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Phospholipids cholesterol

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Phospholipids cholesterol

  1. 1. Saponification number• gives some clue about the average size of fatty acids in a given sample of fat• defined as the number of milligrams of KOH needed to neutralize the fatty acids in 1 g of fat • butter (large proportion of short chain FAs) sap. no. 220 – 230 • oleomargarine (long chain FAs) sap. No is 195 or less SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  2. 2. Acetyl number• some fatty acids have hydroxyl groups OH OH H3C (CH2)21 CH COOH H3C (CH2)5 CH CH2 CH CH (CH2)7 COOH cerebronic acid ricinoleic acid The acetyl number gives the proportion of these hydroxyl-containing fatty acids in a given sample of fat or oil acetic anhydride fatty acid fatty acid fatty acid OH O C CH3 OH O + acetylated fatty acid H3C COOH titrate with standardized KOH SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  3. 3. Acetyl number• the acetyl number is the number of milligrams of KOH needed to neutralize the acetic acid produced from 1 g of acetylated fat – examples: • castor oil (146 –150) • cod liver oil (1.1) • cottonseed oil (21 – 25) • olive oil (10.5) • peanut oil (3.5) SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  4. 4. Iodine number I I H H I2 H H• measures the degree of un-saturation in a given amount of fat or oil• the iodine number is the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100 g of fat • Cottonseed oil: 103 –111 • Olive oil: 79 – 88 • Linseed oil: 175 –202• frequently used to determine adulteration of commercial lots of oils SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  5. 5. Reichert–Meissl number• measures the amount of volatile fatty acids (low MW and water soluble Fats)• the R-M number is the number of milliliters of 0.1N alkali required to neutralize the soluble fatty acids distilled from 5 g of fat• butter fat has a high R-M numberSELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  6. 6. Phospholipids • the major components of cell membranes – phosphoglycerides O O O R fatty acids (hydrophobic tail) glycerol O R O- O O X P O phosphatePhospholipids are generally composed of FAs, a nitrogenous base,phosphoric acid and either glycerol, inositol or sphingosine SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  7. 7. O O O R fatty acids (hydrophobic tail)glycerol O R O- O O X P O phosphate X = H (phosphatidic acid) - precursor to other phospholipids X = CH2-CH2-N+(CH3)3 phosphatidyl choline X = CH2-CH(COO-)NH3+ phosphatidyl serine X = CH2-CH2-NH3+ phosphatidyl ethanolamineSELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  8. 8. Phosphatidyl inositol Commonly utilized in cellular signalingSELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  9. 9. Sphingolipids Contain sphingosine instead of glycerol OH OH sphingosine NH2 R long chain hydrocarbon HO NH2 attach fatty acid here OH attach polar head group hereSELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  10. 10. 1- phingomyelin (a ceramide)It is a omnipresent component of animal cell membranes, where it is themost abundant sphingolipid. It can comprise as much as 50% of the lipids incertain tissues.It is usually lower in concentration than phosphatidylcholine SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  11. 11. 2-Ether glycerophospholipids• Possess an ether linkage instead of an acyl group at the C-1 position of glycerol – platelet activating factor (PAF) – A potent mediator in inflammation, allergic response and shock, also responsible for asthma-like symptom – The ether linkage is stable in either acid or base – Plasmalogens: cis α, β-unsaturated ethers • The alpha/beta unsaturated ether can be hydrolyzed more easily SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  12. 12. 3- Ether glycerophospholipids O CH3 O CH3 -O P O CH2 CH2 N CH3 -O P O CH2 CH2 N CH3 O CH3 O CH3H2C CH CH2 H2C CH CH2 O O O O H C O C O CH3 H A choline plasmalogen platelet activating factor or PAF SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  13. 13. 4-Glycolipids HO R O NH R O SUGAR polar head is a sugar beta linkageThere are different types of glycolipids: cerebrosides, gangliosides,lactosylceramides SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  14. 14. GLYCOLIPIDS• Cerebrosides • One sugar molecule – Galactocerebroside – Glucocerebrosides• Sulfatides or sulfogalactocerebrosides • A sulfuric acid ester of galactocerebroside• Globosides: ceramide oligosaccharides • Lactosylceramide – 2 sugars ( eg. lactose)• Gangliosides • Have a more complex oligosaccharide attached • Biological functions: cell-cell recognition; receptors for hormones SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  15. 15. 5- Cardiolipids O O O H2C O C R1 R4 C O CH2 OR2 C O C H O H O H C O C R3 H2C O P O CH2 C CH2 O P O CH2 OH OH OH glycerol glycerol glycerol A polyglycerol phospholipid; makes up 15% of total lipid-phosphorus content of the myocardium – associated with the cell membrane SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  16. 16. 6-Sulfolipids• also called sulfatides or cerebroside sulfates• contained in brain lipids• sulfate esters of cerebrosides• present in low levels in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle and heart• function is not established SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  17. 17. STEROIDS• Naturally occurring compounds having perhydrocyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus in their structure• The ring contains 17 carbon atoms• Generally contain CH3 at carbon 10 and 13 18 12 17 11 19 C 13 D 16 1 2 9 14 15 10 A B 8 3 5 7 4 6 SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  18. 18. Animal sterol-cholesterol• It is the most abundant steroid• Found in animal tissues and not in plants• 140 g of cholesterol is present in normal human adult• Structural formula is C27H45OH• Considering asymmetric carbon atoms 512 stereoisomers are possible• The most abundant isomers are C3 (OH) and C5-10 fusion SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  19. 19. Animal sterol-cholesterol• Chemical structure CH3 at 10 and 13 Iso-octanyl at C17 Un-saturation between C5 and C6 OH at C3 SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  20. 20. CHOLESTEROL FACTS • It is synthesized from acetyl CoA and eliminated as bile acids • It is a precursor of all other steroids in the body • It is a product of animal metabolism – found in foods of animal origin • It is an amphipathic lipid (hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions) • stored in the form ester in most of tissues. O || R-C-Ohydrophilic Cholesterol ester (1st ring only) R = fatty acid hydrocarbon chain HO SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  21. 21. physical properties white crystalline solid, tasteless and odorless oxidized on exposure to air acts as insulator to nerves and brain tissue essential structural component of membranes transported in the circulation in lipoproteins SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  22. 22. ROLES OF CHOLESTEROL AND BILE ACIDS AND ITS SALTSThe physiological roles of cholesterol include:c) an important lipid component of biological membranesd) precursor of steroid hormones ande) source of bile acidsBile acids are polar derivatives of cholesterol and aid in:c) lipid digestiond) lipid absorptione) cholesterol excretion SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW
  23. 23. Cholestanone (ketones) Oxidation Carboxylic acids Drastic oxidationCholesterol esters Cholesterol Mixture of ketones and halogens hydrogen hydroxy acids Cholesterol dihalides Dihydrocholesterol SELF RELIANCE FOR BETTER TOMORROW