ECDIS with a critical view

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Horst Hecht created a presentation with a critical view on ECDIS from various perspectives: technical, regulatory and in the daily practice. In the conclusion he gives suggestions for improvement in the process

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ECDIS with a critical view

  1. 1. ECDIS: With a Critical View Workshop Rotterdam, 11 December 2013 Hydrographic Society, Benelux Branch by Horst Hecht Director (rtd.) Hydrography, BSH Germany Present: Senior Scientific Advisor to Caris bv
  2. 2. Overview • • • • • • • Historical flashback Current situation Problem areas Strengths Weaknesses Threats Outlook Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  3. 3. Some historical notes • First ideas and proposals for an Electronic Chart System already at the end of 70ies. • First prototype: 1983 (USA, M. Rogoff) – Port of Baltimore, already with Radar overlay • 1986-1997: IMO and IHO address ECDIS; result: Performance Standards for ECDIS as basis for industrial development – Netherlands (RAdm van Opstal) initiated first steps • 1988-1997: IHO develops S-52 and S-57 standards • Since 1997: HOs produce ENCs and updates • 2010: 95%-level of data coverage reached Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  4. 4. Where do we stand today with ECDIS? • ECDIS – a new database-driven, GPS-controlled navigation information system replacing paper charts, regulated by IMO, data to be produced under authority of national HOs following worldwide IHO standards • Phased carriage requirement (since July 2012) • Component of an integrated bridge system • Data available for about 95% of oceans • Heterogeneous system of data distribution and service supply • Core of future e-Navigation (IMO) Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  5. 5. International Organisations responsible for ECDIS regulation and standardisation IMO Maritime Administrations IHO ECDIS Performance Standards SOLAS V Carriage requirement ECDIS Standards S52 Hydrographic Offices S57/S100 S63 IEC Industry Test-Standard IEC 61147 IMO: International Maritime Organization IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  6. 6. ECDIS carriage requirement (IMO NAV 54/25 Annex 14 [2009]) Type Tonnage Bis Juli 2012 Juli 2013 Juli 2014 Juli 2015 Juli 2016 ≥50,000 ≥20,000 Cargo ships ≥10,000 ≥3,000 <3,000 Tanker All ≥3,000 <3,000 Passenger ships All ≥500 <500 No mandatory carriage, ECDIS optional Requirement valid for newbuilds from 1 July on [of the first year coloured green] Requirement valid for newbuilds from 1 July on [of the first year coloured green] , additionally for all other vessels of that class from the date on of first inspection on or after 1 July [of the first year coloured red] Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013 Juli 2017 Juli 2018 Danach
  7. 7. Integrated Bridge System (Schematic example) Source: http://www.syberg.no/ibs-integrated-bridge-systems/integrated-bridge-and-navigation-system-synapsis-bridge-control-article127-153.html Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  8. 8. Worldwide availability of official ENCs Source: http://iho-wms.net/wms/ENCatFrame.htm (as of June 2013) Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  9. 9. Current state - Summary ECDIS ..... • is gradually becoming the standard equipment • is the backbone of all bridge systems • is the by far most complex navigation system .... – integrating real-time input from a variety of sensors (GPS, radar, AIS, gyro, rudder and other ship sensors) ... – with GPS driving the functions of a complex GIS database, which is to be continually kept up-to-date – controlling a complex real-time graphic display and real-time warning functions • has overcome most of the initial problems and difficulties But ........ Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  10. 10. Problem areas • Regulatory – IMO – IHO • Organisationally – Data services – Quality assurance • Technically – Standardisation – Hydrographic data quality Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  11. 11. Strengths Organisationally: • In principle, worldwide ENC service provision system in place Technically: • Based on worldwide data and presentation standards supporting complex functions • Migration path to S-100 standards suite: imbedded in the family of ISO 191xx family of GIS standards • Ready for the future: S-100 adopted by IMO as basis of the “Common Marine Data Structure” (CMDS) for e-Navigation Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  12. 12. Weaknesses (1) Generally: Strengths are confined to technical potential, problem: reality! Regulatory: • IMO: – Despite SOLAS being international law: virtually no enforcement mechanism in case of contraventions (e.g. insufficient fulfilment of national responsibilities for hydrography, data production) – Type approval mechanism (approval authorities, equipment test standard) of nautical equipment flawed. For ECDIS there is particular risk that unfit equipment enters the market – No mandatory upgrading of older ECDIS equipment versions • IHO – No enforcement mechanism for HOs to adhere to WEND principles Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  13. 13. Weaknesses (2) Organisationally (IHO): • No central quality assurance system in place – HOs handle QA differently, – most countries participate in QA centres, but important countries (e.g. USA, Canada, Japan) stay out • No agreed common distribution system: – Two (competing) QA centres (RENCs) as outlets – Other countries via distributors direct • Consequence: Service Providers must handle multiple data sources of variable, sometimes even questionable quality Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  14. 14. WEND Conceptual Model HO Reg B REGION B HO Reg B IHO WEND COMMITTEE RENC B HO Reg B HO Reg A REGION A National Shipping HO Reg A RENC A ENC Agents HO Reg A HO Reg C REGION C HO Reg C RENC C HO Reg C Annex 6 to CL27/1994 –Report of the Special Committee on WEND International Shipping
  15. 15. Reality (as of 2004 – but still valid in principle ....) Hong Kong, Philippines USA, Chile, Japan Australia, Canada (Bahrain), Belgium, Cyprus Egypt, Germany, (India), Jamaica, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, UK IC-ENC (Greece) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden PRIMARStavanger Singapore Others ? D I S T R I B U T O R S U S E R S
  16. 16. An analogy: Committee Design What the customer wanted What the committee agreed How it was defined by standards Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013 What industry delivered
  17. 17. Threats • For navigational equipment, everything that doesn„t work as it should constitutes a potential risk and must be considered a threat to the customer as well to the idea of the system – Conceptual Issues – Legacy Issues – Certification Issues – Data Quality Issues Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  18. 18. Conceptual Threats • First and important point: Overreliance ! – “Computers do not err” – Neglection of traditional watchkeeping duties • Complexity of ECDIS handling • Crews frequently changing ships  always new equipment with different MMI Possible action: • Training, training, training .... (general and typespecific) Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  19. 19. Legacy issues • Old equipment, partly 1st generation ECDIS still in use • Software errors in ECDIS • Incomplete test standards (IEC) and test data set (IHO)  special data combinations lead to incorrect functions • Only one third of all ECDISes perform correctly! • IMO Circular SN1-Circ 312 - ECDIS anomalies.pdf warns of specific errors Action: • New standard S100/S101 for ECDIS allowing updating of data standard • Introduction of methods for underway software upgrades Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  20. 20. Certification • Mostly carried out by classification societies • Should involve thorough independent testing in laboratory – But often only relied on manufacturer‟s documentation • Competitive business, competition often over cost, not over quality of certification • In EU, any certificate issued by a recognized EU body must be accepted Action: • ?? Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  21. 21. Data Quality • Generic: – Outdated surveys (partly no competent HO!) – „Zone-of-Confidence“ (ZOC) Parameter in ENCs not adequate:  No relation to water depth (much better: IHO S-44!)  No relation to time/temporal variability of seafloor • Specific: – Some ENCs published with no independent QC (e.g. USA!) – Updating slow or much delayed in some countries • Potential Risk: – Any data deficiencies may lead to accidents and casualties! Action: • Improvement of international cooperation, correction of quality parameter Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  22. 22. Conclusion (1) Theory – OK, practical implementation flawed (2) International coordination and cooperation should be improved: WEND  WENC (3) Improvement by new IHO standard S-100 (e.g. Upgrading of data standard) (4) More stringent certification procedures (5) Reality Check: ECDIS, as the most complex navigation system, will never be perfect, neither in terms of technology nor of data ECDIS must still be operated by intelligent human beings, not the other way around! Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013
  23. 23. Thanks for your kind attention! Horst Hecht: ECDIS – With a Critical View HSB, 11 Dec 2013

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