Major natural regions of the world.

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Major natural regions of the world. Prepared by Rajeev Kumar Raj (M.Tech, NIT Srinagar)

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Major natural regions of the world.

  1. 1. Frozen Polar & Tundra Vegetation GlacialCold PeriglacialCoolTemperateTemperateDeciduous Forest(British Type)Coniferous ForestTaiga(Siberian type)Mixed ForestLaurentian typeWarmTemperateForests and ScrubsMediterraneantypeTemperate grasslandSteppes typeWarm wet forestChina typeHottropicalDesert vegetationHot desertSavanna VegetationSudan typeTropical deciduousforestMonsoon typeEquatorial Equatorial RainforestHot Wet Equatorial Climate
  2. 2. HOT, WET EQUATORIAL REGION Great uniformity of temperature. Winterless climate with < 10 C annual range oftemperature. Heaviest rainfall on this planet. Highest humidity Densest forest Greatest Biodiversity Largest Reserves of Hardwood
  3. 3. HOT, WET EQUATORIAL REGION Very little Seasonality Most uniform temperature during the year Most diverse and productive forest ecosystems Lowest diurnal and annual temperature range Double rainfall peaks coinciding with equinoxes No month without rain
  4. 4. HOT, WET EQUATORIAL REGION024681012Category 1JanFebMarAprilMayJuneJulAug
  5. 5. MONSOON WORLD Three distinct seasons viz. Cool Dry; Hot Dry andRainy Season The greatest impact of Periodic Reversal of windsystem Most profound impact of Climate on a Natural Rainfall Greatest agricultural dependence on Natural Rainfall
  6. 6. MONSOON WORLD Most constant pattern of concentrated rain in fewmonths, with a tendency for Summer maximum Worst impact of Tropical Cyclones High chances of frequent floods, severe draughts andgrowing desertification Largest concentration of deciduous hardwood trees inpure strands
  7. 7. MONSOON WORLD Largest concentration Teakwood Trees and Bamboothickets Highest Agricultural Density in the world Smallest Landholdings in agriculture Largest area under Intensive Subsistence Farming Rice as their most characteristic crop Largest sugar production for the world
  8. 8. MONSOON WORLD Common practice of shifting cultivation by indigenouspeople
  9. 9. SAVANNA REGION Tallest and Coarsest grasses (as tall as 15 feet!!) A typical Park-land-Scape A raingreen Vegetation Big Game Country Marked presence of Pyrophytes (fire resistant trees!!) Greatest susceptibility to natural fires A pattern of bush-fallow farming
  10. 10. SAVANNA REGION Maximum impact of Flash Floods Highest proneness to droughts and desertification Highest proneness to soil erosion (especially duringthe rainy season!!) The world’s greatest variety of the largest and thefastest herbivores and carnivores (Big game country!!)
  11. 11. SAVANNA REGION Greatest opportunities for Big Game Hunting (andPoaching too!!) A unique Ecosystem that served as a Cradle of HumanEvolution The most renowned Safari Parks (run by thegovernment!!) The highest potential for Dryland Farming The highest future development prospects as naturalregion
  12. 12. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE Unique winter concentration of rainfall Maximum impact of shifting wind and pressure belts Maximum variety of local winds Largest Orchards of the world Highest production and exports of Citrus Fruits(especially oranges)
  13. 13. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE Largest vineyards in the world Highest production of grapes and raisins Viticulture as a Traditional Occupation Highest production, consumption and exports ofWine A typical Sclerophyllous Vegetation The olive tree as the Index Plant Largest production and exports of Olive Oil
  14. 14. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE A monopoly in production of Wine Bottle Corks Largest exports of Temperate Fruits Their name after a Sea (Mediterranean Sea!!)
  15. 15. TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS Largest continentality highest annual range of temperature Tree-less grasslandsThe above three statements are true for the NorthernHemisphere Grasslands only Largest stretches of rolling plains Best developed EJxtensive Mechanised CommercialFarming
  16. 16. TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS Lowest crop yields per hectare Largest land holdings in Agriculture Highest crop yields per capita and per unit of labour Largest production of corn Largest production of wheat (the wheat basket ofworld!!) Largest wheat exports in the world
  17. 17. TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS Most nutritious Grasses like Lucerne or Alfalfa, forcattle and sheep rearing Largest Beef, mutton and wool exports in the world. The highest levels of Development in CattleRanching, Sheep Rearing and Pastoral Farming The larges Ranches in the world
  18. 18. Warm Temperate Eastern Region(China Type) Highest Population Pressure Most productive parts of the Middle latitudes Best settled parts of southern continents The most intense cyclonic activity Most intensively tilled parts of the world Largest area under rice cultivation Most exhausted soils Highest intensity of cropping
  19. 19. Warm Temperate Eastern Region(China Type) Largest production of cotton Largest tobacco production for a natural region
  20. 20. COOL TEMPERATE EASTERNREGION (British Type) The mildest winters in temperate latitudes Greatest impact of insularity (oceanic influence!!) Most comfortable climate for human habitation Greatest weather variability for a climatic region Best developed mixed farming
  21. 21. COOL TEMPERATE EASTERNREGION (British Type) Most productive and efficient agriculture High dependence on food imports Best developed intensive commercial farming Most specialized Horticulture Industry Best developed Dairy Industry Best breeds of dairy cattle with highest milk yields
  22. 22. COOL TEMPERATE EASTERNREGION (British Type) Highly developed market gardening Well developed fishing industry An unprecedented Industrial Advancement Highest living standards
  23. 23. COOL TEMPERATE CONTINENTAL CLIMATE(Siberian Type) The lowest rainfall The least mean annual temperate Most adverse climate Minimum Biodiversity of both Plants & Animal Least luxuriant vegetation Lowest biological productivity Least Bacterial Activity (Decomposition is mostlyfungal)
  24. 24. COOL TEMPERATE CONTINENTALCLIMATE (Siberian Type) Lowest biomass Slowest nutrient cycling Largest reserves of softwood Best developed Lumbering Richest source of wood pulp, the raw material forpaper making and newsprint Largest stretches of softwood trees in pure stands
  25. 25. COOL TEMPERATE CONTINENTALCLIMATE (Siberian Type) Most acidic zonal soils, the podzols Evergreen trees (There is no annual replacement ofleaves as in deciduous trees The same leaf remains onthe tree for as long as five years!!)
  26. 26. COOL TEMPERATE EASTERNREGION (Laurentian Type) Marked presence only in Northern Hemisphere. The features of both maritime and continentalclimates Freezing, long winters and warm, short summers. Offshore westerlies as predominant winds Fishing as the most outstanding economic activity Mixed forests as the predominant vegetation
  27. 27. TUNDRA AND THE ICE-CAPS(Polar World) Heaviest snowfall Lowest mean diurnal and annual temperature Least Biodiversity of both Plants & Animal Lowest biological productivity Least bacterial activity Most germ-free environment Largest continental glaciers Thickest ice sheets and caps
  28. 28. TUNDRA AND THE ICE-CAPS(Polar World) Lowest biomass Slowest nutrient cycling Finest fur bearing animal Largest fur farms in tundra regions Poorest drainage Shortest growing season Longest days during summers Longest nights during winters
  29. 29. TUNDRA AND THE ICE-CAPS(Polar World) Not a single tree (lies beyond the tree line!!) Regions lying beyond the Arctic and Antarctic circles The coldest deserts (the greatest heat deficit regions) The least density of population
  30. 30. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Parkland Scape ……………….. Rainforest ……………….. Granary of World ……………….. World’s Orchard ……………….. Treeless Grasslands ……………….. Black Earths ……………….. New Delhi ……………….. Mosses & Lichens ……………….. Maximum Biodiversity ………………..
  31. 31. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Winter Rainfall ……………….. Permafrost ……………….. Siberian Type ……………….. Big Game Country ……………….. Coffee & Tea ……………….. RANCHING ……………….. Conifers ……………….. Olives ……………….. Patagonia ………………..
  32. 32. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Largest reserves of hardwood ………………. Best developed for trapping of animals ……………….for Fur Sudan type ………………. Double rainfall peaks ………………. Warm temperate western margin ………………. Lumbering best developed ………………. Cape Town ………………. Cork Oak ……………….
  33. 33. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Sal & Teak ………………. Elephant grasses ………………. Fur bearing animals ………………. And ………………. Pyrophytes ………………. Cool temperate eastern margin ………………. Minimum annual range of temperature ………………. High Veld ………………. Central Chile ………………. Extensive Mechanised Agriculture ……………….
  34. 34. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Giraffe ………………. Bush Veld ………………. Largest reserves of soft wood ………………. Giant Sequoia ………………. Hausa ………………. Lianas and Creepers ………………. Minimum Diurnal range of Temperature ………………. Intensive subsistence farming ………………. Soft wood trees in pure stands ……………….
  35. 35. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Greatest Wheat producing areas ………………. Best developed mixed farming ………………. Washed by cold currents ………………. Viticulture ………………. Best developed for dairying ………………. Wine industry ………………. Caribous ………………. Trade Wind Deserts ………………. More rain in Autumn & Winter ……………….
  36. 36. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Afternoon rains ………………. Selvas ………………. Oppressive & Enervating Climate ………………. Java ………………. Bushmen & Bindibu ………………. Largest reserves oil ………………. Maquis & Chaparral ………………. Lucerne/Alfalfa ………………. Cumulonimbus Clouds ……………….
  37. 37. BEGINNERS-QUIZ-1 Market Gardening ………………. White pine, Douglas fir, Spruce & Larch ………………. Lapps & Samoyeds ………………. Vegetable civilization ………………. 4 o’clock rainfall ………………. Largest production of oats and barley ………………. Least mean annual temperature ………………. Most productive part of mid latitude ………………. Great uniformity of temperature ……………….

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