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  • It was discovered in 1885 by Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. An American scientist. It was discovered in 1885 by Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. An American scientist. It was discovered in 1885 by Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. An American scientist. It was discovered in 1885 by Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. An American scientist. It was discovered in 1885 by Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. An American scientist.
  • Salmonella

    1. 1. Salmonella
    2. 2. Who Discovered It? <ul><li>It was discovered in 1885 by Theobald Smith in a strain isolated from pigs with hog cholera. </li></ul><ul><li>It was named after the man he worked for, </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Daniel E. Salmon. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Salmonella ? <ul><li>It is a bacterium that causes Salmonellosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella is not the actual name of the intestinal infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Second most common bacterial food born illness </li></ul><ul><li>The most commonly reported cause of enteric disease. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacilli. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Are They? <ul><li>These are one-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium account for about half of the cases of infection </li></ul><ul><li>How big is it? </li></ul><ul><li>To small to see without the aid of a microscope. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Replication
    6. 6. What must it be able to do? <ul><li>Salmonella must be able to invade cells </li></ul><ul><li>Have a complete lipopolysaccharide coat, </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to replicate intracellularly, </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly the elaboration of toxin, to be fully pathogenic </li></ul><ul><li>These attributes are called virulence factors </li></ul>
    7. 7. How Does It Work?
    8. 8. <ul><li>The bacteria colonize in the ileum, the final part of the small intestine, and colon </li></ul><ul><li>They invade the intestinal epithelium, </li></ul><ul><li>They expand within the epithelium and lymphoid cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both epithelium is a tissue and lymphoid are a type of white blood cell </li></ul><ul><li>The invasion happens when the organisms including the enterocyte membrane cells, found in the small intestine and colon, start to “ruffle” </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>This way, they stimulate the pinocytosis, small particles are brought into the cell and suspended within small vesicles where they fuse with lysosomesto hydrolyze, or to break down, the particles. </li></ul><ul><li>They multiply and spread through your mesenteric lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Then they spread through the body through the circulation process. </li></ul><ul><li>After reaching the intestines, they create an acute inflammatory response. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>pinocytosis </li></ul>
    11. 11. How Do I Know if I Have It? <ul><li>This reaction can cause fever </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul><ul><li>abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>leukocytosis, when the white blood cell count is above normal, and diarrhea. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Symptoms occur about 12-72 hours after the infection. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Minal diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Headache. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic consequences — arthritic symptoms may follow 3-4 weeks after onset of acute symptoms. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella paratyphi A, B, and C causes Typhoid fever which side effects include diarrhea, systemic disease and rash. </li></ul><ul><li>It can last between 6-48 hours. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Can it kill you and who does it effect the most? <ul><li>About 600 deaths occur yearly but it is rare. </li></ul><ul><li>The fatality rate for most salmonellosis cases is only 1%. </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to be found in kids, elderly and sick and they may need antibiotherapy treatment </li></ul><ul><li>The two deadliest are S. Dublin and Enteritidis. Dublin having a 15% mortality rate. Enteritidis with a 3.6% chance of death. </li></ul>
    15. 15. How is it passed? <ul><li>They are passed from the feces of animals. So if you eat anything and then get Salmonellosis, it was contaminated with animal feces </li></ul><ul><li>The organism can be found in water, soil, insects, factory surfaces, kitchen surfaces, animal feces, raw meats, raw poultry, and raw seafood’s </li></ul>
    16. 16. How do I prevent it? <ul><li>Wash your hands and be smart with your food </li></ul><ul><li>Keep raw meat away from fruits, veggies, and food that is cooked or ready to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerate food as soon as you get back from the grocery store </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Do not defrost food at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Hot foods should be cooked at least at 140 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>Cool below 40 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Wash everything after contact with raw sources </li></ul>
    18. 18. Interesting. <ul><li>The rate of salmonellosis has increased over the years mainly in the south, west and northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The most recent cases occurred in peanut butter and pistachios </li></ul>
    19. 19. Even More Interesting! <ul><li>AIDS patients suffer from it frequently and these episodes happen frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Many forms of salmonella are found on the outside of egg shells </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella Enteritidis is found in the yolk </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests vertical transmission </li></ul><ul><li>The hen that laid the egg had salmonella, therefore infecting the egg’s yolk with it </li></ul>