SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 117
Download to read offline
Urban Landscape Elements
By Dr Mohammad Hussaini bin Wahab
People value
landscape for many
different reasons, not
all of them related to
traditional concepts of
aesthetics and
beauty.
What is LANDSCAPE?
Urban Landscape Elements
It encompasses much more than just
the landscape.
It is a collaboration of the landscape
and everything in it - buildings and
structures, people, streets and
walkways, open space, social
spaces, and functional spaces.
Urban Landscape Elements
•  They embody expressive relationships that
mirror changing cultural relationships
between nature and city.
•  They are physical relationships with a
potentially powerful role in structuring the city.
•  They are social relationships that
demonstrate the value of infrastructure in
making places.
What is URBAN LANDSCAPE?
Urban Landscape Elements
•  AESTHETICS
•  Planting or
constructing for
visual pleasure as
well as spiritual
fulfillment
•  FUNCTIONAL
•  Planting or
constructing for
pragmatic reasons
such as shade,
boundary
statements, buffers,
etc
Functions of a landscape?
Urban Landscape Elements
What is URBAN ENVIRONMENT?
It can be defined as the multidisciplinary activity of
shaping and managing the urban environment where
it is concerned with both the process of
  shaping the space and
  the effect of the space which is being shape within
the context of place ( Madanipour, 1996).
Urban Landscape Elements
Tenerife Urban Landscape by Anne Chaffer
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Three level of sustainable development within the urban context
Achieving a livable urban fabric is accomplished through the main overlapping
and interconnecting of three levels; the city structure, its urban spaces and local
design.
City structure : Roads, Areas
Urban spaces : Buildings , streets
Local places : Landscape of places /
urban environment
It takes great places to create
great cities
( Project for Public spaces)
A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places)
How to make such spaces attractive for human use? The sense of place at the local level
stems from its ability to support human activities, through shape and landscape elements.
1.  Shape of Places
Shape of places is defined by space edges, facades. Buildings’
facades should offer an active frontage onto places, through adding
interests and vitality. It is better for facades’ openings to overlook places;
the more openings onto places the better for safety, security (Newman),
and liveability (Gehl), hence the space is considered socially sustainable.
Amenity and safety of spaces are accomplished through creating
a desirable view where buildings’ opening overlook to provide good
surveillance of the street and the activity within, thus producing a
safe space, (Newman)
It appears that a variety of land-uses stimulating many activities is a
necessity of a lively street, thus stimulating sustainable places
socially and economically, (Moughtin (street and squares) (2001)
Urban Landscape Elements
A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places)
2. Landscape within Places
Landscape nourishes the aesthetic sense, improve air, and add human
scale to spaces between buildings thus altering spaces to places.
Landscape’s basic role in the urban form of cities is directed to create
physical continuity between buildings with different characteristics, and
produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand.
Nature and landscape in the city are significant for improving the quality
of life of life in urban areas and assist sustainable development in every
sense of the word: ecologically, socially and economically.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Landscape elements should primarily relate in its expression,
patterning, levels and visual qualities to the physical characteristics of
places, human scale and activities.
Landscape is mainly divided to three parts the soft, the hard and the
furniture.
Urban Landscape Elements
Sustainable Urban
Development
City Structure Urban Spaces Local Spaces
Landscape Elements
Landscape Within
Spaces
Shape of Spaces
Hard ElementsSoft Elements
 Nature
Plants, trees etc
 Man-made
Streetscape
•  Organic components of
landscape which require
time to mature or
effectual and dependent
on climatic factors.
SOFT LANDSCAPE?
Urban Landscape Elements
•  Non-organic
component of
landscape which is
effectual once it is
constructed and
non-dependent of
climatic factors
HARD LANDSCAPE?
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
What is street furniture?
• Element that are placed in landscape or streetscape for several purposes.
  Comfort and convenience : benches, kiosks, litter bins, public toilet
  Ornamentation : fountains, sculptures, planters, tree guard
  Communication : phone booth, post boxes, clocks
  Circulation and protection : signs and symbols, bus shelters, railing, bollards
• Street furniture constitute a very important part in any urban setting where it not
only provide aesthetic value, but also provide functional efficiency, create sense of
environmental clarify, as well as a sense of continuity and harmony of the total
urban environment.
• Street furniture can stengthen the link between a development and its surrounding
can personalize the setting, can enhance the positive aspect of the surrounding built
environment.
Urban Landscape Elements
Landscape Elements / Features:
• Street Planting
• Paths : Bikeway, Pedestrian Way, Five-foot Corridor
• Signage System
• Outdoor Lighting
• Street Furniture : Phone Booth , Seating, Bollard
• Shelter : Kiosk, Bus Pavilion
• Structure: Clock Tower, Observatory Tower
• Sculpture
• Paving
• Landscape Planting
• Pocket Space, Pocket Park
• etc
It is necessary to recognize the interactive relationship between people and
landscaped areas and to connect both elements in a way that optimize each.
a.  Encourage people’s use of spaces:
Landscape design should be achieved where increasing community
interaction, hence decreasing social isolation and encouraging various
types of interactions.
b. Support different patterns of activities:
Landscape elements should be designed to be functional thus allowing
easy accomplishment of essential activities with different forms and patterns
to occur.
c. Improve the visual aspects of space:
Landscape act as a screen for objectionable undesired views. Trees and
vegetation are often important in the perceptual image of spaces. The
trunks and branches create screen.
d. Enhance legibility:
Produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand through
landmark, signs and space disposition. Improving the quality and
attractiveness of movement routes as well as reinforcing community identity
through well designed landscape elements as signage and street furniture.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
e.  A sense of wellbeing:
Produce a safe place protected from various types of pollution,
landscape elements should be safe for human use. The existence of the
soft landscape can help to visually counteract the stress experienced in
cities as a result of traffic, pollution and noise.
f. Provision of high quality imaginable places:
Landscape plays an important role in improving the image of public
transportation through well position, location and designed stops.
g. Enhance human scale:
Landscape elements influence scale of outdoor spaces through
pattern and size.
h. Self belongingness:
Landscape elements that enhance the identity of space: London
telephone box.
Urban Landscape Elements
The benefits that high quality urban landscape element can
bring include:
• Helping to build a sense of community.
• Reducing crime and anti-social behaviour.
• Promoting tourism.
• Attracting new businesses and help existing businesses.
• Promoting walking and cycling.
• Promoting access to public transport.
• Boosting the morale of communities and individuals.
• Building a sense of ownership and pride in our street
environment.
• Improving accessibility for all.
• Improving levels of highway safety.
• Enhancing the overall townscape.
Urban Landscape Elements
“Streetscape design in the broadest sense refers to the design
of street, including roadbed, sidewalks, landscape planting and
character of the adjacent building façade or setback”
Source: American Planning Association
Urban Landscape Elements
Most of the streetscape amenities are located in the curb zone of the
sidewalk. Some intersections points, streetscape is enlarged such as
paving area, planting, public arts, benches, etc
Urban Landscape Elements
Identify dimension and character
Urban Landscape Elements
Identify dimension and character
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
What Makes a Great Place?
PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
sociability uses & activities
access & linkages comfort & image
Welcoming
evening use
volunteerism
street life
transit usage
parking usage patterns
pedestrian activity
Walkable
Convenient
Accessible
Charm Clean
Attractive
Historic
Safe
building conditions
environmental data
sanitation rating
crime stats
Cooperative
Neighborly
property values
land-use patterns
retail sales
business ownership
Special Real
Fun
Active Vital
Connected
Key Attributes
Intangibles
Measurements
PLACE
The form of the _good city_ should
offer its inhabitants: 

A variety of activities &
experiences.
The best of urban places offer a
mixture of uses: living, working,
shopping & playing all gain from
being linked as opposed to being
zoned & separated, even if narrow
sectoral rules of optimal efficiency
are transgressed.
å

Urban Landscape Elements
Access to different activities,
resources, information & places
for all sectors of the
population.
The city should be permeable
to all, regardless of age, ability
or income. It should offer
choices in terms of mobility &
be appropriate to pedestrians &
cyclists as well as car drivers.
Urban Landscape Elements
Protection & security, together
with shelter &
comfort.
The gains in public health must
be maintained, but new
considerations of surveillance &
safety have also to be
considered.
Urban Landscape Elements
The opportunity for people to
personalise their
own surroundings.
An environment should
provide private spaces offering
the opportunity for
personal expression & public
spaces robust enough
to accommodate changes by
their users.
Urban Landscape Elements
Clarity of perception &
stimulation to its users.
Additionally, the city form must
be responsive to the
distribution of activities &
patterns of movement.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
When you design your community around people and places
… you get more people and places.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Trees and Planting
Trees enhance our environment. Adding living color, cover and beauty. Bringing
nature to every heart of our cities.
Soft landscape / urban trees planting assists the ecological health of the
environment through the following:
a. Enhancing the microclimate:
1. Noise Abatement
Landscape elements absorb noise. Plants diffract and break up sound
waves, changing their direction and reducing their intensity when sufficiently
massed. To be effective in controlling noise, plants should be used with
masonry walls or similar noise buffering structures.
2. Temperature Modification
Plants raise local humidity by absorbing rainwater and/or delaying it
entering the drainage system, make the ambient temperature more temperate.
Direct radiation from the sun creates uncomfortably high
temperatures.Locating densely foliated trees and shrubs can reduce heat
gain.
Urban Landscape Elements
3. Wind Control
Plants can modify wind speed on the ground. Dense masses of large
evergreen trees planted can influence energy efficiency of facilities and
increase the livability of outside spaces.
b. Reducing pollution:
Intake of CO2, release of oxygen, filtering of toxins and dust (foliage acts
as an impingement filter, trapping airborne particles until they are washed
away by rain (Borcke, C. (2003)).
c. Glare Control:
Trees, shrubs and other vegetation can effectively reduce glare and
reflection when placed between the light source and the observer.
d.  Surface Erosion Control
Wind and water can erode valuable top soil. Plants especially grasses,
can prevent or control erosion by stabilizing the soil through their root
structure. Exposed soil on cut banks and steep slopes should be
immediately planted with grasses and / or native low-growing shrubs and
spreading groundcovers.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Trees and Planting
Plant the largest trees you can afford, with secure stakes
and guards, and grilles to allow water to reach the roots.
Take guidance from specialists on appropriate species
and always keep them well maintained. For town
centres, avoid using 'shrubs in tubs' and planters that
cause obstruction to pedestrians. Hanging baskets
provide an almost instant splash of colour and it is
relatively easy to get sponsorship for their provision. Use
brackets off walls and existing columns as supports.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements

 

 Signage

 Strategies for signage should be included at an early stage in the design
process, as the design of a layout can influence the need for signage.
Make a place legible
Signage can be a major clutter problem and can often be misleading. Not
infrequently, the only signage provided is for vehicles, so that the stranger on
foot can find himself circulating around one-way systems. The answer
lies in:
  Consistent and coordinated design of these elements over a wide area.
  Making the structure of the place legible so as to minimise the need for signs,
especially those concerned with traffic direction and control.
  Concentrating pedestrian signage in a designed locality at specific nodal points.
  Signage can also be used to enhance place identity.
Urban Landscape Elements
Signage
Urban Landscape Elements
Signage
Urban Landscape Elements
Signage
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Lighting columns should be located so that they are not obtrusive or cause
difficulties for people with disabilities. For example, in denser or courtyard
developments wall mounted lighting can be effective.
The location of lights should also
ensure a sufficient spread of light
over the footway, as well as the
street.
The shape and colour of light can
also generate three-dimensional
sculpture, transforming the perception
of a place and dramatically painting its
night landscape.The more light-the more
encouragement of night - time activities.
Civic Center
Englewood,Colorado
Decorative Wall
Sconce
Hanging light
gateway
Street Light
Ottawa
Source:www.pps.org
battery park city lighting
fixture
Quality lighting has
helped bring the
Melaka to life.
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
• Energy usage: quantity and
quality of light
• The visual impact of the
equipment
• Light pollution
• Location of the equipment
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape ElementsUrban Design: Streetscape
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Lighting
Urban Landscape Elements
Litter bins
The size, setting and maintenance of litter bins is
important in an effective street cleansing policy. In busy
areas, bins should have a capacity between 80 and 200
litres. They should be sited close to fast food outlets and
where pedestrian traffic is greatest, but not too close to
seats and not directly on pedestrian thoroughfares. Large
bins should be set against the building line, leaving
sufficient sweeping space. A minimum clearance of 1.5
metres is required to allow wheelchair users free
movement.
Urban Landscape Elements
Bollards
Select a design consistent with other similar items,
such as bases of finger posts (pedestrian direction
signs), supports for railings and traffic signs. They
should not dominate the pedestrian environment but
will need to be around 900mm high in areas where
vehicles are permitted. They can be painted in black
or muted colours, and can have integral or fitted
town plaques.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
People with a disability
Groups of people with a disability must always be consulted
regarding the choice of materials and construction in urban
design, as there can be conflicts of interest. Dropped kerbs
for wheelchair users can cause problems for the blind and
partially sighted, who rely on a normal kerb.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Seating
Every seat must be comfortable, robust, vandal-proof
and easy to maintain, in materials sympathetic to
other street furniture. Do not position seats directly
beneath trees or too close to litter bins and ensure
that ground fixings are secure without being visually
intrusive.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Toilets
Public toilets should be available at most hours and
kept properly maintained. Some single, self cleansing
toilets include advertising to subsidise their cost.
Urban Landscape Elements
Cycle racks
To help reduce pollution in town centres we need to
encourage cyclists and provide racks where cycles
can be secured. There are some good modern
designs available.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts and Entertainment
Public art, such as sculpture, fountains, murals,
distinctive lighting or other forms, plays a major role in
making a town centre or street distinctive and
memorable. Competitions for art will raise awareness
and many towns have annual street festivals. A good
idea is to identify areas in the town centre that can
provide regular performing art attractions.
WHAT IS ART IN URBAN LANDSCAPE?
 Means of communication
 Commemorating
 Place making
 Landmarks
 Revitalization
 Unifying/coordinating
 Functional/utilitarian
Urban Landscape Elements
An inscription of identity in an urban
landscape.
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Street furniture in Tokyo
One of the most eye-catching aspects of
roppongi hills is its incorporation of public art
and design into the urban landscape.
11 designers contributed to roppongi hills
streetscape project: andrea ranzi, ettore sottsas,
droog design, ron arad, jasper morrison, tokujin
yoshioka, thomas sandell, karim rashid, shigeru
uchida, toyo ito, katsuhiko hibino. the designers
were approached to develop an idea for street
furniture :
'a resting place exploring the images of forest
in urban life'.their works represent a wide variety of
styles, they are thought provoking, highly
interactive and provide visitors with opportunities
for thought and relaxation’.
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Public Arts
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Bus shelters
The installation of shelters, to protect waiting
passengers from weather and splashing from
vehicles, can be subsidised or wholly paid for by
advertising. They ought to include bus timetable
information, seating and lighting. The new designs
even incorporate facilities such as telephones
Urban Landscape Elements
Bus Shelter as a Public Art
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Paving materials
Urban Landscape Elements
Paving materials
Urban Landscape Elements
Paving materials
Urban Landscape Elements
Paving materials
Urban Landscape Elements
Paving materials
Significant identity: symbol and
motif
Kuching Riverfront Sarawak
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Shibaura Island
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE
To achieve the maximum social, economic and environmental benefit from the use of
landscape elements in urban spaces.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
CONCLUSION:
Urban design of cities should attain the three qualities of utility, durability and
ability to bring to the user a sense of well-being and emotional satisfaction.
For places to be well-used & well-loved, they must be safe, comfortable, varied
& attractive. They also need to be distinctive, & offer variety, choice & fun.
Vibrant places offer opportunities for meeting people, playing in the street &
watching the world go by
Support should be given to create public places that are friendly to a variety of
users. Providing footpaths, cycle-ways, street parking and attractive landscape
elements encourages opportunities for spontaneous community interaction.
In the people’s experience of a place, the physical elements, activities and
meanings combined together to form the sense of place and character of a city
( Montgomery, 1998)
Urban Landscape Elements
REFERENCES:
1. Kevin Lynch’s (1960) ‘Image of the City’ , MIT Press
2. Gordon Cullen’s (1961) ‘Townscape’ ,
3. RELPH E, (1976) : ‘Place and Placelessness’ , Pion Limited (USA)
4. ALEXANDER, C (1977), ‘A Pattern Language’ , Oxford University Press
5. RAPOPORT, A. (1974), ‘Human Aspect of Urban Form’ , Pegamon Press
6. ROWE, C. (1980), ‘Urban Space’ , Academy Editions, London
7. KRIER, R, (1979), ‘On Street’ , Academy Editions, London
8. BORCKE, CHRISTINA VON (2003), “Landscape and nature in the city”,
in Sustainable Urban Design: an environmental approach, Randall
Thomas, editor.
9. CARMONA M. , HEATH T. , TIESDELL S. (2003), “Public Places, Urban
Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design”, Architecture Press
10. MOUGHTIN C. , TIESDELL S. (1999), “Urban Design, ornament and
decoration”, Architectural Press, second edition.
Urban Landscape Elements
Urban Landscape Elements
THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION

More Related Content

What's hot

Le corbusiers planning concepts
Le corbusiers planning conceptsLe corbusiers planning concepts
Le corbusiers planning conceptsctlachu
 
Urban morphology, elements of urban design
Urban morphology, elements of urban designUrban morphology, elements of urban design
Urban morphology, elements of urban designAbdul Rab
 
Radburn city, vikas rathore
Radburn city, vikas rathoreRadburn city, vikas rathore
Radburn city, vikas rathoreVikas Rathore
 
Le corbusier in planning
Le corbusier in planningLe corbusier in planning
Le corbusier in planningGayathri Kumari
 
Public Realm In Cities
Public Realm In CitiesPublic Realm In Cities
Public Realm In CitiesUday Yadav
 
Book review
Book reviewBook review
Book reviewart1965
 
Urban renewal heritage city
Urban renewal heritage cityUrban renewal heritage city
Urban renewal heritage citykvn virinchi
 
Urban Design at different levels of Planning
Urban Design at different levels of PlanningUrban Design at different levels of Planning
Urban Design at different levels of PlanningYajush Sonar
 
Lecture 1 introduction of urban design
Lecture 1  introduction of urban designLecture 1  introduction of urban design
Lecture 1 introduction of urban designmuditdua3
 
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation Chandigarh - planning and its transformation
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation Gagan Tanwar
 
Presentation of urban design
Presentation of urban designPresentation of urban design
Presentation of urban designvermaharsha
 
Introduction to la unit 1
Introduction to la   unit 1Introduction to la   unit 1
Introduction to la unit 1Alisha Sinha
 
Sir ebenezer howard
Sir ebenezer howardSir ebenezer howard
Sir ebenezer howardAyaz Khan
 
Elements of city planning_Building and Town Planning
Elements of city planning_Building and Town PlanningElements of city planning_Building and Town Planning
Elements of city planning_Building and Town PlanningA Makwana
 
Hierarchy Of Open Spaces
Hierarchy Of Open SpacesHierarchy Of Open Spaces
Hierarchy Of Open SpacesRavtej Singh
 

What's hot (20)

Le corbusiers planning concepts
Le corbusiers planning conceptsLe corbusiers planning concepts
Le corbusiers planning concepts
 
Urban morphology, elements of urban design
Urban morphology, elements of urban designUrban morphology, elements of urban design
Urban morphology, elements of urban design
 
Radburn city, vikas rathore
Radburn city, vikas rathoreRadburn city, vikas rathore
Radburn city, vikas rathore
 
Le corbusier in planning
Le corbusier in planningLe corbusier in planning
Le corbusier in planning
 
Public Realm In Cities
Public Realm In CitiesPublic Realm In Cities
Public Realm In Cities
 
Ud ppt
Ud pptUd ppt
Ud ppt
 
urban conservation
urban conservationurban conservation
urban conservation
 
Book review
Book reviewBook review
Book review
 
Urban renewal heritage city
Urban renewal heritage cityUrban renewal heritage city
Urban renewal heritage city
 
Urban Design at different levels of Planning
Urban Design at different levels of PlanningUrban Design at different levels of Planning
Urban Design at different levels of Planning
 
serial vision
serial visionserial vision
serial vision
 
Lecture 1 introduction of urban design
Lecture 1  introduction of urban designLecture 1  introduction of urban design
Lecture 1 introduction of urban design
 
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation Chandigarh - planning and its transformation
Chandigarh - planning and its transformation
 
Presentation of urban design
Presentation of urban designPresentation of urban design
Presentation of urban design
 
Introduction to la unit 1
Introduction to la   unit 1Introduction to la   unit 1
Introduction to la unit 1
 
Sir ebenezer howard
Sir ebenezer howardSir ebenezer howard
Sir ebenezer howard
 
Landscape urbanism
Landscape urbanism Landscape urbanism
Landscape urbanism
 
Landscaping Architecture
Landscaping ArchitectureLandscaping Architecture
Landscaping Architecture
 
Elements of city planning_Building and Town Planning
Elements of city planning_Building and Town PlanningElements of city planning_Building and Town Planning
Elements of city planning_Building and Town Planning
 
Hierarchy Of Open Spaces
Hierarchy Of Open SpacesHierarchy Of Open Spaces
Hierarchy Of Open Spaces
 

Similar to Urban Landscape Elements

Functional Dimension
Functional DimensionFunctional Dimension
Functional DimensionTareq Zarouni
 
Urban design basic factors
Urban design basic factorsUrban design basic factors
Urban design basic factorsTonmoy Barua
 
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptxMussemaAbdurazak
 
Design seminar kd.docx
Design seminar kd.docxDesign seminar kd.docx
Design seminar kd.docxKruti Desai
 
Urban Design Guidelines
Urban Design GuidelinesUrban Design Guidelines
Urban Design GuidelinesShayne Galo
 
History assigments (urban design
History assigments (urban designHistory assigments (urban design
History assigments (urban designsuzain ali
 
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentationAhmed H.Radwan
 
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdfJaelaurenceCDiosana
 
The perceptual dimensions and urban design
The perceptual dimensions and urban designThe perceptual dimensions and urban design
The perceptual dimensions and urban designKU Leuven
 
CONVIVIALITY.pdf
CONVIVIALITY.pdfCONVIVIALITY.pdf
CONVIVIALITY.pdfDaisyChami1
 
public space.ppt.pptx
public space.ppt.pptxpublic space.ppt.pptx
public space.ppt.pptxutsosaha1
 
what is urban design?
 what is urban design? what is urban design?
what is urban design?vasugoyal383
 
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptx
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptxSITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptx
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptxswethasekhar5
 
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban Form
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban FormPerception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban Form
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban FormSomesh Siddharth
 
PPPF222.pptx
PPPF222.pptxPPPF222.pptx
PPPF222.pptxBossGold
 

Similar to Urban Landscape Elements (20)

Functional Dimension
Functional DimensionFunctional Dimension
Functional Dimension
 
Urban design basic factors
Urban design basic factorsUrban design basic factors
Urban design basic factors
 
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx
250391567-Intro-Scope-and-Objectives.pptx
 
Design seminar kd.docx
Design seminar kd.docxDesign seminar kd.docx
Design seminar kd.docx
 
Urban Design Guidelines
Urban Design GuidelinesUrban Design Guidelines
Urban Design Guidelines
 
History assigments (urban design
History assigments (urban designHistory assigments (urban design
History assigments (urban design
 
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation
2019 arch eg 150 cairo - human scale- in public spaces-presentation
 
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf
2.1_URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERN AND SHAPE.pdf
 
Urban Design
Urban Design Urban Design
Urban Design
 
The perceptual dimensions and urban design
The perceptual dimensions and urban designThe perceptual dimensions and urban design
The perceptual dimensions and urban design
 
CONVIVIALITY.pdf
CONVIVIALITY.pdfCONVIVIALITY.pdf
CONVIVIALITY.pdf
 
Urban Design Definition
Urban Design DefinitionUrban Design Definition
Urban Design Definition
 
public space.ppt.pptx
public space.ppt.pptxpublic space.ppt.pptx
public space.ppt.pptx
 
what is urban design?
 what is urban design? what is urban design?
what is urban design?
 
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptx
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptxSITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptx
SITE PLANNING PARAMETERS for landscape design.pptx
 
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban Form
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban FormPerception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban Form
Perception of Urban Space Shape of an Urban Form
 
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptxUrban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
 
PPPF222.pptx
PPPF222.pptxPPPF222.pptx
PPPF222.pptx
 
Session7
Session7Session7
Session7
 
Mohammad mir 28 dec
Mohammad mir 28 decMohammad mir 28 dec
Mohammad mir 28 dec
 

Recently uploaded

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptx
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptxScience 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptx
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptxMaryGraceBautista27
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdf
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdfAMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdf
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdfphamnguyenenglishnb
 
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice great
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice greatEarth Day Presentation wow hello nice great
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice greatYousafMalik24
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Celine George
 
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERP
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERPWhat is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERP
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Judging the Relevance and worth of ideas part 2.pptx
Judging the Relevance  and worth of ideas part 2.pptxJudging the Relevance  and worth of ideas part 2.pptx
Judging the Relevance and worth of ideas part 2.pptxSherlyMaeNeri
 
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxBarangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxCarlos105
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptx
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptxProudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptx
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptxthorishapillay1
 
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdf
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdfLike-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdf
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdfMr Bounab Samir
 

Recently uploaded (20)

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptx
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptxScience 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptx
Science 7 Quarter 4 Module 2: Natural Resources.pptx
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
Model Call Girl in Tilak Nagar Delhi reach out to us at 🔝9953056974🔝
Model Call Girl in Tilak Nagar Delhi reach out to us at 🔝9953056974🔝Model Call Girl in Tilak Nagar Delhi reach out to us at 🔝9953056974🔝
Model Call Girl in Tilak Nagar Delhi reach out to us at 🔝9953056974🔝
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdf
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdfAMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdf
AMERICAN LANGUAGE HUB_Level2_Student'sBook_Answerkey.pdf
 
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice great
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice greatEarth Day Presentation wow hello nice great
Earth Day Presentation wow hello nice great
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
 
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
 
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERP
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERPWhat is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERP
What is Model Inheritance in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Judging the Relevance and worth of ideas part 2.pptx
Judging the Relevance  and worth of ideas part 2.pptxJudging the Relevance  and worth of ideas part 2.pptx
Judging the Relevance and worth of ideas part 2.pptx
 
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxBarangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptx
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptxProudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptx
Proudly South Africa powerpoint Thorisha.pptx
 
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptxRaw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
 
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdf
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdfLike-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdf
Like-prefer-love -hate+verb+ing & silent letters & citizenship text.pdf
 

Urban Landscape Elements

  • 1. Urban Landscape Elements By Dr Mohammad Hussaini bin Wahab
  • 2. People value landscape for many different reasons, not all of them related to traditional concepts of aesthetics and beauty. What is LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  • 3. It encompasses much more than just the landscape. It is a collaboration of the landscape and everything in it - buildings and structures, people, streets and walkways, open space, social spaces, and functional spaces. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 4. •  They embody expressive relationships that mirror changing cultural relationships between nature and city. •  They are physical relationships with a potentially powerful role in structuring the city. •  They are social relationships that demonstrate the value of infrastructure in making places. What is URBAN LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  • 5. •  AESTHETICS •  Planting or constructing for visual pleasure as well as spiritual fulfillment •  FUNCTIONAL •  Planting or constructing for pragmatic reasons such as shade, boundary statements, buffers, etc Functions of a landscape? Urban Landscape Elements
  • 6. What is URBAN ENVIRONMENT? It can be defined as the multidisciplinary activity of shaping and managing the urban environment where it is concerned with both the process of   shaping the space and   the effect of the space which is being shape within the context of place ( Madanipour, 1996). Urban Landscape Elements
  • 7. Tenerife Urban Landscape by Anne Chaffer Urban Landscape Elements
  • 8. Urban Landscape Elements Three level of sustainable development within the urban context Achieving a livable urban fabric is accomplished through the main overlapping and interconnecting of three levels; the city structure, its urban spaces and local design. City structure : Roads, Areas Urban spaces : Buildings , streets Local places : Landscape of places / urban environment It takes great places to create great cities ( Project for Public spaces)
  • 9. A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places) How to make such spaces attractive for human use? The sense of place at the local level stems from its ability to support human activities, through shape and landscape elements. 1.  Shape of Places Shape of places is defined by space edges, facades. Buildings’ facades should offer an active frontage onto places, through adding interests and vitality. It is better for facades’ openings to overlook places; the more openings onto places the better for safety, security (Newman), and liveability (Gehl), hence the space is considered socially sustainable. Amenity and safety of spaces are accomplished through creating a desirable view where buildings’ opening overlook to provide good surveillance of the street and the activity within, thus producing a safe space, (Newman) It appears that a variety of land-uses stimulating many activities is a necessity of a lively street, thus stimulating sustainable places socially and economically, (Moughtin (street and squares) (2001) Urban Landscape Elements
  • 10. A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places) 2. Landscape within Places Landscape nourishes the aesthetic sense, improve air, and add human scale to spaces between buildings thus altering spaces to places. Landscape’s basic role in the urban form of cities is directed to create physical continuity between buildings with different characteristics, and produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand. Nature and landscape in the city are significant for improving the quality of life of life in urban areas and assist sustainable development in every sense of the word: ecologically, socially and economically. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 11. Urban Landscape Elements Landscape elements should primarily relate in its expression, patterning, levels and visual qualities to the physical characteristics of places, human scale and activities. Landscape is mainly divided to three parts the soft, the hard and the furniture.
  • 12. Urban Landscape Elements Sustainable Urban Development City Structure Urban Spaces Local Spaces Landscape Elements Landscape Within Spaces Shape of Spaces Hard ElementsSoft Elements  Nature Plants, trees etc  Man-made Streetscape
  • 13. •  Organic components of landscape which require time to mature or effectual and dependent on climatic factors. SOFT LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  • 14. •  Non-organic component of landscape which is effectual once it is constructed and non-dependent of climatic factors HARD LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  • 15. Urban Landscape Elements What is street furniture? • Element that are placed in landscape or streetscape for several purposes.   Comfort and convenience : benches, kiosks, litter bins, public toilet   Ornamentation : fountains, sculptures, planters, tree guard   Communication : phone booth, post boxes, clocks   Circulation and protection : signs and symbols, bus shelters, railing, bollards • Street furniture constitute a very important part in any urban setting where it not only provide aesthetic value, but also provide functional efficiency, create sense of environmental clarify, as well as a sense of continuity and harmony of the total urban environment. • Street furniture can stengthen the link between a development and its surrounding can personalize the setting, can enhance the positive aspect of the surrounding built environment.
  • 16. Urban Landscape Elements Landscape Elements / Features: • Street Planting • Paths : Bikeway, Pedestrian Way, Five-foot Corridor • Signage System • Outdoor Lighting • Street Furniture : Phone Booth , Seating, Bollard • Shelter : Kiosk, Bus Pavilion • Structure: Clock Tower, Observatory Tower • Sculpture • Paving • Landscape Planting • Pocket Space, Pocket Park • etc
  • 17. It is necessary to recognize the interactive relationship between people and landscaped areas and to connect both elements in a way that optimize each. a.  Encourage people’s use of spaces: Landscape design should be achieved where increasing community interaction, hence decreasing social isolation and encouraging various types of interactions. b. Support different patterns of activities: Landscape elements should be designed to be functional thus allowing easy accomplishment of essential activities with different forms and patterns to occur. c. Improve the visual aspects of space: Landscape act as a screen for objectionable undesired views. Trees and vegetation are often important in the perceptual image of spaces. The trunks and branches create screen. d. Enhance legibility: Produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand through landmark, signs and space disposition. Improving the quality and attractiveness of movement routes as well as reinforcing community identity through well designed landscape elements as signage and street furniture. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 18. Urban Landscape Elements e.  A sense of wellbeing: Produce a safe place protected from various types of pollution, landscape elements should be safe for human use. The existence of the soft landscape can help to visually counteract the stress experienced in cities as a result of traffic, pollution and noise. f. Provision of high quality imaginable places: Landscape plays an important role in improving the image of public transportation through well position, location and designed stops. g. Enhance human scale: Landscape elements influence scale of outdoor spaces through pattern and size. h. Self belongingness: Landscape elements that enhance the identity of space: London telephone box.
  • 19. Urban Landscape Elements The benefits that high quality urban landscape element can bring include: • Helping to build a sense of community. • Reducing crime and anti-social behaviour. • Promoting tourism. • Attracting new businesses and help existing businesses. • Promoting walking and cycling. • Promoting access to public transport. • Boosting the morale of communities and individuals. • Building a sense of ownership and pride in our street environment. • Improving accessibility for all. • Improving levels of highway safety. • Enhancing the overall townscape.
  • 20. Urban Landscape Elements “Streetscape design in the broadest sense refers to the design of street, including roadbed, sidewalks, landscape planting and character of the adjacent building façade or setback” Source: American Planning Association
  • 21. Urban Landscape Elements Most of the streetscape amenities are located in the curb zone of the sidewalk. Some intersections points, streetscape is enlarged such as paving area, planting, public arts, benches, etc
  • 22. Urban Landscape Elements Identify dimension and character
  • 23. Urban Landscape Elements Identify dimension and character
  • 25. Urban Landscape Elements What Makes a Great Place? PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort & image Welcoming evening use volunteerism street life transit usage parking usage patterns pedestrian activity Walkable Convenient Accessible Charm Clean Attractive Historic Safe building conditions environmental data sanitation rating crime stats Cooperative Neighborly property values land-use patterns retail sales business ownership Special Real Fun Active Vital Connected Key Attributes Intangibles Measurements PLACE
  • 26. The form of the _good city_ should offer its inhabitants: 
 A variety of activities & experiences. The best of urban places offer a mixture of uses: living, working, shopping & playing all gain from being linked as opposed to being zoned & separated, even if narrow sectoral rules of optimal efficiency are transgressed. å
 Urban Landscape Elements
  • 27. Access to different activities, resources, information & places for all sectors of the population. The city should be permeable to all, regardless of age, ability or income. It should offer choices in terms of mobility & be appropriate to pedestrians & cyclists as well as car drivers. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 28. Protection & security, together with shelter & comfort. The gains in public health must be maintained, but new considerations of surveillance & safety have also to be considered. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 29. The opportunity for people to personalise their own surroundings. An environment should provide private spaces offering the opportunity for personal expression & public spaces robust enough to accommodate changes by their users. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 30. Clarity of perception & stimulation to its users. Additionally, the city form must be responsive to the distribution of activities & patterns of movement. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 34. When you design your community around people and places … you get more people and places. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 42. Trees and Planting Trees enhance our environment. Adding living color, cover and beauty. Bringing nature to every heart of our cities. Soft landscape / urban trees planting assists the ecological health of the environment through the following: a. Enhancing the microclimate: 1. Noise Abatement Landscape elements absorb noise. Plants diffract and break up sound waves, changing their direction and reducing their intensity when sufficiently massed. To be effective in controlling noise, plants should be used with masonry walls or similar noise buffering structures. 2. Temperature Modification Plants raise local humidity by absorbing rainwater and/or delaying it entering the drainage system, make the ambient temperature more temperate. Direct radiation from the sun creates uncomfortably high temperatures.Locating densely foliated trees and shrubs can reduce heat gain. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 43. 3. Wind Control Plants can modify wind speed on the ground. Dense masses of large evergreen trees planted can influence energy efficiency of facilities and increase the livability of outside spaces. b. Reducing pollution: Intake of CO2, release of oxygen, filtering of toxins and dust (foliage acts as an impingement filter, trapping airborne particles until they are washed away by rain (Borcke, C. (2003)). c. Glare Control: Trees, shrubs and other vegetation can effectively reduce glare and reflection when placed between the light source and the observer. d.  Surface Erosion Control Wind and water can erode valuable top soil. Plants especially grasses, can prevent or control erosion by stabilizing the soil through their root structure. Exposed soil on cut banks and steep slopes should be immediately planted with grasses and / or native low-growing shrubs and spreading groundcovers. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 44. Urban Landscape Elements Trees and Planting Plant the largest trees you can afford, with secure stakes and guards, and grilles to allow water to reach the roots. Take guidance from specialists on appropriate species and always keep them well maintained. For town centres, avoid using 'shrubs in tubs' and planters that cause obstruction to pedestrians. Hanging baskets provide an almost instant splash of colour and it is relatively easy to get sponsorship for their provision. Use brackets off walls and existing columns as supports.
  • 50. Urban Landscape Elements Signage Strategies for signage should be included at an early stage in the design process, as the design of a layout can influence the need for signage. Make a place legible Signage can be a major clutter problem and can often be misleading. Not infrequently, the only signage provided is for vehicles, so that the stranger on foot can find himself circulating around one-way systems. The answer lies in:   Consistent and coordinated design of these elements over a wide area.   Making the structure of the place legible so as to minimise the need for signs, especially those concerned with traffic direction and control.   Concentrating pedestrian signage in a designed locality at specific nodal points.   Signage can also be used to enhance place identity.
  • 55. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting Lighting columns should be located so that they are not obtrusive or cause difficulties for people with disabilities. For example, in denser or courtyard developments wall mounted lighting can be effective. The location of lights should also ensure a sufficient spread of light over the footway, as well as the street. The shape and colour of light can also generate three-dimensional sculpture, transforming the perception of a place and dramatically painting its night landscape.The more light-the more encouragement of night - time activities. Civic Center Englewood,Colorado Decorative Wall Sconce Hanging light gateway Street Light Ottawa Source:www.pps.org battery park city lighting fixture Quality lighting has helped bring the Melaka to life.
  • 56. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting • Energy usage: quantity and quality of light • The visual impact of the equipment • Light pollution • Location of the equipment
  • 58. Urban Landscape ElementsUrban Design: Streetscape
  • 65. Urban Landscape Elements Litter bins The size, setting and maintenance of litter bins is important in an effective street cleansing policy. In busy areas, bins should have a capacity between 80 and 200 litres. They should be sited close to fast food outlets and where pedestrian traffic is greatest, but not too close to seats and not directly on pedestrian thoroughfares. Large bins should be set against the building line, leaving sufficient sweeping space. A minimum clearance of 1.5 metres is required to allow wheelchair users free movement.
  • 66. Urban Landscape Elements Bollards Select a design consistent with other similar items, such as bases of finger posts (pedestrian direction signs), supports for railings and traffic signs. They should not dominate the pedestrian environment but will need to be around 900mm high in areas where vehicles are permitted. They can be painted in black or muted colours, and can have integral or fitted town plaques.
  • 69. People with a disability Groups of people with a disability must always be consulted regarding the choice of materials and construction in urban design, as there can be conflicts of interest. Dropped kerbs for wheelchair users can cause problems for the blind and partially sighted, who rely on a normal kerb. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 73. Urban Landscape Elements Seating Every seat must be comfortable, robust, vandal-proof and easy to maintain, in materials sympathetic to other street furniture. Do not position seats directly beneath trees or too close to litter bins and ensure that ground fixings are secure without being visually intrusive.
  • 76. Urban Landscape Elements Toilets Public toilets should be available at most hours and kept properly maintained. Some single, self cleansing toilets include advertising to subsidise their cost.
  • 77. Urban Landscape Elements Cycle racks To help reduce pollution in town centres we need to encourage cyclists and provide racks where cycles can be secured. There are some good modern designs available.
  • 79. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts and Entertainment Public art, such as sculpture, fountains, murals, distinctive lighting or other forms, plays a major role in making a town centre or street distinctive and memorable. Competitions for art will raise awareness and many towns have annual street festivals. A good idea is to identify areas in the town centre that can provide regular performing art attractions.
  • 80. WHAT IS ART IN URBAN LANDSCAPE?  Means of communication  Commemorating  Place making  Landmarks  Revitalization  Unifying/coordinating  Functional/utilitarian Urban Landscape Elements An inscription of identity in an urban landscape.
  • 83. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts Street furniture in Tokyo One of the most eye-catching aspects of roppongi hills is its incorporation of public art and design into the urban landscape. 11 designers contributed to roppongi hills streetscape project: andrea ranzi, ettore sottsas, droog design, ron arad, jasper morrison, tokujin yoshioka, thomas sandell, karim rashid, shigeru uchida, toyo ito, katsuhiko hibino. the designers were approached to develop an idea for street furniture : 'a resting place exploring the images of forest in urban life'.their works represent a wide variety of styles, they are thought provoking, highly interactive and provide visitors with opportunities for thought and relaxation’.
  • 89. Urban Landscape Elements Bus shelters The installation of shelters, to protect waiting passengers from weather and splashing from vehicles, can be subsidised or wholly paid for by advertising. They ought to include bus timetable information, seating and lighting. The new designs even incorporate facilities such as telephones
  • 90. Urban Landscape Elements Bus Shelter as a Public Art
  • 96. Urban Landscape Elements Paving materials Significant identity: symbol and motif Kuching Riverfront Sarawak
  • 111. Urban Landscape Elements IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE To achieve the maximum social, economic and environmental benefit from the use of landscape elements in urban spaces.
  • 115. CONCLUSION: Urban design of cities should attain the three qualities of utility, durability and ability to bring to the user a sense of well-being and emotional satisfaction. For places to be well-used & well-loved, they must be safe, comfortable, varied & attractive. They also need to be distinctive, & offer variety, choice & fun. Vibrant places offer opportunities for meeting people, playing in the street & watching the world go by Support should be given to create public places that are friendly to a variety of users. Providing footpaths, cycle-ways, street parking and attractive landscape elements encourages opportunities for spontaneous community interaction. In the people’s experience of a place, the physical elements, activities and meanings combined together to form the sense of place and character of a city ( Montgomery, 1998) Urban Landscape Elements
  • 116. REFERENCES: 1. Kevin Lynch’s (1960) ‘Image of the City’ , MIT Press 2. Gordon Cullen’s (1961) ‘Townscape’ , 3. RELPH E, (1976) : ‘Place and Placelessness’ , Pion Limited (USA) 4. ALEXANDER, C (1977), ‘A Pattern Language’ , Oxford University Press 5. RAPOPORT, A. (1974), ‘Human Aspect of Urban Form’ , Pegamon Press 6. ROWE, C. (1980), ‘Urban Space’ , Academy Editions, London 7. KRIER, R, (1979), ‘On Street’ , Academy Editions, London 8. BORCKE, CHRISTINA VON (2003), “Landscape and nature in the city”, in Sustainable Urban Design: an environmental approach, Randall Thomas, editor. 9. CARMONA M. , HEATH T. , TIESDELL S. (2003), “Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design”, Architecture Press 10. MOUGHTIN C. , TIESDELL S. (1999), “Urban Design, ornament and decoration”, Architectural Press, second edition. Urban Landscape Elements
  • 117. Urban Landscape Elements THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION