IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4a

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4a - Hydropower's greenhouse gas footprint: where's the truth?

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4a

  1. 1. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Chair: Moderator:<br />Victor Pochat, UNESCO Joel A Goldenfum, IHA<br /> <br />Panellists:<br />Jorge Damazio, CEPEL<br />Paul Jacobson, EPRI<br />Tormod Schei, Statkraft<br />Alain Tremblay, HydroQuebec<br />Vincent Chanudet, EDF<br />Marco Aurélio dos Santos, UFRJ<br />
  2. 2. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />All human activities have a GHG footprint.<br />Freshwater reservoirs are no exception<br />
  3. 3. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />All human activities have a GHG footprint.<br />Freshwater reservoirs are no exception<br />lack of scientific consensus on how to assess <br />the GHG status <br />of freshwater reservoirs<br />
  4. 4. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Negative perception on Hydro<br />After:<br />Philip Fearnside<br />Danny Cullenward<br />Alexandre Kemenes<br />Nature 444|30 Nov 2006<br />
  5. 5. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Negative perception on Hydro<br />"As these trees become inundated by these upstream reservoirs, they die and they release their carbon that they've been sequestering for hundreds, if not thousands of years,”<br />James Cameron, director of Avatar<br />(http://edition.cnn.com/2010/SHOWBIZ/04/20/james.cameron.rain.forest/index.html) <br />
  6. 6. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />What are the reasons <br />for this bad perception ?<br />worst cases generalized conclusions <br />majority of the available literature data:<br />large gross emissions from young reservoirs, <br />including natural and unrelated anthropogenic sources, <br />conducting to overestimates of the GHG emissions. <br />
  7. 7. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The concept of NET GHG EMISSIONS<br />Change in GHG emissions caused by the creation of a reservoir.<br />Differencebetween scenarios WITHand WITHOUT the reservoir<br />(portion of the river basin influenced by the reservoir)<br />
  8. 8. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Complexity of the processes involved<br />
  9. 9. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Complexity of the processes involved<br />
  10. 10. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Where is the carbon coming from ?<br />Internal + External Sources<br />?<br />
  11. 11. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The UNESCO/IHA Project<br />OBJECTIVES<br /><ul><li>Develop standard guidance for net GHG estimations
  12. 12. Promote measurements and calculate net emissions </li></ul> from a representative set<br /><ul><li>Develop predictive modelling tools
  13. 13. Develop guidance and assessment tools for mitigation</li></li></ul><li>Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />
  14. 14. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Efforts developed so far<br />
  15. 15. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />
  16. 16. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Dr. Jorge Damazio,<br />Project Manager<br />CEPEL Brazil<br />
  17. 17. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Dr. Paul T. Jacobson<br />Program Manager, Waterpower<br />Environment Sector, Electric Power Research Institute<br />USA<br />
  18. 18. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Tormod A. Schei<br />Climate Policy - Statkraft Corp, Norway<br />IPCC Expert<br />
  19. 19. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Dr. Alain Tremblay,<br />Senior Advisor, <br />Hydro Quebec Production (Generation)<br />Canada<br />
  20. 20. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Dr. Vincent CHANUDET<br />Environmental Projects<br />EDF Hydro Engineering Centre <br />France<br />
  21. 21. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />Dr. Marco Aurelio dos Santos,<br />Assistant Professor<br />COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil<br />
  22. 22. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The panellists<br />
  23. 23. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />The key topics<br /> Key topic 1: International and national initiatives to assess the GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs<br /> Key topic 2: The ramifications for greenhouse gas inventories and calculated offsets<br /> Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />
  24. 24. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 1: International and national initiatives to assess the GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs<br />Dr. Jorge Damazio,<br />Project Manager<br />CEPEL Brazil<br />Paul T. Jacobson, Ph.D.<br />Program Manager, Waterpower<br />Environment Sector, Electric Power Research Institute<br />USA<br />
  25. 25. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 1: International and national initiatives to assess the GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs<br />The IEA-Hydro Initiative <br />Hydropower Agreement Annex XII <br />and how it relates to the <br />UNESCO/IHA GHG Project<br />Dr. Jorge Damazio,<br />Project Manager<br />CEPEL Brazil<br />
  26. 26. IEA Hydro Annex XII: Hydropower and the Environment<br />Task 1: Managing the Carbon Balance of Freshwater Reservoirs<br />IHA WORLD CONGRESS<br />Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil<br />Jun 2011<br />Jorge Machado Damazio<br />DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OPTIMIZATION AND ENVIRONMENT<br />ELECTRIC ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER <br />
  27. 27. IEA Hydro Annex XII: Hydropower and the Environment<br />Task 1: Managing the Carbon Balance of Freshwater Reservoirs<br /><ul><li>Recognition that state of the art shows lack of firm scientificbasis on hydropower reservoir GHG emissions to be considered in energy policies, legislations and regulations.
  28. 28. The IEA Implementing Agreement for Hydropower Technologies and Programmes (IEA Hydro) started in 2009 a Annex XII Task on “Managing the Carbon Balance in Freshwater Reservoirs”
  29. 29. Through a comprehensive work program
  30. 30. increase knowledge on processes connected to reservoir GHG emissions,
  31. 31. establish best practice guidelines for planning studies on the carbon balance in reservoirs,
  32. 32. standardize GHG flux evaluation methods and
  33. 33. develop an accepted methodology to measure the carbon balance in reservoirs.</li></li></ul><li>IEA Hydro Annex XII: Hydropower and the Environment<br />Task 1: Managing the Carbon Balance of Freshwater Reservoirs<br /><ul><li>Adhered to Task 1: 5 Executive Committee member countries Brazil, Japan, Norway, Finland and the USA
  34. 34. Brazilleads the initiative with CEPEL as the Project Manager
  35. 35. Work by universities and research institutions from ExCo member countries.
  36. 36. Brazil: CEPEL, COPPE-UFRJ, UFJF, UFPR, UFPA, USP, IIEGA, INPE, LACEN
  37. 37. Finland: Finnish Forest Research Institute
  38. 38. Japan: Environmental Science Research Laboratory, CRIEPI
  39. 39. USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  40. 40. Norway: Statkraft</li></li></ul><li>Field Measurements<br />8 existent hydroplants<br />Balbinain Amazon River Basin<br />Tucuruiin Tocantins River Basin;<br />Serra da Mesa in Tocantins River Basin;<br />Xingóin Sao Francisco River Basin ;<br />Três Marias in Sao Francisco River Basin<br />Funilin Paraiba do Sul River Basin;<br />Segredoin Parana River Basin<br />Itaipuin Parana River Basin<br />3 sites of future hydroplants<br />Santo Antônio in Amazon River Basin<br />Belo Monte in Amazon River Basin;<br />Batalhain Parana River Basin<br />
  41. 41. Field Measurements<br />
  42. 42. Data Base<br />Raw data edition interface<br />Documentation insertion interface<br />
  43. 43. Schedule<br /><ul><li> Guidelines in 2 volumes
  44. 44. Volume 1: Guidelines for the Quantitative Analysis of Net GHG Emissions from Reservoirs
  45. 45. Volume 2: Modeling
  46. 46. Since February 2009 four Annex meetings + fourworkshops (including HYDRO 2009, in Lyon, FR, and HYDRO 2010, Lisbon)
  47. 47. Volume 1 to be sent for peer-review in October 2011.
  48. 48. Field measurements started and scheduled to 2011-2012
  49. 49. Reservoir modeling tools - completed in 2012
  50. 50. Volume 2: Modeling completion 2012
  51. 51. Guidelines to manage GHG emissions, drafted end of 2012
  52. 52. Communication tools - 2012</li></li></ul><li>IEA Hydro Annex XII Task 1 and UNESCO-IHA initiatives<br /><ul><li> Both initiative aims to improve scientific knowledge (gain-gain situation)
  53. 53. Field knowledge benefits from UNESCO-IHA 2010 Guidelines publication
  54. 54. It correctly remember us a number of problems still without established procedures – ex: how to consider equivalence between different GHGs
  55. 55. Firmness of scientific basis enhanced by the publication
  56. 56. A number of challenges still (highlight to “unrelated anthropogenic sources” concept)</li></li></ul><li>Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 1: International and national initiatives to assess the GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs<br />What is the EPRI-DOE initiative, <br />and why you are adopting the <br />UNESCO/IHA GHG Measurement Guidelines?<br />Paul T. Jacobson, Ph.D.<br />Program Manager, Waterpower<br />Environment Sector, Electric Power Research Institute<br />USA<br />
  57. 57. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 1: International and national initiatives to assess the GHG emissions from freshwater reservoirs<br />Reactions and discussion<br />
  58. 58. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 2: The ramifications for greenhouse gas inventories and calculated offsets<br />What are the recent developments in the IPCC understanding on GHG emissions from reservoirs?<br />Tormod A. Schei<br />Climate Policy - Statkraft Corp, Norway<br />IPCC Expert<br />
  59. 59. The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation<br />Findings regarding GHG from hydropower reservoirs <br />Tormod A. Schei, CLA Hydropower <br />june, 2011<br />
  60. 60. 37<br />The process<br />2006: process initiated<br />2008: ”Scoping” -140 experts and scientist<br />Structure, topics, list of contents decided<br />2009: - First of 7 meetings of Lead Authors (CLAs/LAs)<br />2011: 9th of may – Report adopted<br />Consensus on content<br />> 120 authors<br /> > 350 external experts – comments, inputs, corrections, 2 rounds<br />194 governments and their experts – 2 rounds<br />24 766 comments<br />~ 2000 comments – hydro chapter alone<br /> ~ 4000 referred papers/reports<br />Treatment of the individual comment published online<br />Hydropower<br />
  61. 61. Key message<br />38<br /><ul><li>Close to 80 percent of the world‘s energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century if backed by the right enabling public policies
  62. 62. This could assist in keeping concentrations of greenhouse gases at 450 parts per million.
  63. 63. This could contribute towards a goal of holding the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius – an aim recognized in the United Nations Climate Convention's Cancun Agreements.
  64. 64. At the end of 2010 concentrations where 390 ppm
  65. 65. If no backing by ambitious carbon policies only 15% of the global energy supply would be coming from RE by midcentury</li></li></ul><li>39<br />World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg 2002) all hydro renewable<br />Bonn International Conference on Renewable Energies (2004) – large hydro proposed to be excluded - this was rejected<br />Hydropower<br />
  66. 66. 40<br />Reservoirs<br /><ul><li>Hydropower classified in functional types
  67. 67. The concept of ”small” and ”large” hydro rejected
  68. 68. Hydropower – a continuum in scale</li></ul>Hydropower<br />
  69. 69. Reservoirs<br />Research and Field surveys involving 14 universities and 24 countries:<br />All freshwater systems, whether they are natural or manmade, emit GHGs due to decomposing organic material. <br />They also bury some carbon in the sediments<br />In some cases, natural water bodies and freshwater reservoirs absorb more CO2 than they emit.<br />However:<br />High gross emissions have been shown – for some reservoirs<br />41<br />
  70. 70. Mitigating climate change<br />42<br />Hydropower<br />
  71. 71. 43<br />Reservoirs<br />Figure SPM.8. | Estimates of lifecycle GHG emissions (g CO2-eq / kWh) for broad categories of electricity generation technologies, plus some technologies integrated with CCS. Land-use related net changes in carbon stocks (mainly applicable to biopower and hydropower from reservoirs) and land management impacts are excluded; …………..<br />
  72. 72. 44<br />The concept of net emissions acknowledged<br />Only gross emissions assessed<br />“Characterizing a reservoir as a net emitter of GHGs --- is an area of active research and currently without consensus “<br />The SRREN defines net emissions as :<br />Gross emissions minus pre-impoundment emissions and minus unrelated anthropogenic sources (UAS)<br />“(i.e., excluding unrelated anthropogenic sources and pre-existing natural emissions)”<br />
  73. 73. The CDM Power density indicator, PDI (W/m2)<br />Eligibility for CDM credits <br />Storage Hydro treated differently from other RE and Run of River <br />The PDI state the level of GHG based on installed capacity and surface area of reservoir<br />45<br />
  74. 74. 46<br />The CDM Power density indicator, PDI (W/m2)<br />“There is little link, however, between installed capacity, the area of a reservoir and the various biogeochemical processes active in a reservoir.”<br />“Hypothetically, two identical storage HPPs would, according to the PDI, have the same emissions independent of climate zones or of inundated biomass and carbon fluxes.”<br />“As such, the PDI rule may inadvertently impede the development of socially beneficial hydropower projects, while at the same time supporting less beneficial projects”<br />
  75. 75. 47<br />Thank you for listening !<br />
  76. 76. Mitigating freshwater scarcity<br />Freshwater scarcity<br />Today about 700 million people<br />By 2035 about three billion people<br />45,000 large dams world wide<br />~75% built for irrigation, flood control, navigation, urban water supply schemes<br />~25% for used for hydropower alone – or as multipurpose reservoirs<br />Multipurpose hydropower<br /> – e.g. water supply, irrigation, flood control, navigation, recreation, tourism, etc. – and energy<br />Need for dams creating available water<br /> – the HPP as enabling financial mechanism<br />48<br />
  77. 77. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 2: The ramifications for greenhouse gas inventories and calculated offsets<br />Reactions and discussion<br />
  78. 78. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />Dr. Alain Tremblay,<br />Senior Advisor, <br />Hydro Quebec Production (Generation)<br />Canada<br />Dr. Vincent CHANUDET<br />Environmental Projects<br />EDF Hydro Engineering Centre <br />France<br />Dr. Marco Aurelio dos Santos,<br />Assistant Professor<br />COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil<br />
  79. 79. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />How is HydroQuebec<br />addressing the issue of <br />Net GHG emissions assessments?<br />Dr. Alain Tremblay,<br />Senior Advisor, <br />Hydro Quebec Production (Generation)<br />Canada<br />
  80. 80.
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
  84. 84. Boreal reservoirs = Low GHG emitters<br />
  85. 85.
  86. 86.
  87. 87. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />The Nam Theun 2 Project <br />and its relation to the <br />UNESCO/IHA GHG Research Project<br />Dr. Vincent CHANUDET<br />Environmental Projects<br />EDF Hydro Engineering Centre <br />France<br />
  88. 88. Example of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos)<br />NET GHG footprint<br />Pre-impoundment<br /><ul><li> C stock</li></ul>- GHG emissions<br />Post-impoundment<br /><ul><li> Water quality (C load…)
  89. 89. GHG emissions
  90. 90. Hydrobiology
  91. 91. Meteorology</li></ul>Some key figures:<br /><ul><li>1 dedicated laboratory (12 persons, ≈ 4.5 M$ on 3 years)
  92. 92. 36 sampling stations
  93. 93. More than 70 measured parameters
  94. 94. ≈ 5000 results per month
  95. 95. 1 PhD thesis and 1 research program</li></li></ul><li>Example of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos)<br />Beyond the UNESCO/IHA GHG guidelines…<br /><ul><li>Drawdown area
  96. 96. 3D process based model
  97. 97. Extended monitoring (e.g. hydrobiology)
  98. 98. Measurements on other Lao reservoirs</li></ul>How muchistoomuch ??<br />
  99. 99. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />The Brazilian experience <br />Dr. Marco Aurelio dos Santos,<br />Assistant Professor<br />COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil<br />
  100. 100. StudywithEletrobras/MinistryofSciencyandTechnology – 1998/1999 Average Bubble Emission<br />CO2<br />CH4<br />Average Diffusive Emission<br />CO2<br />CH4<br />
  101. 101. Studywith Furnas – Carbon Balance of Furnas Reservoirs – 2003/2008 (5 yearsproject)<br />
  102. 102. EmissionsatFurnas ReservoirsStudied<br />
  103. 103.
  104. 104.
  105. 105. PreImpoundmentStudies – Belo Monte ReservoirArea<br />
  106. 106. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Key topic 3: Examples of application<br />Reactions and discussion<br />
  107. 107. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Take-home messages<br />from the panellists<br />Jorge Damazio, CEPEL<br />Paul Jacobson, EPRI<br />Tormod Schei, Statkraft<br />Alain Tremblay, HydroQuebec<br />Vincent Chanudet, EDF<br />Marco Aurélio dos Santos, UFRJ<br />
  108. 108. Session 4a <br />Wednesday 15 June, 3.30-5pm<br />Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Wrap-up<br />Dr. Joel A. Goldenfum,<br />Project Manager – UNESCO/IHA GHG Project<br />IHA<br />
  109. 109. Summary of challenges<br /><ul><li>data have not been obtained in a standard procedure;
  110. 110. difficult to have a representative sample of existing and planned reservoirs;
  111. 111. Need for an agreed procedure to estimate the net emissions of reservoirs. </li></li></ul><li>Summary of challenges<br />GHG emissions from reservoirs at the global scale are subject to large uncertainties.<br />There is a need to sharpen our understanding of the processes involved.<br />
  112. 112. Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Field Data from a RANGE of representative reservoirs<br />Scientific Research<br />
  113. 113. Hydro’s greenhouse gas footprint: where is the truth?<br />Cooperative efforts<br />Data sharing<br />Intellectual property<br />Data ownership<br />Confidentiality<br />Capacity Building<br />

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