Why trap plants could be useful
against sharpshooters?
• Polyphagous vectors
• Crops affected are
(usually) not preferred
...
FUNDECITRUS
Oncometopia facialis
Dilobopterus
costalimai
Bucephalogonia
xanthophisAcrogonia citrina
Homalodisca
ignorata
Acrogonia vir...
Young citrus grove Primary and secondary spread
Older infected grove (inoculum source)
Infected
tree
Healthy
tree
H e alt h y n u r se r y t r e e sH e alt h y n u r se r y t r e e s
V e c t orV e c t or
c on t r olc on t r ol
Pr u n in...
Problems with vector control
in citrus
• High cost of insecticides
• Environmental impact
• Perennial crop
• Multiple vect...
Young grove
Neighboring
grove
Swamp or Riparian Wood
Immigration of sharpshooters toImmigration of sharpshooters to
the ci...
Trap crop
Young grove
Neighboring
grove
Riparian wood or swamp
T
r
a
p
c
r
o
p
Inseticide
treatment
Establishment of trap ...
What characteristics are desirable
in trap plants?
• Must be more attractive than crop plant
• Good feeding host
• Easy to...
Why search for nonhosts of X.
fastidiosa?
• Safe trap plants – not a source of
inoculum
• Rearing healthy sharpshooters (o...
1.1. Visual observations in several habitatsVisual observations in several habitats
2.2. Choice tests (in relation to citr...
Observations of sharpshooters in natural habitats
Northern São Paulo State (Giustolim et al.)
SwampSwamp
Riparian woodsRip...
Acrogonia citrina
Bucephalogonia
xanthophis
Dilobopterus
costalimai
Oncometopia
facialis
13
17
15
21
10
8
12
13
Sharpshoot...
Families of host plants
Main vector species Bucephalogonia xanthophis
Sharpshooters nymphs
Aloysia virgata –Aloysia virgata – visited by various sharpshootersvisited by various sharpshooters
AcrogoniaAcrogonia sp....
Croton floribundus –Croton floribundus – visited by various sharpshootersvisited by various sharpshooters
O. facialisO. fa...
Vernonia sp1. Vernonia sp2.Pterocaulon lanatum Baccharis sp.
Asteraceae
Most visited by Bucephalogonia xanthophis
Verbenac...
Observations of sharpshooters in urban areas
‘boldo’
Vernonia condensata
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Datura repens
Choice test in the greenhouse (cages)
citrus X other hosts
How attractive are the host plants??
Choice study under field conditions
citrus X other hosts
Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
(June/04 - Feb/08)
Host species planted in...
Mean number of sharpshooters observed on various host plants in area
adjacent to a riparian wood. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
T...
Mean number of Oncometopia facialis observed on various host plants in
area adjacent to a riparian wood. Piracicaba, SP, B...
Most attractive host species to the
sharpshooter complex
• Vernonia condensata (‘boldo’)
• Lantana camara
• Aloysia virgat...
Are there X. fastidiosa hosts among
preferred hosts of citrus sharpshooters ?
Symptoms
Mechanical inoculation of X.
fastid...
Mechanical inoculation ofMechanical inoculation of V. condensataV. condensata
withwith X. fastidiosaX. fastidiosa
Positive...
Plant 7 14
Vernonia condensataVernonia condensata
Citrus sinensisCitrus sinensis
0/15 0/150/15 0/15
3/10 1/103/10 1/10
Pos...
Rearing healthy vectorsRearing healthy vectors
- Vernonia condensata -- Vernonia condensata -
Rodrigo
Almeida (1999)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Vernonia
condensata
V. condensata and
Citrus
Citrus
NymphalViability(%)
Oncometopia facialis ...
Testing trap plants
in a citrus grove
Oxford Farm
Gavião Peixoto, SP
(Oct/2004)
Source of vectors
Swampy wood
Citrus grove...
Trap-plant barrier
• block with 225 plants (5 rows of 50 m)
Aloysia virgata*
Croton floribundus*
Croton urucurana
Galesia ...
Establishing the trap-plant barrier
10/19/04 (planting date)
12/27/04 (2 months later)
Plant height (3 months after planting)
1,0 m
0
50
100
150
200
250
C.floribundus
C
.urucurana
G
.integrifolia
A.virgata
T.g...
Dec/05 (14 months after planting)
Establishing the trap-plant barrier
Treatment with
imidacloprid
Evaluation of sharpshooter population in plots with or without
trap-plant barrier by yelllow stick cards
Trap plant barrie...
b
a
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
Subtalhão A Subtalhão B
nºdeinsetoscapturados
Incidence of sharpshooters in plots with (...
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
30 45 60 75 90
Distância (m) da área de brejo
nºmédiodeinsetoscapturad...
PLOT
B
No barrier
Plot
A
With barrier
Problem: other sources of vectors (besides the swamp)
Trap plant barrier
Source of v...
Conclusions
• Trap crop reduces sharpshooter population in the orchard
(up to 60 m from border)
• A mixture of plant speci...
Bucephalogonia xanthophis
Vernonia condensata
(falso-boldo)
Glandular
Trichomes
52,5 μm
Attraction of sharpshooters by pla...
Capitate-sessile trichomes of Vernonia condensata. General view of a trichoeme filled
with secretion (left), and after it ...
Finantial Support Research Team
• Rodrigo N. Marques
• Daniele T. Turati
• Teresinha A. Giustolim
• Matê Lopes
• Pedro T. ...
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Nonhosts of Xylella fastidiosa that sharpshooters would die for. 
A management strategy based on trap plants - Jrs Lopes - Pierce's Disease Conference 2008

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Nonhosts of Xylella fastidiosa that sharpshooters would die for... 
A management strategy based on trap plants

Presenters: João S. Lopes, Rodrigo Marques, Daniele Turati

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  • In this presentation I will talk about plants that sharpshooters show a strong preference compared to citrus, which could be used as trap plants to manage these vectors.
  • Vector range of CVC strain in Brazil
    In southeastern Brazil, all vectors associated with CVC spread were shown to be indigenous sharpshooters, which were previously unknown by the citrus growers and IPM entomologists
    - list of vectors genera found in citrus (large diversity of sharpshooters)
    - 12 species were shown to transmit the bacterium to citrus experimentally (with variable transmission rates)
    - some have been confirmed as vectors of Xf in coffee as well (Dilo, Bucephalo, Homalo, Oncometopia)
    - at least 5-8 species have not yet been tested in citrus
  • Os resultados mostram que boldo (Vernonia condensata), lixeira (Aloysia virgata), pingo-de-ouro (Duranta repens), hibisco (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) e lantana (Lantana camara) foram, nesta ordem, as plantas que atraíram um maior número de indivíduos e de espécies de cigarrinhas, sendo mais atrativas que as laranjeiras (Figura 2).
  • Observou-se também uma mudança na preferência por plantas hospedeiras ao longo do desenvolvimento do plantio-isca. Nos primeiros meses após o plantio (janeiro/2004), espécies de crescimento mais rápido e vigoroso, tais como lantana, lixeira e cróton (Croton floribundus), foram as mais visitadas poelas cigarrinhas (Figuras 3 e 4). Entretanto, com o passar dos anos e crescimento das demais plantas hospedeiras, houve aumento significativo no número de cigarrinhas em outras plantas de crescimento mais lento como hibisco, pingo-de-ouro e principalmente o bolso.
  • Em condições de campo, lantana, boldo, lixeira, pingo-de-ouro, hibisco e cróton são plantas hospedeiras mais atrativas que citros para a maioria das espécies vetoras de X. fastidiosa, constituindo-se, portanto, em ótimas opções para utilização em plantio-isca. Este grupo mescla plantas de crescimento rápido, que atraem cigarrinhas com poucos meses após o plantio, com plantas de crescimento mais lento, porém atrativas a uma maior gama de espécies de cigarrinhas (caso do boldo, pingo-de-ouro e hibisco).
  • Nonhosts of Xylella fastidiosa that sharpshooters would die for. 
A management strategy based on trap plants - Jrs Lopes - Pierce's Disease Conference 2008

    1. 1. Why trap plants could be useful against sharpshooters? • Polyphagous vectors • Crops affected are (usually) not preferred hosts • Immigrate from surrounding habitats • Thus, a trap-plant barrier could intercept incoming vectors before reaching the crop Colonization of vineyards in California North Coast by BGSS Show position trap plant barrier in the Interface of citrus orchard Riparian wood Source of vectors (from Purcell)
    2. 2. FUNDECITRUS
    3. 3. Oncometopia facialis Dilobopterus costalimai Bucephalogonia xanthophisAcrogonia citrina Homalodisca ignorata Acrogonia virescens Parathona gratiosa Plesiommata corniculata Macugonalia leucomelas Sonesimia grossa Ferrariana trivittata Several sharpshooter vectors in citrus
    4. 4. Young citrus grove Primary and secondary spread Older infected grove (inoculum source) Infected tree Healthy tree
    5. 5. H e alt h y n u r se r y t r e e sH e alt h y n u r se r y t r e e s V e c t orV e c t or c on t r olc on t r ol Pr u n in gPr u n in g Rog u in gRog u in g CVC management
    6. 6. Problems with vector control in citrus • High cost of insecticides • Environmental impact • Perennial crop • Multiple vector species • External sources of vectors
    7. 7. Young grove Neighboring grove Swamp or Riparian Wood Immigration of sharpshooters toImmigration of sharpshooters to the citrus grovethe citrus grove
    8. 8. Trap crop Young grove Neighboring grove Riparian wood or swamp T r a p c r o p Inseticide treatment Establishment of trap cropEstablishment of trap crop
    9. 9. What characteristics are desirable in trap plants? • Must be more attractive than crop plant • Good feeding host • Easy to propagate, fast growth • Abundance of young shoots • Must accept frequent pruning and systemic inseticides • If possible, not a host of X. fastidiosa
    10. 10. Why search for nonhosts of X. fastidiosa? • Safe trap plants – not a source of inoculum • Rearing healthy sharpshooters (other studies)
    11. 11. 1.1. Visual observations in several habitatsVisual observations in several habitats 2.2. Choice tests (in relation to citrus)Choice tests (in relation to citrus) Search for attractive host plants toSearch for attractive host plants to sharpshooters in S.Paulo State, Brazilsharpshooters in S.Paulo State, Brazil Studies
    12. 12. Observations of sharpshooters in natural habitats Northern São Paulo State (Giustolim et al.) SwampSwamp Riparian woodsRiparian woods ““Cerrado”Cerrado”
    13. 13. Acrogonia citrina Bucephalogonia xanthophis Dilobopterus costalimai Oncometopia facialis 13 17 15 21 10 8 12 13 Sharpshooter No. familiesNº species Host plant Total 40 20 * No. habitats surveyed: 6 ** No. plant species surveyed: 107 (Giustolin et al.)
    14. 14. Families of host plants Main vector species Bucephalogonia xanthophis Sharpshooters nymphs
    15. 15. Aloysia virgata –Aloysia virgata – visited by various sharpshootersvisited by various sharpshooters AcrogoniaAcrogonia sp.sp. D. costalimaiD. costalimai O. facialisO. facialis PseudometopiaPseudometopia sp.sp. M. leucomelasM. leucomelas
    16. 16. Croton floribundus –Croton floribundus – visited by various sharpshootersvisited by various sharpshooters O. facialisO. facialis PseudometopiaPseudometopia sp.sp. AcrogoniaAcrogonia sp.sp. HomolodiscaHomolodisca sp.sp. MacugonaliaMacugonalia leucomelasleucomelas
    17. 17. Vernonia sp1. Vernonia sp2.Pterocaulon lanatum Baccharis sp. Asteraceae Most visited by Bucephalogonia xanthophis Verbenaceae – Lantana camara Oncometopia facialis Oncometopia facialis
    18. 18. Observations of sharpshooters in urban areas ‘boldo’ Vernonia condensata Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Datura repens
    19. 19. Choice test in the greenhouse (cages) citrus X other hosts How attractive are the host plants??
    20. 20. Choice study under field conditions citrus X other hosts Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (June/04 - Feb/08) Host species planted in area adjacent to riparian wood
    21. 21. Mean number of sharpshooters observed on various host plants in area adjacent to a riparian wood. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil Turati et al. No. of sharpshooters Vernonia condensata Citrus Laranja Paud´alho Lantana Pingodeouro Lixeira Croton Boldo Hibisco Bucephalogonia xanthophis Paratona gratiosa Macugonalia leucomelas Catagonalia conjunctula Scopogonalia subolivacea Sibovia sagata Macugonalia cavifrons Acrogonia citrina Dilobopterus costalimai 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Host plants Sharpshooter species Aloysia virgata Datura repens Lantana camara Hibiscus
    22. 22. Mean number of Oncometopia facialis observed on various host plants in area adjacent to a riparian wood. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Turati et al. No. of sharpshooters Seasons Host plants Inverno04 Verão04/05 Outono05 Verão05/06 Inverno06 Primavera06 Verão06/07 Outono07 Primavera07 Verão07/08 Laranja Pau d´alho Lixeira Hibisco Croton Boldo Lantana 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Lantana camara Aloysia virgata Vernonia condensata Croton floribundus Citrus sinensis Oncometopia facialis
    23. 23. Most attractive host species to the sharpshooter complex • Vernonia condensata (‘boldo’) • Lantana camara • Aloysia virgata • Croton floribundus • Datura repens
    24. 24. Are there X. fastidiosa hosts among preferred hosts of citrus sharpshooters ? Symptoms Mechanical inoculation of X. fastidiosa Culture-4 months Host plant Aloysiavirgata Baccharis sp. Cedrelaodorata Crotonfloribundus Gallesiaintegrifolia Gochnatiapolymorpha Ilexteezans Lantanacamara Lueheapaniculata Pterocaulonlanatum Styraxferrugineus Vernoniasp1. Vernonia sp2. ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0/20 0/20 0/20 0/20 0/200/20 0/20 0/14 1/14 + 0/7 2/7 + 0/20 4/20 + 0/18 0/18 0/20 0/20 0/20 ND
    25. 25. Mechanical inoculation ofMechanical inoculation of V. condensataV. condensata withwith X. fastidiosaX. fastidiosa Positive plants by culture and PCR (months after inoculation)Plant 1 6 12 Vernonia condensataVernonia condensata Aloysia virgataAloysia virgata Citrus sinensisCitrus sinensis 0/20 0/20 0/200/20 0/20 0/20 0/5 0/50/5 0/5 0/50/5 2/10 4/10 7/102/10 4/10 7/10 (Marucci et al. 2003)
    26. 26. Plant 7 14 Vernonia condensataVernonia condensata Citrus sinensisCitrus sinensis 0/15 0/150/15 0/15 3/10 1/103/10 1/10 Positive plants by culture/PCR (days after inoculation) Mechanical inoculation ofMechanical inoculation of V. condensataV. condensata withwith X. fastidiosaX. fastidiosa (Marucci et al. 2003)
    27. 27. Rearing healthy vectorsRearing healthy vectors - Vernonia condensata -- Vernonia condensata - Rodrigo Almeida (1999)
    28. 28. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Vernonia condensata V. condensata and Citrus Citrus NymphalViability(%) Oncometopia facialis Dilobopterus costalimais Vernonia condensata as a developmental host for sharpshooters Milanez et al. (2001)
    29. 29. Testing trap plants in a citrus grove Oxford Farm Gavião Peixoto, SP (Oct/2004) Source of vectors Swampy wood Citrus grove Trap plant barrier
    30. 30. Trap-plant barrier • block with 225 plants (5 rows of 50 m) Aloysia virgata* Croton floribundus* Croton urucurana Galesia integrifolia Guazuma unifolia Senna alata Tapirira guianensis Duranta repens* Eupatorium sp. Lantana camara* Mimosa caesalpinaefolina Vernonia condensata* Vernonia polyantes Trees (8 species) Shrubs (6 species)
    31. 31. Establishing the trap-plant barrier 10/19/04 (planting date) 12/27/04 (2 months later)
    32. 32. Plant height (3 months after planting) 1,0 m 0 50 100 150 200 250 C.floribundus C .urucurana G .integrifolia A.virgata T.guianensis S.alataG .unifolia M .caesalpineafolia B.dracunculifoliaL.cam ara V.polyanthes V.condensata E.laevigatum D.repens AlturaFinal(cm) Plant height (cm)
    33. 33. Dec/05 (14 months after planting) Establishing the trap-plant barrier Treatment with imidacloprid
    34. 34. Evaluation of sharpshooter population in plots with or without trap-plant barrier by yelllow stick cards Trap plant barrier Swamp No barrier Vector movement to the citrus grove 50 m
    35. 35. b a 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Subtalhão A Subtalhão B nºdeinsetoscapturados Incidence of sharpshooters in plots with (A) or without (B) the trap-plant barrier Overall mean no. of insects per trap Plot A (with barrier) Plot B (no barrier)
    36. 36. a a a a a a a b b b 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 30 45 60 75 90 Distância (m) da área de brejo nºmédiodeinsetoscapturados Subtalhão A Subtalhão B Incidence of sharpshooters at increasing distances from the swamp in plots with (A) or without (B) the trap-plant barrier Mean No. of insects per trap Distance (m) from the vector source (swamp) Plot A (with barrier) Plot B (no barrier)
    37. 37. PLOT B No barrier Plot A With barrier Problem: other sources of vectors (besides the swamp) Trap plant barrier Source of vectors Swampy wood
    38. 38. Conclusions • Trap crop reduces sharpshooter population in the orchard (up to 60 m from border) • A mixture of plant species is needed (vector diversity; seasonal variation in host plant suitability) • Compatible with other vector control methods • More likely to work in small orchards
    39. 39. Bucephalogonia xanthophis Vernonia condensata (falso-boldo) Glandular Trichomes 52,5 μm Attraction of sharpshooters by plant volatiles J. Maurício Bento –ESALQ/Univ. S. Paulo
    40. 40. Capitate-sessile trichomes of Vernonia condensata. General view of a trichoeme filled with secretion (left), and after it content was released (right) (Bento et al., 2008).
    41. 41. Finantial Support Research Team • Rodrigo N. Marques • Daniele T. Turati • Teresinha A. Giustolim • Matê Lopes • Pedro T. Yamamoto (Fundecitrus) • Marcos Felippe (Fundecitrus)

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