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Natural solid fuels


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Natural solid fuels

  1. 1. Huma Nazir M.Phill 2nd SmesterInstitute of Chemistry Punjab University Lahore
  2. 2. Fuel Fuel is a substance which, when burnt, i.e. on coming in contact and reacting with oxygen or air, produces heat. The substances classified as fuel must necessarily contain one or several of the combustible elements : carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, etc. Chemical •Heat energy energy Ntural Solid Fuel 2
  3. 3. Wood Peat Lignite Coal Ntural Solid Fuel 3
  4. 4. Contents of Wood Cellulose Lignin Resins Inorganic materials Water (25-60%)Composition of dry wood:C 50%O 35%N 7%H 6% Ash 2% Ntural Solid Fuel 4
  5. 5.  Calorific value 6500-9200 BTU/poundCarbonization of Wood combus •Co,H2 tibles •CH4 Saturate d hydroca rbons Non- combus •CO2 tibles •N2 Wood charcoal Ntural Solid Fuel 5
  6. 6. Advantages of WoodBurns readilySoot and ash produced is smallAsh is reusedEasily availableSuitable calorific value for domestic use Disadvantages of WoodHigh percentage of water (decrease calorific value) Ntural Solid Fuel 6
  7. 7.  Decayed vegetation (moist condition) Usually accumulates slowly, at the rate of about a millimetre per yearGeneral Composition:Volatile matter 10.4%Fixed carbon 4.6%Moisture 85%Composition in dry condition:C 57%H2 6.1%Oxygen 34.9%Ash content(mostly) 5-10% Ntural Solid Fuel 7
  8. 8.  Greater the decomposition greater the carbon lesser the oxygen Average Calorific value 6000-9000 BTU/lb Tar wax Fuel gases (NH4)2SO4 Peat coke Destructive distillation Ntural Solid Fuel 8
  9. 9. Advantages of Peat Used as fertilizer As packing material As boiler fuel in form of braquettesDisadvantages of peat: High water content Burns slowly Low calorific value Not economical Ntural Solid Fuel 9
  10. 10.  Immature coal May be amorphous, fibrous or woody in texture It contain small quantity of resins, moisture (25-40%), high percentage of volatile matter(ignites) Characterized by high content of noncombustible matter. Burns with long smoky flame Calorific value 6000-7500 BTU/lb Ntural Solid Fuel 10
  11. 11. tarcarbonization Synthetic petrol High pressure hydrogenation Ntural Solid Fuel 11
  12. 12.  Heating boilers Evaporating pans in industry For domestic purposes Fertilizer manufacture Ntural Solid Fuel 12
  13. 13. 300 million yearsNtural Solid Fuel 13
  14. 14.  Highly complex organic matter with Varying quantity of water Nitrogen (0.75-1.75 %) sulphur Ntural Solid Fuel 14
  15. 15. On the basis of origin Humic or Banded coal Sapropelic coalDifferent grades of coal are Anthracite (86-88% C) Bituminous (78-86% C) Sub-bituminous coal or black lignite Pulverised coal Ntural Solid Fuel 15
  16. 16.  Finalstage of coal formation Hard, compact, black coloured coal, good semimetallic lusture Highest % of fixed C High Calorific value ( 14000-15000 BTU/lb) Ntural Solid Fuel 16
  17. 17.  AdvantagesIntense heat with no smokeUseful for metallurgyFor slow combustion stoves for domestic purposes DisadvantagesHigh ash contents Ntural Solid Fuel 17
  18. 18.  Dullblack coal Calorific value < bituminous coal Denser and harder than lignite Moisture content 10-25% Calorific value 7000-15000 BTU/lb Ntural Solid Fuel 18
  19. 19.  Commercial rank coal Very hard and black Burns with yellow smoky flame Distillation product is coke(remove sulfur and ash contents) Brittle High calorific value (11000-15000BTU/lb) Low moisture contents Ntural Solid Fuel 19
  20. 20. On the basis of fuel ratio Low volatile coal High volatile coal Super bituminous coal (2.5-5.0) (calorific value = 12000-15500BTU/lb) HVC burns with long flames so used in gas industry, coal tar distillation,glass industry Ntural Solid Fuel 20