />Seasonal but not Intermittent like Wind, Solar and Tidal<br />Non- Consumptive Use of a Naturally Recycled Resource Unlike Biomass<br />Carbon footprint superior to others in the total energy chain (Solar PV=55, Wind=20 against Small Hydro=5.6 in gC/kWh)<br />Most Mature Technology<br />Highest ‘ Prime – Moving’ Efficiency<br />Highest Operational Flexibility<br />Peaking Support<br />Capacity Factors Superior to Wind & Solar<br />18<br />
  43. 43. Hydro : Thermal Mix – The Right Choice<br />The Power Sector seems to have lost its ‘sense of proportion’ down the line. .From a Hydro: Thermal Mix of 45:55 during the late 60’s, it has today landed to a mind - boggling proportion of 25:75 <br />25:75 Rs. 3.50 per KWHR<br />75:25 Rs. 2. 00 per KWHR<br />The country could have eliminated the peaking power shortages totally underthe same MW installed & under the same investment, had we gone for a …<br />Thermal <br />Hydro<br />Judicious<br />Mix<br />19<br />
  44. 44. Hydro: Thermal Mix<br />DESIRABLE 40:60 <br />EXISTING 25:75<br /><ul><li>Accelerated Exhaustion of Fixed Inventory 0f Fossil Fuel
  45. 45. Environmental Pollution
  46. 46. Frequent Load Shedding
  47. 47. Fluctuations in Voltage and Frequency
  48. 48. Backing Down of Thermal Leading to Their Low PLF & Efficiency
  49. 49. Constrained Load Carrying Capacity of Grid
  50. 50. Poor Grid Economy</li></ul>Undesirable Hydro : Thermal Mix reflects a poor ‘Techno- Economic-Operational-Environmental’ ethos of Power Supply Systems <br />20<br />
  51. 51. Hydro- A Technical Compulsion of Steady Power Supply System<br />21<br />
  52. 52. Anticipated Climate Change Damages in India<br /><ul><li>38% Drop in Per Capita Water Availability by 2050
  53. 53. 50 Million People will be Displaced in Coasts of India
  54. 54. 17% Decrease in Wheat Yields
  55. 55. 400,000 Square Kilometres of Glaciers Would Melt by 2030 ?
  56. 56. Vector Borne Deceases Like Dengue and Malaria Would Raise
  57. 57. 25% of Flora And Fauna Would be Extinct by 2030</li></ul>(IPCC Report released in April 2007)<br />Factoring Climate Change<br />22<br />
  58. 58. Environmental Aspects<br /><ul><li>Terms of Reference approval from Environment & Forests.
  59. 59. Public Hearing meeting with Project Affected Families.
  60. 60. Preparation of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Management Plan (EMP)
  61. 61. Environmental Clearance.
  62. 62. Forest Clearance & Wildlife Clearance
  63. 63. Compliance Report</li></ul>23<br />
  64. 64. Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR)<br /><ul><li>Corporates are to spend 2 to 5% of their profit for the Local Area Development,
  65. 65. Provide resources exclusively for the purposes of social development of the Project Area,
  66. 66. Conduct Social Responsibility programs in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the circumstances and expectations of various communities that form a part of society.
  67. 67. Work closely with Central, State and Local authorities / instrumentalities and opinion-leaders in pursuing its Social Responsibility Policy.
  68. 68. Make social investments, including through reputed public and professionally organized charitable organizations.
  69. 69. Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy to be followed by developers.</li></ul>24<br />
  70. 70. World Trend in Hydro Development over 10 yrs..<br />…..led by Asia<br />25<br />
  71. 71. Rate of Hydro Development and GDP Growth<br />26<br />
  72. 72. Case Study of Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow of Hydro Power Development in India <br />Yesterday (Completed) 1500 MW NathpaJhakri HE Project <br />(Himachal Pradesh),<br />Today (Under Construction) 1200 MW Teesta Stage III HE Project (Sikkim),<br />Tomorrow (Future Project ) 1750 MW Demwe Lower HE Project <br />(Arunachal Pradesh)<br />In <br />India<br />27<br />
  73. 73. 1500 MW NathpaJhakri HE Project (Himachal Pradesh) <br />
  74. 74. POWER<br />HOUSE<br />COMPLEX<br />(CONTRACT 3.0)<br />CONTRACT 2.2<br />(Total Length : 11,332 M)<br />NathpaJhakri– General Layout <br />HRT VI FACE<br />RATTANPUR<br />2301 m<br />MANGLAD<br />2526 m<br />DAM. INTAKE &<br />DESILTING<br />6475 m<br />COMPLEX<br />SHOLDING<br />(CONTRACT 1.0)<br />NUGALSARI<br />NH-22<br />SATLUJ RIVER<br />888 m<br />4008 m<br />4791 m<br />6375 m<br />WADHAL<br />NATHPA<br />CONTRACT 2.1<br />(Total Length : 16,062 M)<br />29<br />
  75. 75. NathpaJhakri– Generation Details<br />30<br />
  76. 76. 1200 MW Teesta Stage- III HE Project (Sikkim)<br />
  77. 77. Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Salient Features<br />Dam<br />(60 m high CFRD)<br />EL – 1590 m<br />Salient Features<br />Catchment area 2,787sq km<br />Snow fall catchment 1,953 sq km<br />Avg annual rainfall 1,218 mm<br />Design discharge 175 cumecs<br />Spillway Design Flood 7, 000 cumecs<br />Design Energy 5,183 MU<br />Project Cost Rs. 5,705 Crores<br />Surge shaft<br />(150 m high, 15m dia.)<br />EL 1506 m<br />River<br />Head race tunnel<br />(13.816 km long, 7.5 m dia.)<br />Desiltingcomplex<br />2 x Pressure shafts<br />((652 m Vertical and <br />530 m Inclined each)<br />Maximum discharge per shaft: 87.5 cumecs<br />Maximum velocity: 6.963 m/sec<br />Transmission line(400 kV, 205 km)<br />Machine hall<br />(6 x 200 MW,Pelton wheel type)<br />EL 768.0 m<br />Transformer hall<br />Tail race tunnel<br />(1.0 km long, 8m dia.)<br />River<br />Not to Scale<br />32<br />
  78. 78. Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Milestones<br />20 km of Tunneling and 50% of HRT Excavation completed, River diverted<br />31 KM of Tunneling completed 11.7 km of HRT excavation Completed<br />Nov,<br /> 2010<br />Jan ‘10<br />Apr ‘09<br />10 km of Cumulative Tunneling<br />Start of Civil Work<br />Jan’ 08<br />Forest Clearance<br />Nov '07<br />Aug’07<br />Financial Closure<br />Award of EPC Contract<br />April’07<br />Environment Clearance from MOE&F<br />Aug’06<br />July’ 06<br />ICB Notification for EPC<br />PPA signed with PTC<br />July’06<br />Feb’05<br />Letter of Intent<br />33<br />
  79. 79. Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Uniqueness<br /><ul><li>Second Largest Project in terms of Installed Capacity in the country and the largest in Private Sector at the time of award.
  80. 80. One of the best studied projects in the country with over 30 of hydrological data available.
  81. 81. All clearances received in record time. Fastest Hydro Project in the country to move to the Construction phase from the date of award.
  82. 82. Project employs second ever CFRD Dam built in the country.
  83. 83. Project contains 13.824 Km long Head Race Tunnel, the excavation of which completed in Record time of 30 Months. The Works effectively commenced from Jan 2009.
  84. 84. Advanced and Special non – conventional tunneling techniques like Pre-grouting has been made an integral part of the tunneling cycle, which in turn improved the tunneling excavation rate. Till date over 34 Km of Tunneling completed in the project (99%) of the total tunneling estimated for the Project) in a record time of 42 Months from the start of Civil Works in Jan 2008
  85. 85. The Surge Shaft and the Pressure Shafts are being excavated by Shaft Sinking method for the First time in a Hydro Project in the Country.</li></ul>34<br />
  86. 86. 1750 MW Demwe Lower HE Project (Arunachal Pradesh)<br />
  87. 87. Demwe Lower HEP– Salient Features<br />Dam of 163.12 m height from Deepest Foundation Level<br />Power intake - 160 m long <br />Surface Power House on right bank about 650 m downstream of Dam axis.<br />Pooling Point<br />Switchyard<br />River<br />River<br />Tail Race Tunnel (open channel, 165 m wide and 130 m long)<br />5 Nos Pressure shaft of 10 m dia. <br />36<br />
  88. 88. Demwe Lower HEP– Status<br /><ul><li>Concurrence accorded by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) .
  89. 89. Clearance received from Ministry of Defence.
  90. 90. “In-Principle” Mega Power Status issued obtained from Ministry of Power (MOP)
  91. 91. “Grant of Connectivity” received from PGCIL.
  92. 92. Environmental Clearance accorded by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).
  93. 93. Memorandum of Understanding signed with PTC India Ltd for purchase of power.
  94. 94. EPC contract has been awarded to M/s SEW- ABIR Consortium through an ICB route
  95. 95. 100% of the Debt has been tied-up with FIs/Banks</li></ul>37<br />
  96. 96. Energy Security ?<br />With the present rate of consumption, world is left with approx. <br /><ul><li>200 years of coal
  97. 97. 75 years of nuclear resources
  98. 98. 50 years of gas and
  99. 99. 25 years of oil respectively;</li></ul>While Conventional Hydro & other New Renewable like Small Hydro, Wind Solar & Biomass are perpetual sources of energy as sustainable options with least carbon footprints.<br /> Global Energy Scenario <br /> Today <br />Fossil fuels - 85 %<br />Nuclear - 4 %<br />Hydro - 9 %<br />New Renewable - 2 %<br />38<br />
  100. 100. Water Provides Perpetual ‘Energy Security’ for Sustainable Development<br /> Hydro is –<br />-Socio-Economic<br />-Technical<br />-Operational<br />-Carbon Neutralizing <br />-Compulsion<br />Hydro Provides Energy Security even during Peaking Hours<br />39<br />
  101. 101. For Energy Security @ 24x7<br />With Best Reflection In All Dimensions<br />Let Us Accept “Hydro” As The Divine Power And As Our First Choice <br />&<br />Bring It Back To The Centre Stage of Power Development<br />World Will Never Ever Regret<br />&<br />Coming Generations Will Remember US<br />For Our Thoughtfulness<br />40<br />
  102. 102. Thank You!!<br />