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The Cold War Begins

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Main events of the beginning of the Cold War from 1945 - 1949.

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The Cold War Begins

  1. 1. The Cold WarBegins<br />1945 - 1949<br />
  2. 2. 1. WartimeConferences, 1945 <br />2. Churchill’sIron Curtain Speech, 1946<br />3. The Truman Doctrine, 1947<br /> 4. The Marshall Plan, 1947<br />5. Czech-Coup, 1948<br /> 6. Berlin Blockade, 1948<br /> 7. NATO isestablished, 1949<br /> East and West Germany iscreated, 1949<br />
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  4. 4. The « Iron Curtain » Speech ( March, 1946 )<br />A defining moment in the origins of the Cold War<br />Was made as a result of the threat of communistpresence in Eastern Europe<br />Hardened opinions on bothsides<br />Stalinviewed the speech as racist and compared Churchill to Hitler<br />Stalinsteps up anti-Western propaganda and introduces a new 5-year plan devoted to “self-strengthening”<br />
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  6. 6. The Truman Doctrine ( March, 1947)<br />A speech made by President Truman in Congresswhichstatedthat the USA would « support free peoples who are resistingattempted subjugation by armedminorities or by outside pressures »<br />A radical change in US foreignpolicywhichhadthus far been isolationist<br />As a result, USA helpsdefendGreekmonarchyfromcommunistguerrilla forces<br />Stalingsees the speech and actions as the US expandingitssphere of influence<br />Marks a beginning to the US policy of « containment »<br />
  7. 7. The Marshall Plan ( June, 1947)<br />Immediateeconomic help to Europe<br />Revive economies and ensurepolitical & social stability<br />Safeguard future US economy<br />Strict criteria to qualify for US aid<br />US must bepermitted to examine financial records<br />USSR wouldneveragree to this (and USA knowsthis)<br />
  8. 8. Countries thataccepted US aid<br />post-WWII<br />
  9. 9. Soviet response: « dollar imperialism »<br />Molotov Plan <br />bilateraltradeagreements in EasternEuropean countries, tyingthem to USSR<br />Cominform (Sept, 1947)<br />Increased control of communist parties in Eastern Europe <br />COMECON (Jan, 1949)<br />Council for MutualEconomic Assistance<br />Stimulate and control economicdevelopment in these areas<br />Collectivization of agriculture & development of heavyindustry<br />
  10. 10. The Czech Coup (February, 1948)<br />Between 1945 – 47, Stalinwascreating a « satellite empire »<br />Separate states but all tied to USSR through…<br />Soviet Military Power (WarsawPact, 1955)<br />Salami Tactics (pro-Soviet governmentsgetrewards)<br />Use of State & Secret Police<br />Comecon<br />Breech of Yalta & Potsdam conferences<br />Clearevidence of soviet expansion (according to West)<br />
  11. 11. CZ = slower to respond to salami tactics and seen as movingtoward the West<br />ie. Czechsinterested in receivingaidfrom Marshall Plan<br />Stalin pressures CZ gov’t and 12 non-communistmembersresign<br />Communist party leader demands formation of a communist-ledgov’t; presidentfeelspressured to agree<br />Truman calledthis the « Czech Coup »<br />Non-CommunistCzechforeignministerisfoundsuspiciouslydeadtwoweekslater<br />Bloody purgest of non-loyal communists continues in 1948 in CZ and rest of E. Europe<br />
  12. 12. Berlin Crisis, 1948<br />Key area of « weakness » in the heart of Stalin’ssphere of influence<br />Background:<br />Wartimeconferencesagreed to temporarily<br />divide Germany into 4 zones, administered<br />by Allied Control Council (ACC)<br />Future of Germanwouldbeworked out at a <br />future peaceconference<br />Intention wasalways to treat Germany as 1 <br />economic unit<br />
  13. 13. Whydidunityfail?<br />Germany’sstrategic position and the differingaims of the main powers.<br />Increasedlack of trust between East and West as the Cold Wardeveloped.<br />Specificdisputedbetween the post-warpowers w/in Germany itself.<br />The Berlin Blockade, 1948<br />
  14. 14. The Berlin Blockade & Airlift<br />West Berlin relies on Western powers for food and energy supplies whichweredelivered by road , raid and air « corridors »<br />March, 1948: Stalinputs transportation restrictions on West and leaves the ACC<br />June 23, 1948: Stalinbegins total blockade of Berlin<br />First crisis of the Cold Warwheremilitary confrontation wasimminently possible.<br />The Berlin Airlift commences.<br />
  15. 15. Americans and British fly more than 200,000 flights per day for 320 days, delivering supplies of food & coal.<br />Whiletherewasalways a threat of Soviet intervention, Stalinends the blockade by May, 1949 realizingitsfailure.<br />It leads to…<br />Division of Germany<br />Continuation of 4-power control of Berlin<br />Formation of NATO<br />
  16. 16. Berlin Airlift Original Footage<br />
  17. 17. NATO<br />North Atlantic TreatyOrganization<br />Military alliance of W. Europe and N. America<br />USA, Canada, the Brussels Pactpowers, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Italy and Portugal.<br />1954, W. Germany joins NATO<br />Initiallylackedorganization<br />and was more politicalthan<br />military, but meantthat<br />Europe wasnowofficially<br />dividedmilitarily.<br />
  18. 18. Germany Divided, 1949 -1989<br />West Germany<br />Capital city: Bonn<br />First Chancellor: Konrad Adenauer<br />GermanDemocraticRepublic (GDR)<br />Capital city: Berlin<br />First President: Wilhelm Pieck<br />

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