Biological Molecules Today: amino acids, proteins DNA, RNA April 14, 2009
Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Study of carbon containing compounds.  Originally encompassed only compounds isolated from biolo...
So what makes carbon so special?
Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Construct a model of isopropyl alcohol
Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Carbon skeleton Functional group
Does your model look like this?
Benzene
Our plastic model looks a little different
 
As opposed to …
Amino Acids
Standard amino acids <ul><li>20 amino acids make up all proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Our bodies produce all but eight </li>...
 
Terms to know <ul><li>Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala </li></ul><ul><li>Three amino...
Terms to know <ul><li>Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala </li></ul><ul><li>Three amino...
Formation of a peptide bond
An example of an enzyme
Proteins <ul><li>Large organic compound (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essen...
Sucrose is first digested in the stomach by stomach acid.  Any remaining sucrose split into glucose and fructose by sucras...
Protein synthesis <ul><li>Proteins are assembled from amino acids using the information encoded in genes.  (one gene conta...
RNA and  DNA Thymine  T
Nitrogenous Bases
Hydrogen Bonding 5’ end 3’ end
Nucleotide
Nucleotide in RNA Sugar (ribose) phosphate Nitrogenous base (A)
Protein synthesis RNA polymerase  makes this step happen
Answer the questions on your handout <ul><li>http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm </li></ul><ul><li>1.  ...
Structure of proteins <ul><li>Primary Structure:   The exact sequence of amino acids  </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Structur...
Structure of proteins
Proteins <ul><li>Examples of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>α -keratin contains long strands of alpha helix structures. Found ...
Silk These pleated sheet structures make the material resistant to stretching.  The small R groups make the chains compact...
Artificial Silk Polymer continues on in each direction
Another fibrous protein <ul><li>Collagen most abundant protein in vertebrates, found in bone, cartilage, tendons, teeth an...
Globular protein- soluble in water <ul><li>Hemoglobin  </li></ul>Heme
Where do biological molecules come from? USAToday Posted 8/8/2006   This is an artist’s rendition of the cosmic chemistry ...
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Biomolecules I

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Biomolecules I

  1. 1. Biological Molecules Today: amino acids, proteins DNA, RNA April 14, 2009
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Study of carbon containing compounds. Originally encompassed only compounds isolated from biological sources because it was thought that the molecules contained a “life-force”. The definition of organic chemistry now consists of man-made and biological molecules consisting mostly of Carbon and Hydrogen plus Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Sulfur, and Phosphorus. </li></ul>
  3. 3. So what makes carbon so special?
  4. 4. Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Construct a model of isopropyl alcohol
  5. 5. Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Carbon skeleton Functional group
  6. 6. Does your model look like this?
  7. 7. Benzene
  8. 8. Our plastic model looks a little different
  9. 10. As opposed to …
  10. 11. Amino Acids
  11. 12. Standard amino acids <ul><li>20 amino acids make up all proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Our bodies produce all but eight </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine – essential amino acids. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Terms to know <ul><li>Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala </li></ul><ul><li>Three amino acids joined together is called a . Example Glu-Cys-Gly </li></ul><ul><li>Many many, many amino acids joined together are called . </li></ul>
  13. 15. Terms to know <ul><li>Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala </li></ul><ul><li>Three amino acids joined together is called a tripeptide . Example Glu-Cys-Gly </li></ul><ul><li>Many many many amino acids joined together are called protein . </li></ul>
  14. 16. Formation of a peptide bond
  15. 17. An example of an enzyme
  16. 18. Proteins <ul><li>Large organic compound (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essential parts of all living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes that catalyze bioreactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a role in structural or mechanical functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell signaling </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Sucrose is first digested in the stomach by stomach acid. Any remaining sucrose split into glucose and fructose by sucrase in the walls of the intestines.
  18. 20. Protein synthesis <ul><li>Proteins are assembled from amino acids using the information encoded in genes. (one gene contains the information for one entire enzyme) </li></ul><ul><li>Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. Each three-nucleotide combination, called a codon, stands for an amino acid. </li></ul>
  19. 21. RNA and DNA Thymine T
  20. 22. Nitrogenous Bases
  21. 23. Hydrogen Bonding 5’ end 3’ end
  22. 24. Nucleotide
  23. 25. Nucleotide in RNA Sugar (ribose) phosphate Nitrogenous base (A)
  24. 26. Protein synthesis RNA polymerase makes this step happen
  25. 27. Answer the questions on your handout <ul><li>http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm </li></ul><ul><li>1. What is transcription? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is the role of RNA polymerase? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the role of Poly A polymerase? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What do ATP and ADP stand for? What does ATP supply? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is splicing? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What is the difference between an intron and an exon? </li></ul><ul><li>7. What is translation? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What are the three processes within translation? </li></ul><ul><li>9. What is a codon? </li></ul><ul><li>10. What’s the difference between mRNA and tRNA? </li></ul>
  26. 28. Structure of proteins <ul><li>Primary Structure: The exact sequence of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Structure: The arrangement of amino acids that give local segments of a protein a specific shape. Includes structures alpha-helix, beta pleated sheets and random coils. </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Structure: The three dimensional structure of the protein as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary Structure: The three dimensional structure of protein that are assembled from separate protein chains. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Structure of proteins
  28. 30. Proteins <ul><li>Examples of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>α -keratin contains long strands of alpha helix structures. Found in hair, hooves, nails, skin and wool. (fibrous protein) </li></ul>
  29. 31. Silk These pleated sheet structures make the material resistant to stretching. The small R groups make the chains compact giving the material a smooth feel. The uniform surface makes it a good reflector of light.
  30. 32. Artificial Silk Polymer continues on in each direction
  31. 33. Another fibrous protein <ul><li>Collagen most abundant protein in vertebrates, found in bone, cartilage, tendons, teeth and blood vessels. Contain mostly glycine and proline. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Globular protein- soluble in water <ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul>Heme
  33. 35. Where do biological molecules come from? USAToday Posted 8/8/2006 This is an artist’s rendition of the cosmic chemistry cycle. Stars eject matter into space. Diffuse gas clouds condense into stars and planets or comets and meteorites.

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