Skeletal system of Bovine


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Skeletal system of Bovine

  1. 1. Skeletal System
  2. 2. Body Regions of Bovine
  3. 3. Bovine Skeleton
  4. 4. Bovine Skeleton Oblique View Cranial lateral.
  5. 5. Cervical Skeleton, Left view
  6. 6. <ul><li>Vertebral Formula of Bovine : C 7 T 13 L 6 S 5 Cy 18-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Bones comprising the vertebral column : Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical Vertebrae: (shorter than horse) </li></ul><ul><li>body - smaller </li></ul><ul><li>transverse process of cervical 3,4,5 - double with upper part short and stout, lower is plate-like </li></ul><ul><li>spinous process - well developed (C3 is bifid) </li></ul><ul><li>dental spine - prominent and fixed </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Atlas (C1) </li></ul><ul><li>transverse foramen absent </li></ul><ul><li>wings - less curved </li></ul><ul><li>Axis (C2) </li></ul><ul><li>transverse process - single, higher, and thicker behind </li></ul><ul><li>lateral vertebral foramen - more circular, not so closed to the cranial border </li></ul><ul><li>C6 </li></ul><ul><li>transverse process - prominent (ventrally) </li></ul><ul><li>C7 </li></ul><ul><li>spinous process - higher </li></ul><ul><li>transverse process - slight ventral </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cervical segment of vertebral column, dorsal (left) and ventral (right)
  9. 9. Thoracic part of vertebra, left view
  10. 10. <ul><li>thoracic vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>body - longer constricted in the middle within the ventral crest </li></ul><ul><li>spinous process- longer than horse </li></ul><ul><li>midpoint of wither - 2nd and 3rd </li></ul>
  11. 11. Skeleton part of lumbar vertebrae, Dorsolateral view
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lumbar vertebral </li></ul><ul><li>transverse process- longer than the horse </li></ul><ul><li>body - constricted in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>shape - T-shape </li></ul><ul><li>spinous process - slightly diffuse </li></ul>
  13. 13. Skeleton trunk, Dorsal view Skeleton trunk, Ventral view
  14. 14. Pairs of rib: 13 pairs (sternal and asternal ribs) Ribs longer, wider, flatter, less curve, and less regular in form 1 st rib Longer, flattened along other domesticated animals 8 th , 9 th and 10 th rib Longest ribs and widest of all
  15. 15. Thoracic Skeleton, Left view
  16. 16. Sternum Consists of 7 sternebrae, most of which are developed from 2 lateral centers Thorax Its body is shorter than in the horse. The inlet is higher. The roof is short and the floor is wider and larger
  17. 17. Bovine Skull, Left view
  18. 18. Bones of the Cranium paired bones: interparietal, parietal, frontal, temporal unpaired bone: occipital Bones of the Facial paired bones: maxilla, premaxilla, palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, mandible unpaired bones: vomer, hyoid Occipital bone Forms the larger part of the posterior surface of the skull, and is separated from the highest part by the parietal and interparietal bone
  19. 19. Median Section of Skull
  20. 20. Sphenoid Is short Frontal Very extensive, forming about ½ of the entire length of the skull Maxilla Shorter but broader and relatively higher than in horse
  21. 21. Skull, view of caudal surface
  22. 22. Premaxilla It is thin and flattened. Has no alveoli since the canine and upper incisor teeth is absent Palatine It is very extensive. Horizontal part forms the greater hard palate Mandible 2 halves don’t fuse completely. The mandibular symphysis is absent
  23. 23. Thoracic Limb, medial view
  24. 24. Proximal portion of Thoracic Limb, Lateral view Proximal portion of Thoracic Limb, Medial view
  25. 25. <ul><li>Bones of the Anterior Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Scapula </li></ul><ul><li>More regularly triangular than in horse; relatively under the vertebral end. </li></ul><ul><li>spine - more prominent </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle - distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Acromnion - present </li></ul><ul><li>supraspinous process - narrow and does not extend to the lower part of the bone </li></ul><ul><li>subscapular fossa - shallow </li></ul><ul><li>glenoid cavity - circular, no distinct notch </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Has a shallow musculo-spiral goove </li></ul><ul><li>deltoid tuberosity- less </li></ul><ul><li>greater tubercle - very large (point of shoulder) </li></ul><ul><li>preccipital groove - undivided </li></ul><ul><li>lat. epicondyle - flat wise area </li></ul>
  26. 26. Distal portion of shoulder articulation, Dorsolateral view Distal portion of Thoracic Limb, Mediopalmar view
  27. 27. <ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Short and relatively broad </li></ul><ul><li>shaft - distal part is curved </li></ul><ul><li>radial tuberosity - less develop </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>completely fuse and strongly curved </li></ul><ul><li>presence of interosseous space in proximal and distal part </li></ul><ul><li>ulna (shaft) - complete </li></ul><ul><li>styloid process of ulna – present </li></ul><ul><li>Carpal </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of 6 bones, 4 bones in proximal row and 2 in distal </li></ul><ul><li>radial capal - largest proximal carpal in ox </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate carpal - wider palmarly than dorsally </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar carpal - large and very irregular </li></ul><ul><li>accessory carpal - small articulate with ulnar carpal only </li></ul><ul><li>distal carpal - carpal 2 and 3 are fuse, carpal 4 is small and quadrilateral </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Metacarpals </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of a large metacarpal and a lateral small metacarpal bone </li></ul><ul><li>metacarpal 3 - large metacarpal </li></ul><ul><li>metacarpal 3 and 4 - fused presence of 2 metacarpal canal and dorsal longitudinal groove </li></ul><ul><li>metacarpal 5 - present, small, and attach to the lateral side of large metacarpal </li></ul><ul><li>Digits (phalanx) </li></ul><ul><li>There 4 bones present </li></ul><ul><li>proximal and middle phalanx- consist of digit 3 and 4 </li></ul><ul><li>distal phalanx - pedal and coffin bone </li></ul>
  29. 29. Skeleton of pelvis and thigh, Medial view. Left half of pelvis removed
  30. 30. <ul><li>Bones comprising the Pelvic Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Os coxae, femur, tibia and fibula, tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges </li></ul><ul><li>Ischium </li></ul><ul><li>It is large and the long axis is directed obliquely (50-60 degrees) dorsally and caudally </li></ul><ul><li>Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial branch of pubis is narrow and the angle is described laterally and little cranially </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Body – small and cylindrical in its middle </li></ul><ul><li>3rd trochanter is absent </li></ul><ul><li>greater trochanter - massive and undivided </li></ul>
  31. 31. Skeleton of tibia and distal portion of pelvic limb, medial view Skeleton of tibia and distal portion of pelvic limb, lateral view
  32. 32. <ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles that of the horse dorsally but it somewhat shorter </li></ul><ul><li>Small in medial side is distinctly convex </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of 2 extremities only. Head is fused with lateral condyle of the tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Long, narrow, and very thick </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of fused pieces (3 rd tarsus is fused) </li></ul><ul><li>proximal tarsus (hock) </li></ul><ul><li>talus - present </li></ul><ul><li>palpanius - present </li></ul><ul><li>central - present </li></ul><ul><li>distal tarsus - absent but present in 1, 2, and 3 (they are fuse) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Skeletal System