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ResourceSync Overview

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The slides were used to accompany an overview of the outcomes of the ResourceSync project at the 2014 Spring Membership Meeting of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI).

The launch of ResourceSync, a joint project of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, was motivated by the ubiquitous need to synchronize resources for applications in the realm of cultural heritage and research communication. After an initial problem definition and scoping phase, the project has designed, specified, and tested a framework for web-based synchronization that is based on SiteMaps, a protocol widely used by web servers to advertise the resources they make available to search engines for indexing. This choice allows repositories to address both search engine optimization and resource synchronization needs using the same technology.

The ResourceSync framework specifies various modular capabilities that a repository can support in order to allow third party systems to remain synchronized with its evolving resources. For example, a Resource List provides an inventory of resources whereas a Change List details resources that were created, deleted or updated during a given temporal interval. Support for capabilities can be combined in order to meet local or community requirements. The framework specifies capabilities that require a third party to recurrently poll for up-to-date information about a repositories’ resources but also publish/subscribe capabilities that keep third parties informed about changes through notifications, thereby significantly reducing synchronization latency.

Published in: Internet

ResourceSync Overview

  1. 1. ResourceSync was funded by the Sloan Foundation & JISC A Modular Framework for Web-Based Resource Synchronization Martin Klein Los Alamos National Laboratory @mart1nkle1n http://www.openarchives.org/rs #resourcesync Herbert Van de Sompel Los Alamos National Laboratory @hvdsomp ResourceSync
  2. 2. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 ResourceSync • Collaboration between NISO and the Open Archives Initiative • Funded by the Sloan Foundation and JISC • Goal: Devise a specification for web-based resource synchronization
  3. 3. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Framework - Overview • Framework – Technology • Demonstration • Status
  4. 4. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Background - OAI-PMH • Recurrent metadata exchange from a Data Provider to Service Providers • XML metadata only • Repository centric • Devised 1999-2002, prior to REST, prior to dominance of web search engines
  5. 5. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Revisit the Problem Domain - ResourceSync • Synchronization of resources from a Source to Destinations • Web resources, anything with an HTTP URI & representation • Resource centric • Devised 2012-2013, leverages key ingredients of web interoperability, existing specifications, existing Search Engine Optimization practice
  6. 6. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Problem Statement • Consideration: • Source (server) A has resources that change over time: they get created, modified, deleted • Destination (servers) X, Y, and Z leverage (some) resources of Source A • Problem: • Destinations want to keep in step with the resource changes at Source A
  7. 7. A Source’s Resources
  8. 8. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  9. 9. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  10. 10. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  11. 11. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  12. 12. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  13. 13. A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  14. 14. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Problem Statement • Consideration: • Source (server) A has resources that change over time: they get created, modified, deleted • Destination (servers) X, Y, and Z leverage (some) resources of Source A • Problem: • Destinations want to keep in step with the resource changes at Source A • Goal: • Design an approach for resource synchronization aligned with the Web Architecture that has a fair chance of adoption by different communities
  15. 15. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Framework - Overview • Framework – Technology • Demonstration • Status
  16. 16. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Scope – Collection Size • Size of a Source’s resource collection: • A few resources - small web sites, repositories • Millions of resources – large repositories, datasets, linked data collections
  17. 17. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Scope – Change Frequency • Change frequency of a Source’s resources: • Low – daily, weekly, monthly • High – seconds, minutes
  18. 18. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Scope – Synchronization Latency • Destination’s requirements regarding synchronization latency: • High latency acceptable • Low latency essential
  19. 19. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Scope – Collection Coverage • Destination’s requirements regarding the coverage of a Source’s resources: • Partial coverage of the Source’s resources acceptable • Full coverage of the Source’s resources verifiable
  20. 20. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Scope – Bitstream Accuracy • Destination’s requirements regarding bitstream accuracy: • Unverifiable bitstream accuracy acceptable • Verifiable bitstream coverage essential
  21. 21. One to One Synchronization
  22. 22. One to Many – Master Copy
  23. 23. Many to One - Aggregator
  24. 24. Selective Synchronization
  25. 25. Metadata Harvesting
  26. 26. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Framework - Overview • Framework – Technology • Demonstration • Status
  27. 27. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 A Source’s Resources Evolve over Time
  28. 28. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Solution Perspective - Destination • Destination needs regarding synchronization: • Baseline synchronization: Initial catch-up operation to align with the Source’s resources • Incremental synchronization: Remain synchronized as the Source’s resources evolve • Audit: Destination determines whether it effectively is in sync with the Source - Bitstream accuracy - Coverage of resources
  29. 29. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Solution Perspective - Source • Source communicates about the state of its resources: • Publish inventory: snapshot of the state of resources at a moment in time • Publish changes: enumeration of resource changes that occurred during a temporal interval • Notify about changes: send notifications as changes occur • Communication payload: • Minimal, e.g. HTTP URI of resource • Additional, e.g. content-based hash of resource
  30. 30. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Resource List • In order to meet a Destination’s need for baseline synchronization, the Source may publish a Resource List • A Resource List is an inventory, a snapshot of existing resources • Per resource, it minimally provides the resource’s URI • Process: - Destination obtains the Resource List - Destination obtains listed resources by their URI - Optimization: Resource Dump, a list pointing to ZIP files that contain resource representations
  31. 31. Publish Resource List: Inventory at Tx Resource List @Tx = { A ; B ; C }
  32. 32. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Change List • In order to meet a Destination’s need for incremental synchronization, the Source may publish a Change List • A Change List enumerates resource change events that occurred in a temporal interval • For each event, it minimally lists datetime, URI of the resource, the nature of the change • Process: - Destination obtains the Change List - Destination obtains created/updated resources, removes deleted resources - Optimization: Change Dump
  33. 33. Publish Change List: Resource Changes During Interval Ty-Tz Change List [Ty,Tz] = { A updated @Tc ; B updated @Tc ; C created @Td ; D deleted @Te ; C updated @Tf }
  34. 34. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Change Notification • In order to meet a Destination’s need for incremental synchronization and low latency, the Source may send Change Notifications • A Change Notification conveys resource change events as they occur • For each event, it minimally lists datetime, URI of the resource, the nature of the change - Process: - Destination receives Change Notification - Destination obtains created/updated resources, removes deleted resources
  35. 35. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Ta Change Notification @Ta = { A updated @Ta }
  36. 36. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Tb Change Notification @Tb = { D updated @Tb }
  37. 37. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Tc Change Notification @Tc = { A updated @Tc ; B updated @Tc }
  38. 38. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Td Change Notification @Td = { C created @Td }
  39. 39. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Te Change Notification @Te = { D deleted @Te }
  40. 40. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Send Change Notification – Resource Changes at Tf Change Notification @Tf = { C updated @Tf }
  41. 41. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Communication Payload – Metadata & Links • A Source may provide additional metadata and links pertaining to resources conveyed in Resource Lists, Change Lists, Change Notifications • Metadata about a resource: content encoding, content length, mime type, content-based hash • Linking to related resources: mirror copies, alternate representations, resource versions, diff between current and previous version, metadata-to-content link, content-to- metadata link, collection membership, etc.
  42. 42. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Communication Payload – Metadata – Hash • In order to meet a Destination’s need for audit, the Source may provide a content-based hash pertaining to a resource • Source computes the content-based hash for a resource • Source provides the hash as metadata pertaining to the resource in its communication payload • Destination processes communication payload, obtains the resource • Destination computes the content-based hash for the obtained resource, compares with the Source’s
  43. 43. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Communication Payload – Link – Interlink Metadata & Content • In order to allow a Destination to establish the relationship between a Source’s metadata and a Source’s content, the Source may provide appropriate links • Metadata resources and content resources are just resources identified by HTTP URIs • Both can independently be subject to synchronization and can be interlinked using appropriately typed links
  44. 44. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Communication Payload – Link – Link to Diff • In order to minimize content transfer, a Source may link to a diff between the previous and the new version of a resource • Destination can obtain the diff and patch its (previous) version of the resource • Connection between the resource and the diff is established by means of appropriately typed link • Nature of the diff is established by means of MIME type - Few diff MIME types exist. Communities can establish their own.
  45. 45. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Further Framework Characteristics • Modular: A Source does not have to implement all capabilities • Source decides which capabilities to support based on local and community requirements • Sets of Resources: Division of a Source’s resource collection in logical groupings. • Supported capabilities can differ per set • Discovery: Mechanisms for Destinations to determine whether and how a Source supports ResourceSync • Based on conventions for web discovery and documents that detail the level of support
  46. 46. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Framework - Overview • Framework – Technology • Demonstration • Status
  47. 47. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Sitemap Protocol • ResourceSync builds on the Sitemap protocol used by major search engines • Similarity between resource synchronization and resource discovery/indexing • Extends the Sitemap protocol to meet synchronization needs • Cf. Metadata and Links • Sitemap document format is used throughout the framework to express Resource Lists, Change Lists, etc. • Type of ResourceSync document can be determined through explicit declaration
  48. 48. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Common Sitemap <urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9”> <url> <loc>http://example.com/res1</loc> <lastmod>2013-01-02T13:00:00Z</lastmod> </url> <url> <loc>http://example.com/res2</loc> <lastmod>2013-01-02T14:00:00Z</lastmod> </url> … </urlset>
  49. 49. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Resource List <urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9" xmlns:rs="http://www.openarchives.org/rs/terms/"> <rs:md capability="resourcelist" at="2013-01-03T09:00:00Z” /> <url> <loc>http://example.com/res1</loc> <lastmod>2013-01-02T13:00:00Z</lastmod> <rs:md hash="md5:1584abdf8ebdc9802ac0c6a7402c03b6" length="8876" type=”application/pdf” /> </url> <url> … </url> </urlset>
  50. 50. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Change List <urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9" xmlns:rs="http://www.openarchives.org/rs/terms/"> <rs:md capability=”changelist" from="2013-01-02T09:00:00Z” until="2013-01-03T09:00:00Z” /> <url> <loc>http://example.com/res2</loc> <lastmod>2013-01-02T13:00:00Z</lastmod> <rs:md change=”updated” /> <rs:ln href=“http://example.com/res2/meta” rel=“describedby” /> </url> <url> … </url> </urlset>
  51. 51. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Change Notification <urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9" xmlns:rs="http://www.openarchives.org/rs/terms/"> <url> <loc>http://example.com/res3</loc> <lastmod>2013-01-02T13:00:00Z</lastmod> <rs:md change=”updated” type=”application/json” /> <rs:ln href=“http://example.com/res3/diff” rel=“http://www.openarchives.org/rs/terms/patch” type=“application/json-patch”/> </url> <url> … </url> </urlset>
  52. 52. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 PubSubHubbub Protocol • ResourceSync builds on the PuSH protocol used for syndication of Atom/RSS feeds • Introduces a novel use for pushing change notifications from a Source to subscribing Destinations • Destinations subscribe to a Source’s change notifications via a Hub • The Source pushes change notifications out to the Hub • The Hub relays change notifications from the Source to the subscribing Destinations
  53. 53. Destination Discovers Source’s Notification Channel & Hub
  54. 54. Destination Subscribes to Source’s Notification Channel
  55. 55. Source Sends Change Notification to Hub
  56. 56. Hub Relays Change Notification to Destination(s)
  57. 57. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Example Use Cases • Framework Characteristics • Demonstration • Status
  58. 58. Source Sends Change Notifications Screencam of demo at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2Le9_Bbkdw
  59. 59. Destination Acts Upon Change Notifications Screencam of demo at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2Le9_Bbkdw
  60. 60. Observe the State of Source and Destination Screencam of demo at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2Le9_Bbkdw
  61. 61. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 This ResourceSync Presentation • Problem Domain • Scope • Example Use Cases • Framework Characteristics • Demonstration • Status
  62. 62. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Status of Specifications • ResourceSync Core Specification to be ANSI/NISO Z39.99-2014 by Summer 2014 • Spec on OAI web site fully aligned with NISO Standard • ResourceSync Notification Specification currently in beta • Stable • Testing PubSubHubbub • Hub, Source, Destination Python software to be released • Public Hub for testing will be made available • ResourceSync Archive Specification currently in beta • Stable
  63. 63. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Pointers • Specification http://www.openarchives.org/rs/ http://www.openarchives.org/rs/resourcesync http://www.openarchives.org/rs/notification http://www.openarchives.org/rs/archives • List for public comment https://groups.google.com/d/forum/resourcesync • Building blocks http://sitemaps.org https://code.google.com/p/pubsubhubbub/
  64. 64. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Papers • Klein, M., and Van de Sompel, H. (2013) Extending Sitemaps for Resourcesync. http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4890 ACM/IEEE JCDL 2013 • Haslhofer, B., Warner, S, Lagoze, C., Klein, M., Sanderson, R., Nelson, M.L. and Van de Sompel, H. (2013) ResourceSync: Leveraging Sitemaps for Resource Synchronization. http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1476 WWW 2013 Developer Track • Klein, M., Sanderson, R., Van de Sompel, H., Warner, S, Haslhofer, B., Lagoze, C., and Nelson, M.L. (2013) A Technical Framework for Resource Synchronization. http://dx.doi.org/10.1045/january2013-klein D-Lib Magazine. • Van de Sompel, H., Sanderson, R., Klein, M., Nelson, M.L., Haslhofer, B., Warner, S, and Lagoze, C. (2012) A Perspective on Resource Synchronization. http://dx.doi.org/10.1045/september2012-vandesompel D- Lib Magazine.
  65. 65. Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein - ResourceSync CNI Spring 2014, St. Louis, MO, March 31 2014 Acknowledgments • Editors: Martin Klein, Robert Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel (Los Alamos National Laboratory), Simeon Warner (Cornell University), Graham Klyne ( University of Oxford), Bernhard Haslhofer (University of Vienna), Michael L. Nelson (Old Dominion University), Carl Lagoze ( University of Michigan) • Contributors: Peter Murray (Lyrasis), Todd Carpenter, Nettie Lagace (NISO), Richard Jones (Cottage Labs), Stuart Lewis (University of Edinburgh), Paul Walk (University of Edinburgh), Jeff Young (OCLC), Shlomo Sanders (Ex Libris), Kevin Ford (Library of Congress) • Demonstration: Martin Klein, Harihar Shankar, Herbert Van de Sompel (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
  66. 66. ResourceSync was funded by the Sloan Foundation & JISC A Modular Framework for Web-Based Resource Synchronization Martin Klein Los Alamos National Laboratory @mart1nkle1n http://www.openarchives.org/rs #resourcesync Herbert Van de Sompel Los Alamos National Laboratory @hvdsomp ResourceSync

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