An urban area is characterized by higher population density and
vast human features. Urban includes Cities, towns etc..
There are about 7.1 billion people living on the planet.
In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion)
surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion) and since
then the world has become more urban than rural.
Urban areas are created and further developed by the process
Urbanization (or urbanisation) is the increasing number of
people that live in urban areas.
It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban
The world is now undergoing with the largest wave of
urban growth in history.
Cities generate jobs and income. With good governance,
they can deliver education, health care and other services.
Migration is a significant contributor to urbanization, as
people move in search of social and economic opportunity.
By 2050 it is predicted that 64.1% and 85.9% of the
developing and developed world respectively will be
Indeed, today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Dhaka,
Karachi, Mumbai, Delhi, Manila, Seoul and Beijing are each
already home to over 20 million people.
ADVANTAGES OF URBANIZATION
Growth in industrial productions: The production in various
industrial sectors like cement, iron and steel, textile, fertilizers etc.,
are helping in the economic growth of the country.
Development in tourism industries: People from foreign countries
are attracted to good cities and towns having better transport
facilities. Tourism is a good source of foreign currency for a country.
Improvement in Science, Culture etc.: Urban places are the
meeting point of all good facilities. Education, science and technology
developments take place in urban places improving the society as a
DIS-ADVANTAGES OF URBANIZATION
The rapid inflows of rural population to urban places give rise to housing
problem and thus slums are developed in these places.
The decrease in rural population effects the agricultural productions due
to shortage of workers in rural areas.
The unemployment increases in urban areas. Due to the various criminal
activities, corruption etc. increases affecting the law and order system.
Focuses on how changes in one aspect of social system affect
other aspects of society. It includes:
I. HUMAN ECOLOGY.
II. URBAN ECOLOGY.
Human ecology is the relationship between humans and
their natural, social, and built environments.
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living
organisms with each other and their surroundings in the
context of an urban environment.
There are 3 basic theories in it ;
1) Concentric-zone theory.
2) Demographic transition theory.
3) Multiple-nuclei theory.
The Central Business District - the center of the city.
A zone of mixed use with both commercial buildings and
Working class housing; housing is cheap, standard of living is not
Higher and Middle class residential zone; Better quality of life,
more expensive to live there.
The changes in population growth rates and the effect on
population can be shown on the demographic transition
In developed countries this transition began in the 18th century
and continues today.
Less developed countries began the transition later and many are
still in earlier stages of the model.
Having 4 main stages, 1 added recently.
STAGE 1: BIRTH RATE AND DEATH RATE ARE
BOTH HIGH. POPULATION GROWTH IS SLOW.
- Stage one of the demographic transition model is the most primitive
of the stages where there is a high birth and death rate.
- Because of this there is no great population growth.
- These countries or even tribes have very basic living standards such as
those in the Amazon rainforest.
- Where they hardly have any education, medicaments.
STAGE 2: BIRTH RATE REMAINS HIGH. DEATH
RATE IS FALLING. POPULATION BEGINS TO RISE
- In this stage of the demographic transition model there are a lot of
births, however the death rate has gone down.
- This results in a rise in population due to the fact that more infants
- Reasons for which more people may be surviving may be better
health care, improved sanitation such as water etc…
STAGE 3: BIRTH RATE STARTS TO FALL. DEATH RATE
CONTINUES TO FALL. POPULATION RISING.
- Stage three is the stage at which there is already a low death
rate as well as a declining birth rate;
therefore leading to a slight increase in population.
- The reason for the fall in births may be due to family
STAGE 4: DEATH & BIRTH RATE BOTH LOW
- Stage four is the one at which Switzerland is.
- There is a stable population without much change
because both the death and birth rate are low.
- A country such as Sweden is currently entering into the
negative growth rate meaning that there are less births
- So that the country's population size is decreasing leading
The model describes the layout of a city.
The core of multiple-nuclei theory is the observation that;
different activities (industry, retailing, residence) have different
location priorities and special needs, such as access to
transportation networks, water power.