Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Heartworm
  2. 2. Heartworm   <ul><li>Causative agent: ( Dirofilaria immitis ) </li></ul><ul><li>is a  parasitic   roundworm  that is spread from  host  to host through the bites of  mosquitoes . </li></ul><ul><li>The heartworm is a type of  filaria , a small thread-like worm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hosts of  Dirofilaria immitis   <ul><li>dog </li></ul><ul><li>cat </li></ul><ul><li>wolf </li></ul><ul><li>coyote </li></ul><ul><li>fox </li></ul><ul><li>ferret </li></ul><ul><li>sea lion </li></ul><ul><li>African Leopard  Panthera pardus pardus </li></ul><ul><li>human - rarely. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Clinical signs of infection <ul><li>no indication of heartworm infection during the 6-month- </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely, migrating heartworm larvae get &quot;lost&quot; and end up in unusual sites such as the eye, brain, or an artery in the leg, </li></ul><ul><li>blindness, </li></ul><ul><li>  seizures </li></ul><ul><li>  lameness . </li></ul><ul><li>But normally, until the larvae mature and congregate inside the heart, they produce no symptoms or signs of illness. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early signs <ul><li>cough, especially on exercise and early exhaustion upon exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>severe weight loss,  </li></ul><ul><li>fainting, </li></ul><ul><li>coughing up blood </li></ul><ul><li>finally, congestive heart failure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Diagnosis <ul><li>Three methods can be used for the diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilarial detection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  direct blood smear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antigen test. In most practices, microfilarial detection has been supplanted by or supplemented with antigen testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography.  X-rays  are used to evaluate the amount of lung damage caused by the presence of heartworms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treatment <ul><ul><li>melarsomine dihydrochloride , is marketed under the brand name  Immiticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has a greater efficiency and fewer side effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( thiacetarsamide sodium , sold as  Caparsolate ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safer alternative for dogs with late-stage infections. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(restricted exercise) for several weeks </li></ul><ul><li>urgical removal of the adult heartworms  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prevention <ul><li>Long term monthly administration of  ivermectin  year round at three times the dose </li></ul><ul><li>  milbemycin </li></ul><ul><li>moxidectin  ( ProHeart ) administered as pills or chewable tablets.  </li></ul><ul><li>Selamectin  ( Revolution ), is a topical preventive that is likewise administered monthly and also controls  fleas , ticks , and  mites . </li></ul>