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IN LIGHT OF SCIENCE AND QURAN 
Dr. Hussein Mhanna
It all started with the “BIG BANG” 
• The evidence that the Universe began 
with the Big Bang is very compelling. 
• 13.8 billion years ago, the entire Universe 
was compressed into a microscopic 
singularity that grew exponentially into 
the vast cosmos we see today. 
• But what does the future hold? 
• How will the Universe end?
The ultimate fate of the Universe 
• Astronomers have been pondering the 
ultimate fate of the Universe for 
thousands of years. 
• In the last century, cosmologists 
considered three outcomes for the end 
of everything, and it all depended on the 
critical density of the Universe.
The End of the Universe 
Three Scenarios 
Based on the Critical Density of the Universe
If this critical density was high 
• If this critical density was high, then 
there was enough mutual gravity to slow 
and eventually halt the expansion. 
• Billions of years in the future, it would 
then collapse in on itself again, perhaps 
creating another Big Bang. 
• This is known as a Closed Universe, and 
the final result is the Big Crunch.
Not 
this 
Big 
Crunch!
Not 
this 
one 
either!
If the critical density was low 
• If the critical density was low, then there 
wouldn’t be enough gravity to hold things 
together. 
• Expansion would continue on forever and ever. 
• Stars would die, galaxies would be spread 
apart, and everything would cool down to the 
background temperature of the Universe. 
• This is an Open Universe, and the end is 
known as the Big Freeze.
Not this big freeze!
Miss the snow?! 
Satellite image of North America's Big Freeze, January 2014
If the critical density was just right 
• And if the critical density was just right, 
the Universe’s expansion goes on 
forever, but it’s always slowing down, 
reaching a dead stop in an infinite 
amount of time. 
• This creates a Flat Universe… 
also a Big Freeze.
What is the shape of the Universe?! 
• Fortunately, astronomers were able to 
measure the critical density of the 
Universe, using NASA’s WMAP 
spacecraft, and they discovered that the 
actual density of the Universe predicts a 
Flat Universe. 
• So that’s it, right? Of the three choices, 
the answer is #3.
Not quite right! 
It’s not that simple! 
A 1998 discovery confused everyone!
• Unfortunately, the Universe had other plans, 
and came up with a reality that nobody 
expected. 
• In 1998, a team of astronomers were 
observing distant supernovae to get a sense 
of how fast the Universe is slowing down and 
they made an amazing discovery. 
• Instead of decelerating, as predicted by the 
critical density of the Universe, the 
expansion of the Universe is actually 
speeding up.
But why?! 
What is causing the acceleration?
• Some mysterious force is pushing galaxies 
faster and faster away from each other, 
accelerating the expansion of the Universe. 
• We now call this force “dark energy”, and for 
the time being, astronomers have no idea 
what it is. All we know is that it’s pushing the 
Universe apart. 
• Distant galaxies are being accelerated away 
from us, and in trillions of years from now, 
they will cross beyond the cosmic horizon and 
disappear from view. The evidence that we live 
in a vast Universe will disappear with them.
Another frightening possibility 
What if the expansion overwhelms the gravity?!
The Big Rip! 
• But there’s a further unsettling possibility 
about dark energy. 
• Maybe the expansion pressure will 
increase, eventually overwhelming gravity 
on a local level. 
• Galaxies will get torn apart, and then Solar 
Systems, and eventually atoms themselves 
will be shredded by the increasing dark 
energy – this idea is known as the Big Rip.
Not this big rip!
Not this one either!
So how will the Universe end?! 
Nobody knows! 
It’s all theories for now…
But what do we know?! 
• It started with a Big Bang. 
• Galaxies formed from the gas cloud after the 
explosion. 
• The structure of the universe is a web. 
• The old notion about vacuum in the universe is 
wrong and that “dark matter” fills the universe. 
• It’s causing the expansion. 
• The shape of the universe is flat.
All these facts agree 
with the Quran
The “Big Bang” 
in the Quran
And have not the ones who disbelieved seen that 
the heavens and the earth were an integrated 
(mass)/ one entity, then We unseamed / separated 
them, and of water We have made every living 
thing? Would they then not believe? 
{21:30}
The Primordial Gas 
Cloud 
in the Quran
Moreover He comprehended in His design 
the sky, and it had been (as) smoke… 
{41:11}
The Structure of the Universe 
in the Quran
{And (by) the heaven comprising 
interwoven tracks} 
[51:7]
The Expansion of the Universe 
in the Quran
And the heaven (is also a sign). We have built 
it with (Our) Hands (i.e., Capability) and 
surely We are indeed extending (it) wide. 
{51:47}
A hint about the dark matter 
• We can’t find in the Quran a clear 
mention of the dark matter (as of yet), 
but it seems like anytime there’s a 
mention of the “skies and earth” in the 
Quran, it is followed by “and what is 
between them”. 
• I counted 20 such verses!
A sample of these verses 
• And We did not create the heaven and 
earth and that between them in play. 
[21:16]
Anything about the 
shape of the Universe in 
the Quran?
Scientifically proven… 
• NASA’s WMAP spacecraft which can measure the basic parameters of 
the Big Bang theory including the geometry of the universe, proved that 
the universe is flat 
• Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based 
experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang,Maxima, and DASI, 
have shown that the universe is flat (to within about 15% accuracy prior to 
the WMAP results). 
• WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We 
now know (as of 2013) that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of 
error. 
• This suggests that the Universe is infinite in extent; however, since the 
Universe has a finite age, we can only observe a finite volume of the 
Universe. 
• All we can truly conclude is that the Universe is much larger than the 
volume we can directly observe.
The Quran speaks… 
• In a verse talking about the ultimate fate of 
the universe, Allah says: 
• The Day when We will fold the heaven like the 
folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As 
We began the first creation, We will repeat it. 
[That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We 
will do it. [21:104]
NASA agrees with the Quran 
• {We will fold the heaven like the folding of a 
sheet…} [21:104} 
• So the universe is flat like a sheet according 
to the Quranic description! 
• Guess what?! 
• That’s exactly how NASA described it as well: 
“the universe is flat, like a sheet of paper” 
• (http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_shape.html)
Anything else in that verse? 
• {As We began the first creation, We will repeat 
it.} [21:1-4] 
• According to the “Big Crunch” theory, after 
it reaches maximum expansion, the universe 
will contract on itself, galaxies will blend 
with each other, stars will join with other 
stars, until the universe returns ultimately to 
its starting dimensionless singularity! 
• Then another Big Bang scenario!
The cycle repeats itself 
• So the Big Crunch will be followed by 
another Big Bang, and another creation of 
the Universe. 
• So is the verse talking about this 
possibility?! 
• The Day when We will fold the heaven like 
the folding of a [written] sheet for the 
records. As We began the first creation, We 
will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding 
upon Us. Indeed, We will do it. [21:104]
Another verse about recreation 
• God promises to recreate the heavens 
and Earth once more before Judgment 
Day: 
• {On the day when Earth will be swapped 
by another Earth and so will be the 
heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect 
before the One Dominant God.} [14.48]
They do not measure Allah with His true 
measure. The whole earth will be a mere 
handful for Him on the Day of Rising the 
heavens folded up in His right hand. 
Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the 
partners they ascribe! (Qur'an, 39:67)

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The fate of the universe - Between Science and Quran

  • 1. IN LIGHT OF SCIENCE AND QURAN Dr. Hussein Mhanna
  • 2. It all started with the “BIG BANG” • The evidence that the Universe began with the Big Bang is very compelling. • 13.8 billion years ago, the entire Universe was compressed into a microscopic singularity that grew exponentially into the vast cosmos we see today. • But what does the future hold? • How will the Universe end?
  • 3. The ultimate fate of the Universe • Astronomers have been pondering the ultimate fate of the Universe for thousands of years. • In the last century, cosmologists considered three outcomes for the end of everything, and it all depended on the critical density of the Universe.
  • 4. The End of the Universe Three Scenarios Based on the Critical Density of the Universe
  • 5.
  • 6. If this critical density was high • If this critical density was high, then there was enough mutual gravity to slow and eventually halt the expansion. • Billions of years in the future, it would then collapse in on itself again, perhaps creating another Big Bang. • This is known as a Closed Universe, and the final result is the Big Crunch.
  • 7. Not this Big Crunch!
  • 8. Not this one either!
  • 9.
  • 10. If the critical density was low • If the critical density was low, then there wouldn’t be enough gravity to hold things together. • Expansion would continue on forever and ever. • Stars would die, galaxies would be spread apart, and everything would cool down to the background temperature of the Universe. • This is an Open Universe, and the end is known as the Big Freeze.
  • 11. Not this big freeze!
  • 12. Miss the snow?! Satellite image of North America's Big Freeze, January 2014
  • 13.
  • 14. If the critical density was just right • And if the critical density was just right, the Universe’s expansion goes on forever, but it’s always slowing down, reaching a dead stop in an infinite amount of time. • This creates a Flat Universe… also a Big Freeze.
  • 15. What is the shape of the Universe?! • Fortunately, astronomers were able to measure the critical density of the Universe, using NASA’s WMAP spacecraft, and they discovered that the actual density of the Universe predicts a Flat Universe. • So that’s it, right? Of the three choices, the answer is #3.
  • 16. Not quite right! It’s not that simple! A 1998 discovery confused everyone!
  • 17. • Unfortunately, the Universe had other plans, and came up with a reality that nobody expected. • In 1998, a team of astronomers were observing distant supernovae to get a sense of how fast the Universe is slowing down and they made an amazing discovery. • Instead of decelerating, as predicted by the critical density of the Universe, the expansion of the Universe is actually speeding up.
  • 18.
  • 19. But why?! What is causing the acceleration?
  • 20. • Some mysterious force is pushing galaxies faster and faster away from each other, accelerating the expansion of the Universe. • We now call this force “dark energy”, and for the time being, astronomers have no idea what it is. All we know is that it’s pushing the Universe apart. • Distant galaxies are being accelerated away from us, and in trillions of years from now, they will cross beyond the cosmic horizon and disappear from view. The evidence that we live in a vast Universe will disappear with them.
  • 21.
  • 22. Another frightening possibility What if the expansion overwhelms the gravity?!
  • 23.
  • 24. The Big Rip! • But there’s a further unsettling possibility about dark energy. • Maybe the expansion pressure will increase, eventually overwhelming gravity on a local level. • Galaxies will get torn apart, and then Solar Systems, and eventually atoms themselves will be shredded by the increasing dark energy – this idea is known as the Big Rip.
  • 25. Not this big rip!
  • 26. Not this one either!
  • 27.
  • 28. So how will the Universe end?! Nobody knows! It’s all theories for now…
  • 29. But what do we know?! • It started with a Big Bang. • Galaxies formed from the gas cloud after the explosion. • The structure of the universe is a web. • The old notion about vacuum in the universe is wrong and that “dark matter” fills the universe. • It’s causing the expansion. • The shape of the universe is flat.
  • 30. All these facts agree with the Quran
  • 31. The “Big Bang” in the Quran
  • 32. And have not the ones who disbelieved seen that the heavens and the earth were an integrated (mass)/ one entity, then We unseamed / separated them, and of water We have made every living thing? Would they then not believe? {21:30}
  • 33. The Primordial Gas Cloud in the Quran
  • 34. Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke… {41:11}
  • 35. The Structure of the Universe in the Quran
  • 36. {And (by) the heaven comprising interwoven tracks} [51:7]
  • 37. The Expansion of the Universe in the Quran
  • 38. And the heaven (is also a sign). We have built it with (Our) Hands (i.e., Capability) and surely We are indeed extending (it) wide. {51:47}
  • 39. A hint about the dark matter • We can’t find in the Quran a clear mention of the dark matter (as of yet), but it seems like anytime there’s a mention of the “skies and earth” in the Quran, it is followed by “and what is between them”. • I counted 20 such verses!
  • 40. A sample of these verses • And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play. [21:16]
  • 41. Anything about the shape of the Universe in the Quran?
  • 42. Scientifically proven… • NASA’s WMAP spacecraft which can measure the basic parameters of the Big Bang theory including the geometry of the universe, proved that the universe is flat • Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang,Maxima, and DASI, have shown that the universe is flat (to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results). • WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We now know (as of 2013) that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error. • This suggests that the Universe is infinite in extent; however, since the Universe has a finite age, we can only observe a finite volume of the Universe. • All we can truly conclude is that the Universe is much larger than the volume we can directly observe.
  • 43. The Quran speaks… • In a verse talking about the ultimate fate of the universe, Allah says: • The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it. [21:104]
  • 44. NASA agrees with the Quran • {We will fold the heaven like the folding of a sheet…} [21:104} • So the universe is flat like a sheet according to the Quranic description! • Guess what?! • That’s exactly how NASA described it as well: “the universe is flat, like a sheet of paper” • (http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_shape.html)
  • 45. Anything else in that verse? • {As We began the first creation, We will repeat it.} [21:1-4] • According to the “Big Crunch” theory, after it reaches maximum expansion, the universe will contract on itself, galaxies will blend with each other, stars will join with other stars, until the universe returns ultimately to its starting dimensionless singularity! • Then another Big Bang scenario!
  • 46.
  • 47. The cycle repeats itself • So the Big Crunch will be followed by another Big Bang, and another creation of the Universe. • So is the verse talking about this possibility?! • The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it. [21:104]
  • 48. Another verse about recreation • God promises to recreate the heavens and Earth once more before Judgment Day: • {On the day when Earth will be swapped by another Earth and so will be the heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect before the One Dominant God.} [14.48]
  • 49. They do not measure Allah with His true measure. The whole earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising the heavens folded up in His right hand. Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the partners they ascribe! (Qur'an, 39:67)