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  1. 1.   W3C ¡ RDF Query : SPARQL ¢ Query Language ¢ Semantic Web Toolkits Protocol ¡ OWL/RDF Rules : SWRL Olivier Corby http://www.inria.fr/acacia/cours/essi2005 £ ¥ W3C : OWL-S W3C : OWL-S ¤ ¤ OWL-S : Semantic Markup for Web Services Powerful tools should be enabled by service ¤ descriptions, across the Web service lifecycle. The Semantic Web should enable greater access not only to content but also to services on the OWL-S is an ontology of services that makes Web. these functionalities possible. ¤ Users and software agents should be able to ¤ ontology has three main parts: discover, invoke, compose, and monitor Web ¦ the service profile for advertising and discovering resources offering particular services and having services; particular properties, ¦ the process model, which gives a detailed description ¤ and should be able to do so with a high degree of of a service's operation; automation if desired. ¦ and the grounding, which provides details on how to interoperate with a service, via messages. § © OWL-S OWL-S ¨ What does the service provide for prospective clients? The answer to this question is given in the quot;profile,quot; which is used to advertise the service. To capture this perspective, each instance of the class Service presents a ServiceProfile. ¨ How is it used? The answer to this question is given in the quot;process model.quot; This perspective is captured by the ServiceModel class. Instances of the class Service use the property describedBy to refer to the service's ServiceModel. ¨ How does one interact with it? The answer to this question is given in the quot;grounding.quot; A grounding provides the needed details about transport protocols. Instances of the class Service have a supports property referring to a ServiceGrounding. OWL-S : Semantic Markup for Web Services, W3C Member Submission, 2004, quot;quot;# quot;1) quot;% quot;# quot; 76543 0220 (' $ ! 1
  2. 2.   ¡ Jena : HP Labs OWL-S ¢ Open Source Semantic Web Toolkit ¢ Relational Database ¢ RQL Query Language ¢ Support for OWL syntax 0¥! ¦36¨4310)¦¨%¦¦! ¦¦¦¦¨¦¥£ $ ¤ £ 9 8 7 ( 5 2 ( $( ' $# quot; § £ § £ © § ¤ ¤ @ DB C Jena : API Jena : Persistence E An RDF API The Jena2 persistence system implements an A extension to the Jena Model class that provides statement centric methods for manipulating an persistence for models through use of a back- RDF model as a set of RDF triples A end database engine. resource centric methods for manipulating an RDF E model as a set of resources with properties The persistence system supports a Fastpath A capability for RDQL queries that dynamically built in support for RDF containers - bag, alt and seq generates SQL queries to perform as much of A the RDQL query as possible within an SQL enhanced resources - the application can extend the behaviour of resources database engine. A E integrated parsers and writers for RDF/XML (ARP), Currently, Jena2 can use three SQL database N3 and N-TRIPLES engines, MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL. A support for typed literals These are supported on Linux and WindowsXP. Portable to other SQL database engines. DF F DF G Jena : Query Jena : Reasoner H RDQL query language The Jena2 reasoner subsystem includes a generic rule based inference engine E H RDQL is a query language for RDF data. The together with configured rule sets for implementation in Jena is coupled to relational RDFS and for the OWL/Lite subset of OWL database storage so that optimized query is Full. performed over data held in a Jena relational H These reasoners can be used to construct persistent store. inference models which show the RDF statements entailed by the data being reasoned over. 2
  3. 3. F F ¡   ¢ Jena : Reasoner Jena : Ontology API E H The Jena2 ontology API is intended to support The subsystem is designed to be programmers who are working with ontology extensible so that it should be possible to data based on RDF. plug a range of external reasoners into E Specifically, this means support for OWL, and Jena, RDFS. H Of these components, the underlying rule E A set of Java abstractions extend the generic engine and the RDFS configuration should RDF Resource and Property classes to model be reasonably stable. more directly the class and property expressions H The OWL configuration is preliminary and found in ontologies using the above languages, and the relationships between these classes and still under development. properties. F F ¡ £ ¡ ¤ Jena : Ontology API Sesame H 464321)'%#!¨¨¨§¥ ©¦¦ 0($quot;© 5 The ontology API works closely with the reasoning subsystem derive additional 7 Java middleware, Aidministrator Nederland information that can be inferred from a particular ontology source. H Given that ontologists typically modularise ontologies into individual, re-usable components, and publish these on the web, the Jena2 ontology subsystem also includes a document manager that assists with process of managing imported ontology documents. ¡8 9 ¡A B Sesame Sesame : Rule VfHYc aH¡aTHYXVHTP)PH¡EC gWed D RbD I`FWUISRQ IGFD @ DBMS with a JDBC-driver. Currently, PostgreSQL, TPPfYTEPC gI`iSID h MySQL, MS SQL Server and Oracle databases are ¡PHPfVHU aHtPTPHPYXC gvWuuuW D Rs crIqpF` supported YYfHYc aHYP† a¡y¡afy„ XYPTP¡‚¡PPPXY¡yxfPPfPYTEfC gvWed D Rh‡ D ƒ… ID I€ ISƒ`vv hcc€WUiD F IcRriwID h YPyfYVX¡XaxTPPHYXC gvW ˆˆˆWUDR s crIqpƒ @ The basic set of RDFS inference rules (as defined in YfHYTTEYHC gI`iSID hv the RDF(S) MT semantics) sometimes can be TPPfYTEPC gI`iSID h insufficient to build custom applications. ¡PyPfˆ HU aHtPTPHPYXC gvW ˆˆ W D Rs crIqpF` YYfHYc aHYP† a¡y¡afy„ XYPTP¡‚¡PPPXY¡yxfPPfPYTEfC gvWed D Rh‡ D ƒ… ID I€ ISƒ`vv hcc€WUiD F IcRriwID h @ For example, in some applications there is a need for YPPfYPX¡XaxTPPHYXC gvW‰‰‰WUDR s crIqpƒ defining one's own transitive, symmetric or inverse YfHYTTEYHC gI`iSID hv properties. Providing an infrastructure to define such TYPXPVfPPPHC gcQIFI`Qƒr ¡PHPfVHU aHtPTPHPYXC gvWuuuW D Rs crIqpF` custom inference rules helps developers to tune the YYfHYc aHYP† a¡y¡afy„ XYPTP¡‚¡PPPXY¡yxfPPfPYTEfC gvWed D Rh‡ D ƒ… ID I€ ISƒ`vv hcc€WUiD F IcRriwID h Sesame inferencer so it can suit better in the YPPfYPX¡XaxTPPHYXC gvW‰‰‰WUDR s crIqpƒ application. YfYHfYYfPPPHC gcQIFI`Qƒrv VfH¡aHC gIGFD v 3
  4. 4. ¡A   ¡a b Sesame : Query Sesame SeRQL Query Language SeRQL Query Language ¨¦¦¨¤¤¦¨¦¤¢ ©¢©§¥£ ©¢¥©§ ¤gf¤¤¤¦§ ©¢cdc e P£I H¤G¤¤EC¦¤B@¨¤65(¦1$¦¤($quot; 0%)'%#! 9 8 7 %4 3 2 # 0 # 9 % F' A D4 %# A d w¤¨v¤t5¤¦R$EqG¤R5i 0h 8p#D 0r s9 uAs4 )3 2# 0 ¦I P£ ¤¤¨x ccy ¤$¦(¦$VU¦¤B@¨¤TS(¦RQ¦¤(¦Qquot; 0%)'%#! 9 8 7 %4 3 2 # W 0 % ) ' % # !4 % # A ƒ¤¤¤€h 9's ‚ ¤¤3 †¤te pp ¤¤p … `# ‡‚ ! ¤¥ ©£ „„„ … e ¥ ¤¨YU¦¤A ) A X4 % # (¦¤¤# 29%A9 ¢ ¦¤¨’5¤¤¨‘Vˆ r ‰ “ # A u4 p p 3  ‡H¤¤t5¨¤g”r ‰ • “pp34 #A u ! ¤£ ¥ H¨GG¤¤EC¦¤B@¨¤65(¦1 0 9 8 7 %4 3 2 # 0 ` F' % F' A D4 %# A ' ) d –¤¤(¦' ˆ sA#9% • d ¡a — ¡a a Sesame : Graph API ICS-FORTH RDF Suite ˜ Creating an empty Graph and adding ™ Heraklion, Crete, Greece statements ™ BD ˜ Adding/removing a Graph to/from a ™ RDF Parser repository ™ RDF Query Language ˜ Creating a graph using graph queries ˜ Using graphs and graph queries for SQQuHQ$H–Qr¨$pQ¤pSmHQi¨Qfd gee lqko kno nlkjjh jwvtjsnsnh slo updates ˜ Communicate with a remote Sesame server directly through the HTTP protocol. ¡x y |{ ICS-FORTH RDF Suite ICS-FORTH RDF Suite } z The novelty of RQL lies in its ability to The Validating RDF Parser (VRP): The First smoothly combine schema and data RDF Parser supporting semantic validation of both resource descriptions and schemas querying while exploiting the taxonomies of labels and multiple classification of z The RDF Schema Specific DataBase (RSSDB): resources, using advanced pattern- The First RDF Store using schema knowledge to matching facilities automatically generate an Object-Relational (SQL3) representation of RDF metadata and } The RQL Interpreter (v2.1) has been load resource descriptions. implemented in C++ on top of an z The RDF Query Language (RQL): The First ORDBMS (PostgreSQL v7.3 or higher) Declarative Language for uniformly querying using a standard client-server architecture RDF schemas and resource descriptions. for Solaris and Linux platforms. 4
  5. 5. ¡{   ¡£ ¤ ICS-FORTH RDF Suite Redland RDF Framework §§©§§¥ ¨¦¦ quot; ! '%# $ ( RQL consists of four modules ) CModular, object based libraries written in C. ¢ (a) the Parser, analyzing the syntax of ) APIs for manipulating the RDF graph, triples, URIs queries; and Literals. ¢ ) (b) the Graph Constructor, capturing the Triple sequences for efficient streaming. ) Parsers and Serializers for reading and writing RDF semantics of queries in terms of typing and as RDF/XML, N-Triples and Turtle Terse RDF Triple interdependencies of involved expressions; Language syntaxes via the Raptor RDF Parser ¢ (c) the SQL Translator, which rewrites RQL Toolkit. ) Storage for graphs in memory, with to efficient SQL queries; and Sleepycat/Berkeley DB, MySQL 3/4, AKT Triplestore, ¢ (d) the Evaluation Engine, accessing the files or URIs. underlying database via SQL queries. ¡0 1 ¡0 3 Redland RDF Framework Corese INRIA 2 Querying with RDQL and SPARQL using the VRWV%X%WCV%RASRPHEC©A9%64 755 BBB@@8 QFIGFD `a`IYU@QFUQUQ@ITD Rasqal RDF Query Library. 2 b Redland contexts for managing data Conceptual Graphs, Java aggregation and recording provenance. b Graph projection, Approximate search 2 Language Bindings in C#, Java, Obj-C, Perl, b RDF Query Language PHP, Python, Ruby and Tcl via the Redland Bindings package. b RDF Rule Language 2 Command line utility programs rdfproc (RDF), b Semantic Web Server rapper (parsing) and roqet (query). 2 Portable, fast and with no known memory leaks. ¡c d ¡ ‘ Fact Pellet e '‚”quot;jh‚fe”™h–””’ • o dn m l k ig d d d˜ ˜— •“ “ 't…™h–”f”‚”…”‚'””t…t”qg y i“ ’ng zxmlk˜“xyyx •˜wvv u˜ srp FaCT++ rphVf igg sq s hV…Xh‚'P§t s † „w ƒ yw € y xw v u h§V§§VpˆAˆ‡ s‰„vi‰„vigƒy { Pellet is an open-source Java based OWL DL e FaCT++ is an implementation of an OWL-Lite reasoner. It can be used in conjunction with either reasoner. It is a new generation of the well- Jena or OWL API libraries. known FaCT reasoner. It uses the established { FaCT algorithms, but with a different internal Provides functionalities to see the species validation, architecture. Additionally, the implementation check consistency of ontologies, classify the language C++ was chosen in order to create a taxonomy, check entailments and answer a subset of more efficient software tool, and to maximise RDQL queries (known as ABox queries in DL portability. terminology). 5
  6. 6. ¢  ¡ ¢¤ ¥ Pellet Pellet £ £ Pellet is an OWL DL reasoner based on the tableaux algorithms Ontology analysis and repair developed for expressive Description Logics. It supports all the £ XML Schema Datatype reasoning OWL DL constructs including the ones about nominals, namely owl:oneOf and owl:hasValue. It is known that using these constructs with inverse properties causes problems in reasoning. £ Pellet uses a combination of known algorithms and provides reasoning that is sound and complete for OWL DL without nominals (SHIN(D) in DL terminology) and OWL DL without inverse properties (SHON(D) in DL terminology). It is provably sound but incomplete with respect to all OWL DL constructs (SHION(D) in DL terminology). 6

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