Urbanization & functionalist view...


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Urbanization & functionalist view...

  1. 1. URBANIZATION & FUNCTIONALIST VIEW. Presented by: HUZAIFA MUSHTAQ. (1611-312003) Presented to: Ma’am NASREEN IQBAL.
  2. 2. URBAN AREA An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features. Urban includes Cities, towns etc..  There are about 7.1 billion people living on the planet.  In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion) and since then the world has become more urban than rural.  Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of URBANIZATION.
  3. 3. URBAN AREA
  4. 4. URBANIZATION Urbanization (or urbanisation) is the increasing number of people that live in urban areas. It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban areas. The world is now undergoing with the largest wave of urban growth in history. Cities generate jobs and income. With good governance, they can deliver education, health care and other services.
  5. 5. URBANIZATION  Migration is a significant contributor to urbanization, as people move in search of social and economic opportunity.  By 2050 it is predicted that 64.1% and 85.9% of the developing and developed world respectively will be urbanized.  Indeed, today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Dhaka, Karachi, Mumbai, Delhi, Manila, Seoul and Beijing are each already home to over 20 million people.
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF URBANIZATION  Growth in industrial productions: The production in various industrial sectors like cement, iron and steel, textile, fertilizers etc., are helping in the economic growth of the country.  Development in tourism industries: People from foreign countries are attracted to good cities and towns having better transport facilities. Tourism is a good source of foreign currency for a country.  Improvement in Science, Culture etc.: Urban places are the meeting point of all good facilities. Education, science and technology developments take place in urban places improving the society as a whole.
  7. 7. DIS-ADVANTAGES OF URBANIZATION  The rapid inflows of rural population to urban places give rise to housing problem and thus slums are developed in these places.  The decrease in rural population effects the agricultural productions due to shortage of workers in rural areas.  The unemployment increases in urban areas. Due to the various criminal activities, corruption etc. increases affecting the law and order system.
  9. 9. FUNCITONALIST VIEW Focuses on how changes in one aspect of social system affect other aspects of society. It includes: I. HUMAN ECOLOGY. II. URBAN ECOLOGY.
  10. 10. HUMAN ECOLOGY Human ecology is the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
  11. 11. URBAN ECOLOGY Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.
  12. 12. FUNCTIONALIST VIEW There are 3 basic theories in it ; 1) Concentric-zone theory. 2) Demographic transition theory. 3) Multiple-nuclei theory.
  13. 13. CONCENTRIC-ZONE THEORY  The Central Business District - the center of the city.  A zone of mixed use with both commercial buildings and residential ones.  Working class housing; housing is cheap, standard of living is not very high.  Higher and Middle class residential zone; Better quality of life, more expensive to live there.  Commuter zone.
  15. 15. DEMOGRAPHIC-TRANSITION THEORY  The changes in population growth rates and the effect on population can be shown on the demographic transition model/theory.  In developed countries this transition began in the 18th century and continues today.  Less developed countries began the transition later and many are still in earlier stages of the model.  Having 4 main stages, 1 added recently.
  16. 16. STAGE 1: BIRTH RATE AND DEATH RATE ARE BOTH HIGH. POPULATION GROWTH IS SLOW. - Stage one of the demographic transition model is the most primitive of the stages where there is a high birth and death rate. - Because of this there is no great population growth. - These countries or even tribes have very basic living standards such as those in the Amazon rainforest. - Where they hardly have any education, medicaments.
  17. 17. STAGE 2: BIRTH RATE REMAINS HIGH. DEATH RATE IS FALLING. POPULATION BEGINS TO RISE STEADILY - In this stage of the demographic transition model there are a lot of births, however the death rate has gone down. - This results in a rise in population due to the fact that more infants are surviving. - Reasons for which more people may be surviving may be better health care, improved sanitation such as water etc…
  18. 18. STAGE 3: BIRTH RATE STARTS TO FALL. DEATH RATE CONTINUES TO FALL. POPULATION RISING. - Stage three is the stage at which there is already a low death rate as well as a declining birth rate; therefore leading to a slight increase in population. - The reason for the fall in births may be due to family planning.
  19. 19. STAGE 4: DEATH & BIRTH RATE BOTH LOW - Stage four is the one at which Switzerland is. - There is a stable population without much change because both the death and birth rate are low.
  20. 20. STAGE 5 - A country such as Sweden is currently entering into the negative growth rate meaning that there are less births than deaths. - So that the country's population size is decreasing leading to problems.
  22. 22. MULTIPLE-NUCLEI THEORY. The model describes the layout of a city. The core of multiple-nuclei theory is the observation that; different activities (industry, retailing, residence) have different location priorities and special needs, such as access to transportation networks, water power.