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Environment Major Changes In Fuel & Lubes

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Environment Major Changes In Fuel & Lubes

  1. 1. Hussam Adeni The Environment-major changes in last decade Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  2. 2. Major changes in last decade - for the environment• New Accords and Protocols• Automobile Industry – Radical changes• Environment restrictions Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  3. 3. 5 Major changes in the last decade• Montreal Accord• Euro IV and Euro V fuels• Engine configurations• Stringent API specifications• Kyoto Protocol Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  4. 4. 5 Major changes in the last decade• Montreal Accord • Largely for refrigerants• Euro IV and Euro V fuels • Sulphur reduction in fuels• Engine configurations • Fuel injection mechanism • Higher operating speeds and pressure Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  5. 5. 5 Major changes in the last decade• Stringent API specifications • API CJ-4 specifications• Kyoto Protocols • Green House Gas (GHG) emissions Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  6. 6. 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/96• Treaty structured around halogenated hydro carbons known to play a role in Ozone depletion • Treaty deals with phase-out Management Plan for 1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), 2. Carbon Tetra chloride (CCl4), 3. Hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFC’s) Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  7. 7. 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/6• Treaty structured around widely used halogenated hydrocarbons now known to play a role in Ozone depletion • Targets HCFC’s, CFC’s, CCl4 used as 1. Refrigerants, 2. Solvents, 3. Blowing agents for plastic/foam manufacture 4. Fire extinguisher. Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  8. 8. 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/6• Update - 2006 • Largely implemented across the world • R – 134 A successfully identified as alternative refrigerant. • Widely used today in Air conditioners used in automobiles, in house and office AC’s and in industries. • Montreal compliant solvents and fire extinguishers have been developed & are in use today in many applications Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  9. 9. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Role of fuelsThree major function in an IC engine • Energy source to drive engine • Coolant for injector • It is the lubricant for fuel pump & injectorsIn addition, fuels should be compatible with gaskets and seals in the system • Good compatibility --> expansion or marginal swelling. • As a result, there will no leakage of fuels, gas & oil Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  10. 10. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Environmental demandsUnder the Clean Air Act –– Sulphur in fuels to be reduced 15 ppm • Most developing countries: Sulphur in fuels approx. 2000 ppm till the early 90’s • Many have now implemented 50 ppm sulphur in all fuels. • Developed countries have progressively moved to 10 ppm Sulphur in Fuels Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  11. 11. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Diesel Diesel Euro I Euro II Euro III Euro IV Euro V 1993 1996 2000 2005 2009Poly aromatics - N/A N/A 11 11 11Vol%,MaxSulphur ppm, Max 2000 500 350 50 19 (10)*Cetane number - Min 49 49 51 51 51Density@15 ºC, kg/m² 35- 100 35-100 60-70 60-70 60-70Distillation -79.5@ 15º C 370 370 360 360 360Reduction of Sulphur results in reduction of aromatics, this robs the fuel ofits lubricity. Damaging fuel injectors, whose replacement cost $ 100 each,there are 8 nos in an engine. Dosing with Fuel additives , a quick remedy Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  12. 12. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Gasoline - PetrolGasoline Euro I Euro II Euro III Euro IV Euro V 1993 1996 2000 2005 2009Aromatics - Vol%, Max No limit No limit 42 35 35Olefins - Vol %, Max No limit No limit 18 18 18Benzene - Vol%, Max 5 5 1 1 1Oxygen - Vol%, Ma 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 3.7Sulphur – ppm,Max 1000 500 150 50 10 (10)*RON - Min 91 91 91 91 91RVP - kPa 35 - 100 35 - 100 60 - 70 60 - 70 60 - 70Lead - g/Lt, Max 0.013 0.013 None None None Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  13. 13. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Hydro treatment- Sulphur removal• Sulphur in fuels is removed at the refinery by stripping• Process of stripping of sulphur is called • Hydrotreatment Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  14. 14. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Pitfalls of - Sulphur removal•Unfortunately - sulphur reduction also removes • Natural lubricity compounds • Natural conductivity properties • It changes combustion properties • Biocide property of sulphur Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  15. 15. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication – loss of lubricity• No protective barrier between metal surfaces • Could lead to damage of vital engine components• Some vital components are • Fuel pump • Fuel injectors • Valves & ports Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  16. 16. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication – ASTM and lubricity• In 2005, ASTM had put in a lubricity specification • ASTM D 975 for middle distillates • ASTM D 6079 is widely used for other fuels • Wear scar value is 520 microns or less • OEM’s in Europe suggested 420 or less • Fully synthetic esters widely accepted component in fuel additives Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  17. 17. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal• Natural conductivity properties • Conductivity is decreased • Static charge may build up while fuel is being pumped • Probably danger of ignition from static electricity • Essential that fuels are dosed with special conductivity additives Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  18. 18. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal• It changes combustion properties • Hydro treatment may reduce Cetane in diesel to the 40’s • Modern Diesel engines are computer controlled and deliver optimal combustion in the range of 45 to 51. • Cetane boosting additives now essential for peak performance Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  19. 19. 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal• Biocide property of sulphur • Widely used today as antiseptic • Used in many drugs and medicines • Sulphur controls fungal growth in fuel tanks. • Fuels now need to be treated with biocides to prevent fungal growth in fuel storage tanks Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  20. 20. 3. Engine configuration - Radical changesThree major function in an IC engine • Energy source to drive engine • Coolant for injector • It is the lubricant for fuel pump & injectorsIn addition, fuels should be compatible with gaskets and seals in the system • Good compatibility --> expansion or marginal swelling. • As a result there will be no leakage of fuels, gas & oil Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  21. 21. 3. Engine configuration - Radical changesEvolution of fuel/injector/exhaustmechanism • Naturally aspirated (NA) • Turbo charged • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) • Direct injection (DI) • Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  22. 22. 3. Engine configuration Radical changes - psiDramatic increase in Operatingpressures– Early diesel engines – 600 psi– Current CRDI – 30,000 psi Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  23. 23. 3. Engine configuration Radical changes – Cat. converterEngine manufacturers proposedreduction of treat level of Zinc-Phosphate and Calcium sulphonates– Engine manufacturers sought extension of life for catalytic converters– Research showed interference to life of catalytic converters from additives in lubes– ZDDP – Anti wear– Over based Calcium – Detergency Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  24. 24. 4. API CJ-4 requirements History of Lube additivesSince 1975 triboapplications utilizedsolid boundary additive in the carrieroil acting as a barrier of moleculesbetween moving parts with thefollowing: 1. ZDDP (Zinc Di Thiophosphates) 2. Phosphorous 3. Sulphur 4. Calcium sulphonates Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  25. 25. 4. API CJ-4 requirements Used oil disposal issuesThese additives had the disadvantage of being: • Highly toxic – difficult to dispose • Sacrificial – Deplete on use • Inert – Do not react with metal alloys • Become acidic – due to oxidation and water • Also corrosive – furthering micro-pitting Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  26. 26. 4. API CJ-4 requirementsAPI CJ-4 demands • Lube manufacturers use up to 1% ZDDP • Zinc-Phosphate levels at 1% are for all practical purposes negligible • Treats of 1% ZDDP packages likely to have little impact on reducing wear Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  27. 27. 4. API CJ-4 requirementsAlternative EP additives consisting ofGraphite, Molybdenum have come intoprominence • Graphite & Molybdenum have little lubricating value as they are not reactive • Under heavy pressure will press out • Will lead to metal to metal contact • Research is going on for alternative compounds for use as anti wear additives Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  28. 28. 5. Kyoto Protocol• Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG)• Major constituent of GHG identified• Major sources for GHG emitters identified• Incentive for reduction of GHG Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  29. 29. 5. Kyoto Protocol• Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) • Country wise and industry wise data collated. • Reduction targets – broadly agreed upon• Major constituent of GHG identified • Carbon dioxide – CO2 • Nitrogen Oxides - NOx• Major sources for GHG emitters identified Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  30. 30. 5. Kyoto Protocol• Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) • Country wise and industry wise data collated. • Reduction targets – broadly agreed upon• Major constituent of GHG identified • Carbon dioxide – CO2 • Nitrogen Oxides – NOx Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  31. 31. 5. Kyoto Protocol• Major sources for GHG emitters identified • Aviation Industry • Power Plants • Auto Industry Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  32. 32. 5. Kyoto Protocol• Incentive for reduction of GHG • To users who register, document and reduce GHG emissions • ISO 14064 initiated to document reduction • Tradable “Carbon Credits” to offset bulk GHG emitters • Bulk users in Auto related industry likely to be major beneficiary Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com
  33. 33. Thank you Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

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