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Beekeeping & varroa mite and other diseases in Croatia

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Zlatko Tomljanovicin esitys SML:n Talvipäivillä 2017.

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Beekeeping & varroa mite and other diseases in Croatia

  1. 1. Beekeeping & varroa mite and other diseases in Croatia Zlatko Tomljanović zlatko.tomljanovic33@gmail.com
  2. 2. Finland Area: approx. 338.400 km² Population: 5,4 mill Croatia Area: approx. 56.500 km2 Population: 4,3 mill
  3. 3. ..some figures about Croatian beekeeping… Croatia 2005 2008 2011 2014 2016 No hives 291.400 303.700 374.800 452.000 554.000 No hives/km2 5.1 5.3 6.6 7.9 9.7 No beekeepers 5.500 6.200 7.500 11.500 13.200 Yield (t) 6.300 5.770 5.600 9.500 5.200 Croatia LR AŽ DB Types of hives % 64 35 1 Croatia Stationary Migratory Types of apiaries % 63 37 Croatia 2010 2011 2012 2014 2015 2016 AFB outbreaks 29 130 162 101 589 674
  4. 4. Current beekeeping situation in Croatia & region • the number of beekeepers in Croatia increased by 1/2 since 2010 • ecological and economic reasons for increase • many beginners without any practical and theoretical knowledge • large amount of mistakes in beekeeping management and honey bee health Acacia
  5. 5. Problems with inexperienced beekeepers • spreading of honey bee diseases • lack of nutrition during the drought • hive robbing behaviours • ignoring the general guidelines of GVBP • „young” beekeepers who think they know everything about bees Amorpha
  6. 6. Beekeeping school • based on program approved by the Ministry of Science and Education • local government joined the project (reimbursement) • lasts three months (thirty hours of theoretical lessons and ninety hours of practical works ) • only condition for enrolment into beekeeping school is completed elementary school Chestnut tree
  7. 7. Workshops/Practical works/Demonstrations in apiary
  8. 8. Enter the apiary / Opening the hives
  9. 9. Examination of colonies / Evaluations of colony strenght /period of season, geografical position, productivity/
  10. 10. Sampling / Diagnosis /Control /Prophylaxis of honey bee diseases
  11. 11. After finishing the course, students should be able to: 1. Understand and explain basics of honey bee biology 2. Recognize most common management systems and explain their benefits and drawbacks 3. Assess general health of honey bee colonies 4. Put beekeeping products on a market, thereby respecting the local regulations Savory
  12. 12. Export the ideas of beekeeping schools in Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina…..
  13. 13. Our expectations… • transferring the know-how technology to the beekeepers • fewer problems in apiaries concerning beekeeping management and honey bee health than before • setting the modern beekeeping in the centre of rural and sustainable development • the beekeepers will be ready to take care for nature and earn spare money at the same time Linden
  14. 14. Honey and products market Prices Honey: • Wholesale 3 – 6 €/kg • Retail 4- 10 € /kg Propolis: • Crude 65 €/kg • Solution 3 € / 20ml Polen • 13 € / kg Royal jelly • Wholesale – no exist • Retail 20 € / 10 ml
  15. 15. Beekeeper organizations Croatian Beekeepers Federations • since 1954 • currently - 8.000 members • member fee 30€/ year • 12 issues of Bee Journal „Hrvatska pčela” 145 Local beekeeping associations • member fee 15 – 20 € Croatian queen breeders association • currently 41 members • 2016 production 35.000 queens since 1881
  16. 16. Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Slovenia Hungary Montenegro Italy Three microclimates North - Pannonian Three different types of:  weather conditions  overwintering  spring developments  plants & honey flow Honey & polen plants Canola Acacia Amorpha Chestnut Linden Sunflower Goldenrod Wild flowers Heather Savory Honeydew Rosemary Sage Lavender  beekeepers
  17. 17. Types of mobile apiaries Trailer – hard work 102 AŽ hives Container – a big compromise 44 LR hives
  18. 18. AŽ hive Tipically for Slovenia/northern Croatia and Serbia
  19. 19. Types of mobile apiaries Lifters Pallets
  20. 20. Beekeeping today - challenges • Global trade of honey bee products • Global trade od bees • Global exchange of pests and pathogens • Global problems of colony losess • Pesticides/GMO/climate changes/landscape destruction • Good & bad beekeeping practice Sunflower
  21. 21. What bothered us in Croatia in 2016? • weird weather ( rain /frost) • heavy rain and cold during the honey flow • starvation / suspected on poisoning • swarming problems • varroa fitness • sealed honey – high humidity of honey • birds in southern part / Bee - eater Merops apiaster Overall impression about 2016 ? Better to forget ASAP But it will be better in 2017 ! – immortal claim
  22. 22. First impression? Vaaauuuuuuuu…great New South Wales, Australia 1993. Something is wrong here ! Second impression? Where was the beekeeper?
  23. 23. Spring development / Swarming • Queen excluder - YES • Queen excluder - NO • Supering • Demaree method • Rotation system I • Rotation system II Swarm control Sometimes is necessary to adopt new approach in swarm control
  24. 24. …much better position… Swarm in the vineyard
  25. 25. QE BC SF S BC – brood chamber QE – queen excluder SF – shallow frames S - super brood honey Rotation system I Cluster Spring development Active season End of the season Rotation Begining of the winter Early spring Rotation 1 Attention! 1. Never extract honey from SF 2 2. Add sugar solution if no honey flow before main pasture
  26. 26. Graphics originally by O.Boecking ♀ + + + + If queen cells (QC) appear…. 1. Have time - make splits with QC (remove) + leave the queen with 1 brood frame on the same spot 2. No time – check for QC/leave the 1 frame with QC + remove the mother colony 1. 2. +
  27. 27. productive colony swarming – splits – honey - queens – varroa ? split new colony oxal/lactic acid +- = 0 Rotation system II Originally by O.Boecking
  28. 28. Croatia 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 Colony losses % 9,5 7,7 9,8 Colony losses in Croatia Causes: • varroa • AFB • pesticides - intoxication • lack of polen supplies • malnutrition / starvation • bad beekeeping practice
  29. 29. Varroa + xyz „...in August and September my bees were great – lots of bees and honey, but in October/November I don’t have anymore bees. I’ve just found few bees on a bottom bord and frames full of honey…and I did varroa treatment…do you have any idea where did they go? Anybody seen my bees ?....” August  number of varroa in a hive >10 % (delaying / ineffective treatment) September - October  number of varroa in a hive around 20 % October - November = cleansing flights !  the bees damaged by varroa can’t return / cluster is getting smaller  varroa attack other bees in a hive / few more cleansing flights  remain just few hundreds bees /can’t keep the warmth /leave the hive
  30. 30. The best time for varroa control ? Winter control – (November – January) Spring control – (April – June) Summer control – (July – September)
  31. 31. . Winter control 3.5 % Oxal acid Broodless colonies - Trickling 5ml/ bee gap Temperature not below 5 C / One treatment
  32. 32. . Spring control – no chemistry Removing /cutting drone combs Making splits – sealed brood / varroa control
  33. 33. Registered / legal medicaments in Croatia • Apiguard • Apilife Var • Bayvarol • Check Mite+ • Thymovar Summer varroa control Varroa control program – issued by Veterinary administration Evaluation of infestation level/control of medicaments • Formic/Lactic/Oxal acid treatment Foto:S.Spiewok
  34. 34. Upcoming authorisation ? Hop Guard (hop beta-acids)MAQS (formic acid) Apivar strips
  35. 35. Ongoing applied researches „Varroa treatment for 3rd millennium”(Italy) • caging the queen/ summer • broodless colony/ oxalic acid treatment Completely removing of brood frames • after last honey harvest • 1 trapping brood frame remains/get treated • creating new colony
  36. 36. The other diseases AFB EFB Chalk brood
  37. 37. AFB Healthy brood Comparative diagnosis AFB „ropy” condition treadlike projection longer > 2,5cm
  38. 38. AFB - the holes on the cappings Healthy brod AFB • scattered brood pattern • punctured & sunken cappings Comparative diagnosis
  39. 39. AFB - dried scales How to check correctly for dried scales? X OK
  40. 40. If AFB is confirmed… X • Restricted area must be established with radius of 3 km • All apiaries in protected zone must be examined • Health certificate is needed for migratory operations • All apiaries have to be registered Great problem! Abandoned apiaries
  41. 41. AFB sanitation Shook swarm method • early stage of AFB • strong colony • regular occurrence in the area Burning • late stage of AFB/weak colony • first outbreak in new area • reimbursement of 90 € Veterinary authorities order:
  42. 42. SHB outbreaks Italy 05.09.2014. (Calabria) Protected area - 20 km radius Monitoring area - 100 km radius Italy - Sep 2015 – 6 more cases Italy - Aug 2016 – new outbreaks Croatia 2017 Active & pasive monitoring in 300 apiaries
  43. 43. Comparative diagnosis 3.2 – 5.6 mm © 2010 Torsten Bittner 5 – 7 mm Chychramus luteus Chychramus variegatus
  44. 44. Take home message • Varroa/AFB/EFB control • Spring development/Swarm control • Queen exchanging • Preparing for winter • Change/adopt new approach of beekeeping managment if it’s necessary • Always look on the bright side of…. Heather
  45. 45. Sage Thank you for your attention Kiitos huomiostasi Pazin/Croatia Sep ‘16

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