Human Rights Monitoring, Fact-Finding and Documentation
MONITORING, FACT-FINDING & DOCUMENTATION <ul><li>MONITORING  -- the close observation of a situation or individual case ca...
The cooking analogy
 
 
Monitoring <ul><li>The close observation of a situation or individual case </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out to determine what...
Elements of Monitoring: <ul><li>Carried out over an  extended period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Involves collecting or rece...
Example of a Norm <ul><li>RIGHT:  Right to Life </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNATIONAL STANDARD:  “No one shall be arbitrarily de...
<ul><li>Monitoring for gaps at two levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Between universally accepted standards and domestic (national...
Types of Monitoring <ul><li>SITUATION MONITORING monitors… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Rights Violations </li></ul></ul><u...
Scope of Monitoring Monitoring may be broad or narrow in its scope, varying in terms of… <ul><li>RIGHTS COVERED </li></ul>...
Why Monitor? <ul><li>REACTIVE RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinpoint  defects in a situation or case and  indicate  reme...
Monitoring Purposes (Including, but not Limited to…) <ul><li>ASSISTING  governments in applying international standards </...
Primary Monitoring Methodologies   <ul><li>Indicators-Based Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Acts-Based Methodology  </li></u...
Indicators-Based Methodology <ul><li>An  INDICATOR  demonstrates where something is, what direction it is headed, and how ...
Events-Based Methodology “A single case of killing is one too many.” <ul><li>Has been used by human rights groups and NGOs...
INDICATORS-BASED METHODOLOGY EVENTS/ACTS-BASED METHODOLOGY RIGHT TO HEALTH MORTALITY RATE CASES OF DENIAL OF TREATMENT SUR...
Events Methodology’s Main Problems <ul><li>Monitoring body may miss some events due to (amongst other reasons): </li></ul>...
What are human rights violations? <ul><li>The failure of the state to meet three kinds of obligations: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Obligation to Respect <ul><li>To abstain from doing anything that violates the integrity of an individual, or group, or in...
Obligation to Protect <ul><li>To take the necessary measures necessary to prevent others from violating the rights of an i...
Obligation to Fulfil <ul><li>To ensure opportunities for each person to obtain satisfaction of needs recognized by human r...
Basic Elements of a Human Rights Violation Case PERPETRATOR ACT VICTIM
An event may consist of: <ul><li>A  single act , such as killing a labour leader   or bombing an office </li></ul><ul><li>...
Names of Types of Acts <ul><li>Universally accepted names of violations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra-judicial exec...
Varying Durations of Events <ul><li>Instantaneous (ex. – killing) </li></ul><ul><li>Endure for some time (ex. – torture) <...
Rights of Arrested/Accused: <ul><li>Release in case of unlawful arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Presumption of innocence </li></u...
Who is a victim?
Perpetrator Characteristics <ul><li>May be an individual or a group </li></ul><ul><li>May have varying levels of involveme...
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Monitoring Intro Huridocs

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Monitoring Intro Huridocs

  1. 1. Human Rights Monitoring, Fact-Finding and Documentation
  2. 2. MONITORING, FACT-FINDING & DOCUMENTATION <ul><li>MONITORING -- the close observation of a situation or individual case carried out so as to determine what further action needs to be taken. </li></ul><ul><li>FACT-FINDING -- identifying the violations in one event, and establishing the facts relevant to these violations. Fact-finding and investigation are terms that are used interchangeably. </li></ul><ul><li>DOCUMENTATION -- the systematic recording of the results of the investigation of an event </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring usually involves the investigation and documentation of a large number of events </li></ul>
  3. 3. The cooking analogy
  4. 6. Monitoring <ul><li>The close observation of a situation or individual case </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out to determine what further action is needed </li></ul>
  5. 7. Elements of Monitoring: <ul><li>Carried out over an extended period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Involves collecting or receiving a large quantity of data </li></ul><ul><li>Requires constant or periodic investigation and documentation of developments </li></ul><ul><li>Uses standards or norms to assess the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Results in a report , which provides a basis for further action </li></ul>
  6. 8. Example of a Norm <ul><li>RIGHT: Right to Life </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNATIONAL STANDARD: “No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.” (Article 6 (1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights) </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Monitoring for gaps at two levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Between universally accepted standards and domestic (national) legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Between domestic standards and how they are applied in reality </li></ul>Monitoring Gaps DOMESTIC STANDARDS DOMESTIC APPLICATION UNIVERSAL STANDARDS
  8. 10. Types of Monitoring <ul><li>SITUATION MONITORING monitors… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Rights Violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Rights Institutions (establishment and progress) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CASE MONITORING monitors… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual client’s legal case proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief and rehabilitation services provided to a client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other forms of intervention in the case </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Scope of Monitoring Monitoring may be broad or narrow in its scope, varying in terms of… <ul><li>RIGHTS COVERED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad – ex. A report on the performance of a government regarding civil and political rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow – ex. A report on disappearances in one country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TARGET GROUPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad – ex. Monitoring the entire population of a country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow – ex. Focusing on specific sectors, such as : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> – children, ethnic minorities, workers, prisoners, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>Country-wide is the most common, but a different focus includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad – ex. Large regional areas, such as Eastern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow – ex. Smaller regional areas, such as a depressed locality </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Why Monitor? <ul><li>REACTIVE RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinpoint defects in a situation or case and indicate remedies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Most common general purpose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide whether steps towards improvement are working </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EARLY WARNING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present an assessment of a situation to cite the likelihood of conflict well in advance so that mechanisms of intervention may be established </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Monitoring Purposes (Including, but not Limited to…) <ul><li>ASSISTING governments in applying international standards </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURING governments to adopt and implement these standards through such actions as publicity campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERTAKING domestic legal action (i.e. take cases to court) </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCING public awareness through actions like publicity campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>AIDING victims </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDING early warning in potential conflict areas </li></ul>
  12. 14. Primary Monitoring Methodologies <ul><li>Indicators-Based Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Acts-Based Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>(“Events Methodology”) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Indicators-Based Methodology <ul><li>An INDICATOR demonstrates where something is, what direction it is headed, and how far it is from the objective. May be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result (Ex. – mortality rate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process (Ex. – Proportion of children immunized against childhood diseases) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A BENCHMARK refers to the level to be met when using a certain indicator </li></ul><ul><li>(Ex. 90% of all children under 5 years immunized ) </li></ul>
  14. 16. Events-Based Methodology “A single case of killing is one too many.” <ul><li>Has been used by human rights groups and NGOs for decades for visible types of violations , such as: </li></ul><ul><li>killings, abductions, torture, and detention </li></ul><ul><li>Involves investigating events and determining which acts within the event may be or lead up to violations. These include acts of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commission (ex. – beating a detainee; executing a labour leader) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omission (ex. – failing to protect a labour leader from being killed) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. INDICATORS-BASED METHODOLOGY EVENTS/ACTS-BASED METHODOLOGY RIGHT TO HEALTH MORTALITY RATE CASES OF DENIAL OF TREATMENT SURVEYS, CENSUS INVESTIGATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF EVENTS
  16. 18. Events Methodology’s Main Problems <ul><li>Monitoring body may miss some events due to (amongst other reasons): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of local contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Private matter” (thus unreported) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inability to investigate and document all events a monitoring body learns about due to (for example): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ongoing military operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwillingness of actors to be interviewed </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. What are human rights violations? <ul><li>The failure of the state to meet three kinds of obligations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfil </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Obligation to Respect <ul><li>To abstain from doing anything that violates the integrity of an individual, or group, or infringes on their freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>This may include such acts as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra-judicial killing (violates the obligation to respect an individual’s right to life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary arrest (violates the obligation to respect an individual’s right to liberty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banning a trade union (violates the obligation to respect a group’s right to freedom of association) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricting the practice of a specific religion (violates the obligation to respect an individual’s freedom of religion) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Obligation to Protect <ul><li>To take the necessary measures necessary to prevent others from violating the rights of an individual or group. This may include acts of omission, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to acts when a specific group, such as an ethnic group, attacks another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to compel companies to pay decent wages </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Obligation to Fulfil <ul><li>To ensure opportunities for each person to obtain satisfaction of needs recognized by human rights instruments that cannot be secured through personal efforts alone. These include acts of omission, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to adopt a basic health care system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to implement a free education system at the primary level </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Basic Elements of a Human Rights Violation Case PERPETRATOR ACT VICTIM
  22. 24. An event may consist of: <ul><li>A single act , such as killing a labour leader or bombing an office </li></ul><ul><li>A series of acts , such as </li></ul><ul><li>ARREST TORTURE EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous acts , such as beating several protestors during a demonstration </li></ul>
  23. 25. Names of Types of Acts <ul><li>Universally accepted names of violations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra-judicial execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others may be categorized according to the rights they violate, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction of the right to movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of the right to bail </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Varying Durations of Events <ul><li>Instantaneous (ex. – killing) </li></ul><ul><li>Endure for some time (ex. – torture) </li></ul><ul><li>Take years from start to end (ex. – the case of an accused person) </li></ul><ul><li>This demonstrates the need for follow-up documentation. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Rights of Arrested/Accused: <ul><li>Release in case of unlawful arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Presumption of innocence </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate time and facilities to prepare defence </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by an impartial and independent jury </li></ul><ul><li>Fair and public trial </li></ul><ul><li>Free assistance of an interpreter </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of arms </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt and detailed information </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy trial </li></ul><ul><li>Legal assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from double jeopardy </li></ul>
  26. 28. Who is a victim?
  27. 29. Perpetrator Characteristics <ul><li>May be an individual or a group </li></ul><ul><li>May have varying levels of involvement, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly carried out the act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave orders that lead to the act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was present but did not participate in the act </li></ul></ul>

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