Persistent Identifiers and the Web: The Need for an Unambiguous Mapping

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Presentation given at the International Digital Curation Conference in San Francisco, February 26 2014. Highlights the lack of machine-actionability of persistent identifiers assigned to scholarly communication assets. Proposes an approach to address the issue that meets requirements that take into account the changing nature of web based research communication. A draft paper provides more details: http://public.lanl.gov/herbertv/papers/Papers/2014/IDCC2014_vandesompel.pdf

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  • Suggesting that the resource identified by HTTP-URI-PID is a non-information resource that corresponds with the scholarly asset as an intellectual object
  • Persistent Identifiers and the Web: The Need for an Unambiguous Mapping

    1. 1. Persistent Identifiers for Scholarly Assets and the Web: The Need for an Unambiguous Mapping Herbert Van de Sompel @hvdsomp Robert Sanderson @azaroth42 Harihar Shankar @hariharshankar Martin Klein @mart1nkle1n Los Alamos National Laboratory
    2. 2. Acknowledgments • • • • • • • • Sean Bechhofer – University of Manchester Geoff Bilder – CrossRef Maarten Hoogerwerf – DANS Pete Johnston – Cambridge University Carl Lagoze - University of Michigan Michael L. Nelson – Old Dominion University Andrew Treloar – ANDS Simeon Warner – Cornell University Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    3. 3. Motivation • Persistent/Persist-able Identifiers (PIDs) play a crucial role in the identification of scholarly assets • Motivated by concerns of long term persistence, PIDs are minted outside of the dominant web information access protocol, HTTP • Value added services targeted at humans and machines assume/require resources identified by means of HTTP URIs • Hence, an unambiguous bridge is required between: • PID-oriented paradigm of research communication • HTTP-oriented web, semantic web, linked data environment • Preferably, such a bridge should work across PID systems • Interoperability between PID systems Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    4. 4. Status Quo of the PID/HTTP Bridge Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    5. 5. HTTP HEAD != HTTP GET • The expectation is that an HTTP HEAD on HTTP-URI-PID will yield the same response (without body) as an HTTP GET • Martin Fenner finds this is not always the case • Not a CrossRef resolver problem, a publisher problem Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    6. 6. Notation Asset Identifier PID Resolving URI HTTP-URI-PID Redirect URI (landing page) HTTP-URI-LAND Location URI (content) HTTP-URI-LOC Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    7. 7. Examples of Issues with the PID/HTTP Bridge • Given an HTTP-URI-PID, how can a machine navigate towards the actual content (i.e. not the landing page)? • Given an HTTP-URI-LOC (of - say - an image), what is the PID of the asset it resorts under? • What is the URI of the Target of an Open Annotation that pertains to a PID-identified asset (i.e. not to the landing page, not to the PDF, the HTML, …)? Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    8. 8. Requirements for the PID/HTTP Bridge • Targeted at machines so richer applications (for humans and machines) can emerge • Follow your nose; typed links; RDF • Support for bundling resources and describing those resources to reflect that assets increasingly consist of multiple, not just a single, resource • Multiple HTTP-URI-LOC resort under a PID • Support for resource versioning, discovery of versions, access to versions to reflect that resources used or created during the research process are increasingly dynamic Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    9. 9. Evidence for these Requirements: Data Citation Principles (4) Unique Identification: A data citation should include a persistent method for identification that is machine actionable, globally unique, and widely used in the community. (5) Access: Data citations should facilitate access to the data themselves and to such associated metadata, documentation, code, and other materials, as are necessary for both humans and machines to make informed use of the referenced data. (7) Specificity and Verifiability: … Citations or citation metadata should include information about provenance and fixity sufficient to facilitate verifying that the specific timeslice, version and/or granular portion of data retrieved subsequently is the same as was originally cited. Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    10. 10. A Proposed PID/HTTP Bridge • A bridge goes in two directions: • Uniform path from the PID of an asset the asset’s constituent resources, each identified by a distinct HTTP-URI-LOC • Uniform path from the HTTP-URI-LOC of a constituent resource of a scholarly asset to the PID of that asset • In order to build the bridge, a rather basic question needs an answer … Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    11. 11. What is the Nature of the Resource Identified by HTTP-URI-PID? • HTTP-URI-PID identifies the landing page HTTP-URI-LAND • Interpretation supported by typical “302 Found” redirection • HTTP-URI-PID identifies the asset identified by PID for the purpose of web interactions • Interpretation supported by: • CrossRef display guideline that recommends using HTTPURI-PID in the online environment, replacing prior practice to use PID • CrossRef provides descriptive RDF metadata using “303 See Also” style content negotiation with HTTP-URI-PID • The resource is conceptual, a so-called non-information resource Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    12. 12. A Proposed PID/HTTP Bridge • A bridge goes in two directions: • Uniform path from the PID of an asset to the asset’s constituent resources, each identified by a distinct HTTP-URI-LOC • Uniform path from the HTTP-URI-LOC of a constituent resource of a scholarly asset to the PID of that asset • HTTP-URI-PID identifies the asset identified by PID for the purpose of web interactions • The proposed bridge builds on: HTTP, Cool URIs for the Semantic Web, HTTP Links and Link Relation Types, OAI-ORE, Memento Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    13. 13. Requirements for the PID/HTTP Bridge  Targeted at machines  Support for bundling resources • Support for resource versioning Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    14. 14. Common Resource Versioning Pattern version-specific URI generic URI: always most recent version version-specific URI
    15. 15. Resource Versioning • This common resource versioning pattern can be used for Aggregations (HTTP-URI-PID), Resource Maps (HTTP-URI-MACH), Aggregated Resources (HTTP-URI-LOC, HTTP-URI-LAND) • The pattern aligns perfectly with Memento which offers modular functionality for discovering, accessing resource versions using HTTP headers (See Resource Versioning and Memento): • Express datetime of a resource version • Interlink resource versions • Interlink resource version and the associated generic resource • Access an overview of all resource versions • Access a resource version that was current at a given datetime Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    16. 16. Requirements for the PID/HTTP Bridge  Targeted at machines  Support for bundling resources  Support for resource versioning Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    17. 17. Open Issues Which ontologies for metadata, types, relationships? Cf. SURF info-eu-repo, State of the LOD Cloud • No URI schemes for PIDs • PID/HTTP-URI-PID for each version; typically none that always yield the current version Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    18. 18. Open Issues Should it be owl:sameAs Should it be rel=“collection” Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014
    19. 19. References • Martin Fenner. Challenges in automated DOI resolution. http://blog.martinfenner.org/2013/10/13/broken-dois/ • FORCE11 Data Citation Principles. http://force11.org/datacitation • Cool URIs for the Semantic Web. http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/ • Web Linking. http://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc5988 • IANA Link Relation Types. http://www.iana.org/assignments/linkrelations/link-relations.xhtml • OAI-ORE. http://www.openarchives.org/ore/1.0/ • Memento, RFC 7089. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7089 • Resource Versioning and Memento. http://www.mementoweb.org/guide/howto/ • SURF info-eu-repo. http://purl.org/REP/standards/info-eu-repo • State of the LOD Cloud. http://lod-cloud.net/state/ Van de Sompel, Sanderson, Shankar, Klein IDCC 2014, San Francisco, CA, February 26 2014

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