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International Search Engine
Optimization - SEO
Fernando Maciá
Human Level Communications CEO
@fernandomacia
fernando@humanlevel.com
Fernando Maciá Domene
CEO
Human Level Communications

You’ll find me here:




@fernandomacia
Why should we target foreign markets?


       Traditional/local markets are shrinking
       • The Internet allows us to research and open up new
         markets in an affordable and risk-free fashion
       Competitiveness is increasing
       • IT can dramatically increase our competitive edge
       It is important to keep a low risk profile in new
       business projects
       • The Internet puts us in contact with partners worldwide to
          start joint ventures, maximizing the synergies and
          reducing the risks involved
       Traditional distribution channels are exhausted
       • Waiting for the good times to return represents a bigger
         risk than venturing into new channels and markets
Users search in their own language

Although English remains the “international
language”, don’t assume that people in other
countries will use English as their first choice
when searching
Using a language other than English means less
           competition in the SERPs


                                 3.170.000 results in
                                       English




                                 895.000 results in
                                      French




                                 145.000 results in
                                    Norwegian
Using a language other than English means less
           competition in the SERPs


                                 3.170.000 results in
                                       English




                                 895.000 results in
                                      French




                                 145.000 results in
                                    Norwegian
Keywords for the same concept can vary...
    even within the same country!




                 Mexerica (SP)
                 Tangerina (RJ)
                 Bergamota (RS)

                                People use
                           different words for
                            the same fruit in
                           different countries
                               and regions
Beware of pejorative connotations of very
   common words in other countries
For example, Spain and Latin America use very
different words for identical concepts
                 Agarrar Coger
                   Carro Coche
                 Manejar Conducir
                   Monto Importe
                Mercadeo Marketing
                 Cauchos Ruedas
                 Cancelar Pagar
       Calzado para damas Zapatos de señora
                    Jugo Zumo
                     Etc. Etc.
Google Insights: which keywords are used in
  which countries (e.g., coches & carros)




                           In Spain, a car is a
                            “coche” while in
                          Latin America, a car
                               is a “carro”
Google Insights: which keywords are used in
which countries (e.g., neumático & caucho)




                           In Spain, a tire is a
                          “neumático” while
                              in some Latin
                          American countries,
                          a tire is a “caucho”
And there are countries, like Japan,
where keywords can be written using three
          different alphabets
    Hiragana
    • Is a Japanese syllabary which is used to write native Japan
      words, like とうきょう

    Katakana
    • Is a Japanese syllabary which is used to write foreign language
      words, like トウキョウ

    Kanji
    • Are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used
      in the modern Japanese, like 東京

    Therefore, the same keyword could be written
    in different ways!!
Google is not the only search engine in use


    Although Google enjoys the biggest market
    share, there are countries where people prefer
    local search engines
Therefore, we must identify the search engines
    used in the countries we are targeting
Other search engines: Baidu




Geolocation is not available yet
ccTLD (.cn, .com.cn) and hosting the Web site
in China is favored
Baidu.com grants some relevance to obsolete
metatags like the keyword metatag
Beware of censored contents and searches
Authority of linking domains is not such an
important factor as it is in Google
Other search engines: Yandex




Geolocation is available
Its relevance algorithm is similar to Google’s
Inbound links are considered for the
popularity as well as outbound links
Yandex also considers the keywords metatag
US Search Market Share




        3%2%
  14%
                           Google
                           Microsoft
                           Yahoo!
15%                        Ask
                           AOL

               66%
Europe Search Market Share



             7%
        1%
       1%
      1%
     1%
    1%
   2%                            Google Sites
  2%                             eBay
 2%
3%                               Yandex
                                 Yahoo! Sites
                                 Microsoft Sites
                                 NASZA-KLASA.PL
                                 QXL Ricardo
                                 AOL LLC
                                 Ask Network
                                 Rambler Media
                    79%
                                 Other
Asia Search Market Share




           3%
      9%



15%
                                Google
                                Baidu
                                Yahoo!
                                Bing

                 73%
Japan Search Market Share




      2% 2%
       2%



                                Yahoo!
                                Google
40%
                                Rakuten
                 54%            Microsoft
                                NTT
Korea Search Market Share




        3%2%1%
           1%

  10%                         Naver
                              Daum
                              Google
15%
                              Nate
                              Yahoo
                              KT Group
                              Cyworld
                  67%
China Search Market Share


      3% 1%
        1% %
          0


16%

                           Baidu
                           Google
                           Sogou
                           Soso
                           Youdau
                           Otros



               78%
Information Sources on International
 Search Market Share: update often!
Domain Name Types




TLD (Top Level Domain)
ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain)
IDN (Internationalized Domain Names)
Domain Types: TLD (Top Level Domain)




          TLD (Top Level Domain)
          • .com
          • .net
          • .info
          • .biz
          • .co
Domain Types:
ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain)




            ccTLD (Country Code
            Top Level Domain)
            • .es
            • .it
            • .fr
            • .de
Domain Types:
IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)


 It is an Internet domain name containing non-
 ASCII characters. This type of domain can
 include diacritics, as is required by many
 European alphabets, or even non-Latin
 characters such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian,
 etc.
 With Punycode, non-ASCII characters are
 translated into ASCII compatible domains
Domain Types:
IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)


 http://www.españaescultura.es (Spanish)
 • http://www.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es/
 http://‫( )("ل.إ%$#"ر‬Arabic)
 • http://xn--mgbh0fb.xn--kgbechtv/
 http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή (Greek)
 • http://xn--hxajbheg2az3al.xn--jxalpdlp
 http://пример.испытание (Russian)
 • http://xn--e1afmkfd.xn--80akhbyknj4f/
IDN (Internationalized Domain Name):
problems you can encounter with Google Analytics

    <script type="text/javascript">
    var _gaq = _gaq || [];
    _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-24296763-1']);
    _gaq.push(['_setDomainName', '.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es']);
    _gaq.push(['_setAllowLinker', true]);
    _gaq.push(['_setAllowHash', false]);
    _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']);
    _gaq.push(['_trackPageLoadTime']);
    (function() {
    var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript';
    ga.async = true;
    ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www')
    + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js';
    var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];
    s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s);
    })();
                                                        Use the Punycode version
    </script>
                                                        of your domain to set your
                                                                 Domain Name
IDN (Internationalized Domain Name):
problems you can encounter with Google Analytics




     When filtering an IDN hosting, select “Include traffic” from both
                  domain names (IDN and Punycode):
       www.españaescultura.es|www.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es
Key recommendations for domain types


      If we believe that there is a potential
       market in other countries or that we
          could sell the domain later on, we
              should start with a TLD: .com

          If we want to focus on a specific
       country, then we should start with a
                 ccTLD, like .es, .it or .co.uk

       We should register as many domain
      extensions as we can afford if we are
              serious about investing in its
                                promotion
International versions: subdirectories,
          subdomains, local domains
• When should we use a subdirectory, a subdomain or a local
  domain?


  – Subdirectory: www.yoursite.com/uk/
  – Subdomain: uk.yoursite.com
  – Country code Top Level Domain: yoursite.co.uk



• Suggestion: it depends on the number of pages to be indexed
  and on your popularity


  – Subdirectory: if your domain is not popular and you do not have a lot of pages
    to index
  – Subdomain: if your traffic depends on a single keyword or if you have lots of
    pages to index
  – Domain: if you have lots of content and can get tons of links
Subdirectory or subdomain?

Questions:
• Does your conversion traffic depend mainly on just one
  keyword?
• Do you have the resources to build popularity for different
  domains?
• What PR do your competitors have?
• Do you have the resources to create a lot of content?
• Do you have thousands of pages to index?


If the answer is NO, then you should choose
subdirectories:
• Subdirectories can quickly inherit the domain’s PR
• You can set a different geographical target for each
  subdirectory using Google Webmasters Tools
Key recommendations on a domain’s relevance



            Exact keyword domains generally rank
                     better for a specific keyword

        Popular domains in a specific country rank
            better for searches from users in that
                                          country

                  Country code Top Level Domains
         generally rank better in a specific country
                                        than TLD’s

          Host your ccTLD on a host located in the
                    country that you are targeting
International Domains: Step 1
  Don’t let competitors buy your ccTLDs:
Buy them first, even if you will not use them
               immediately




 mydomain.co.jp
                                     mydomain.fr




                  mydomain.com




 mydomain.co.uk

                                 mydomain.cn
International Domains: Step 2
ccTLD with no content: redirect them!




 mydomain.co.jp

                                     mydomain.fr




                  mydomain.com




mydomain.co.uk

                                 mydomain.cn
International Domains: Step 3
Multilingual microsites in subdirectories




  mydomain.co.jp

                                          mydomain.fr




                   mydomain.com
                   mydomain.com/jp/
                   mydomain.com/uk/
                   mydomain.com/fr/
                   mydomain.com/cn/
 mydomain.co.uk

                                      mydomain.cn
International Domains: Step 4
  ccTLD with multilingual microsites




 mydomain.co.jp

                                         mydomain.fr


                      PR
                  mydomain.com
                  mydomain.com/jp/
                  mydomain.com/uk/
                  mydomain.com/fr/
                  mydomain.com/cn/
mydomain.co.uk

                                     mydomain.cn
International Domains: Step 5
Fully localized ccTLD, build popularity/authority




      mydomain.co.jp

                                          mydomain.fr




                       mydomain.com




     mydomain.co.uk

                                      mydomain.cn
Key recommendations for a domain’s relevance
         Buy ccTLD’s for those countries where there
        is a chance that you will have business in the
                                               future

        Redirect all your ccTLD’s to your main domain
                  while you build multilingual content

                   Develop multilingual microsites in
             subdirectories to check the international
                   interest of your products/services

             Develop fully localized Web sites in your
               ccTLDs for those countries where the
                                  feedback is positive.

         Build local popularity by hosting your ccTLD
                                      in a local server
Where is my server
        geolocated?




ccTLD domain   Hosting IP   Inbound links
IP location: IP2location
Where is my
        server located?




Akamai/ other CDN’s
         We can lose IP geolocation
         Setting a geographic target is a
         must
Where is my domain
   geolocated?
Where is my domain
   geolocated?
Key recommendations for a domain’s
                       geolocation


   Host your international domains in the
         countries that you are targeting

    Faster responses and less latency will
         provide a better user experience

  Build local popularity and a social graph
                     for your local domain
International versions
         of a Web site
Multilingual Web sites



                 Automatic translation
SEO FRIENDLY




                 Content translation


                 Content localization


                 SEO-oriented content localization
Multilingual Web sites

  Automatic translation




  It is better than nothing, BUT:
  • Content is translated on-the-fly: it is not crawlable/
    indexable
  • Translation quality is just acceptable
  • Configure an event in Google Analytics to track the
    country origin of your visitors that use Google
    Translation: those should become your first priority
    when developing international versions.
Multilingual Web sites


  Content translation
  Pros:
  • Indexable content that can be crawled by search
    engines robots
  • You can obtain very good quality translations

  Cons:
  • It is just a translation. The reason people from
    different countries may visit your Web site or may be
    interested in your products could vary significantly. A
    simple translation will not address those subtleties.
Multilingual Web sites


  Content localization
  • It is indexable
  • It addresses the different expectations and needs of
    your multinational audience

  SEO oriented content localization
  • Provides all the previous advantages and, in
    addition, it will include specific keywords with high
    traffic potential in all the right prominent areas: titles,
    headings, alt text, URLs, etc.
Relevance: special characters and diacritics


    Google makes subtle differences for
    searches with special characters/diacritics

     • Most users do not use diacritics when searching

     • Works: including words with no special characters in
      URLs and alt text

     • Does not work: including words with no special
      characters in keywords meta tag, dc, object tag,
      noscript, etc.
Relevance: special characters and diacritics

    Recommendations


    1. Your visitors will get a very poor impression of your
    Web site if you include incorrectly spelled words in
    visible areas.

    2. Don’t include too many misspelled words as alt text or
    in other prominent areas of the page.


    3. Don’t include too many misspellings as anchor texts.
Key recommendations for a domain’s
                       localization

  Study your target for each country and
         adapt your content accordingly

     Find out which search patterns your
    target audience uses in each country

  Localize your content including search
 patterns and popular keywords for your
                          local audience

      Do not just translate your content
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


                 Languages identified by hidden
                 variables
  SEO FRIENDLY




                 Languages identified by variables
                 passed in URLs through the GET
                 method


                 Different languages in different
                 subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


                 Languages identified by hidden
                 variables
  SEO FRIENDLY




                 Languages identified by variables
                 passed in URLs through the GET
                 method


                 Different languages in different
                 subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables (forms/POST method)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables (forms/POST method)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables (forms/POST method)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables: cookies
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables: cookies
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables: environment variables (User
           agent/OS language)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables: environment variables (User
           agent/OS language)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden variables:
           environment variables (user IP)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden variables:
           environment variables (user IP)
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables - Cons:
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables - Cons:




             lang=es                       lang=de
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


           Languages identified by hidden
           variables - Cons:




             lang=es                       lang=de




                            =
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


             Languages identified by hidden
             variables - Cons:




                 lang=es                        lang=de




                                    =
        www.mydomain.com/home.php
                                    =   www.mydomain.com/home.php
How to check the default content from your server




   Selecting “Show source” you can use the W3C markup validation
    service to “see” the default code that your server is returning
How to check the default content from your server




   We can see the code from Zara.com with the
     “alternate” tags and funny comments.
How to check the default content from your server




        We can also check the default content using the Web
     Developer plug-in for Firefox, where we can disable cookies,
       Javascript, CSS, replace images with alt text, and so on.
How to check the default content from your server




       We can also check the default content through the text-
                  only version from Google’s cache
How to check the default content from your server




      Finally, we can check the default content in our own Web
              site through GWT “Fetch as Google” menu.
Beware of multilingual selectors in your header




                      Repeating the names of many
                   countries in every page affects your
                                 relevance
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by hidden variables


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method


            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by hidden variables


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method


            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es
            • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en




                               =
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


             Languages identified by variables passed
             in URLs through the GET method
              • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es
              • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en




                                 =
         www.mydomain.com/
          home.php&lang=es       =         www.mydomain.com/
                                            home.php&lang=de
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method - Cons:
            • From Google Webmaster Tools, you can set
              geographic targets only for:
               • Domains: www.mydomain.com
               • Subdomains: uk.mydomain.com
               • Subdirectories: www.mydomain.com/uk/

            Therefore, you cannot set geographic
            targets
            Keywords in URLs in just one language
            will not be relevant nor usable in different
            countries
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Beware of versions served as default




                        www.mydomain.com




                  problem: duplicate content
                  solution: noindex/robots.txt
                             canonical
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


              Beware of versions served as default




                             www.mydomain.com



         www.mydomain.com/
         home.php?lang=fr


                     problem: duplicate content
                     solution: noindex/robots.txt
                                canonical
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


              Beware of versions served as default




                             www.mydomain.com



         www.mydomain.com/
         home.php?lang=fr                  www.mydomain.com/
                                           home.php?lang=es

                     problem: duplicate content
                     solution: noindex/robots.txt
                                canonical
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


             Beware of versions served as default




                             =
          www.mydomain.com
                             =           www.mydomain.com/
                                         home.php?lang=es

                   problem: duplicate content
                   solution: noindex/robots.txt
                              canonical
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by hidden variables


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method


            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Languages identified by hidden variables


            Languages identified by variables passed
            in URLs through the GET method


            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories
URL structure for multilingual Web sites


            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories
            • Subdomains:
              • es.mydomain.com
              • fr.mydomain.com
              • en.mydomain.com
            • Or, subdirectories:
              • www.mydomain.com/es/
              • www.mydomain.com/fr/
              • www.mydomain.com/en/
URL structure for multilingual Web sites
            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories: pros
URL structure for multilingual Web sites
            Different languages in different
            subdomains or subdirectories: pros




                            =
URL structure for multilingual Web sites
              Different languages in different
              subdomains or subdirectories: pros




                                 =
          www.mydomain.com/es/
                                 =    www.mydomain.com/en/
URL structure for multilingual Web sites
              Different languages in different
              subdomains or subdirectories: pros




                                      =
          www.mydomain.com/es/
                                      =   www.mydomain.com/en/




          www.mydomain.com/es/            www.mydomain.com/en/
         palabraclaverelevante.html        relevantkeyword.html
Setting geographic targets with
      GWT: does it work?
Setting geographic targets with
      GWT: does it work?

             Setting UK as a geographic target for our /
             en_GB/ subdirectory keeps our pages in the
                 results even if the user searches in
               google.co.uk and restricts the results to
                “Pages from the UK”, and even if our
             domain is not a ccTLD or is not hosted on a
                            British server.
New Google guidelines for international domains
New Google guidelines for international domains


          Scenario: different versions in different
          subdirectories




 http://www.mydomain.com/   http://www.mydomain.com/   http://www.mydomain.com/
        en/widgets.html         en-UK/widgets.html          en-IE/widgets.html
New Google guideline for international domains

                Set each of your subdirectories to the correct geographic
                target from GWT

 http://www.mydomain.com/en/widgets.html            Do not set a geographic target
                                                      for your general content




http://www.mydomain.com/en-UK/widgets.html




http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/widgets.html
New Google guidelines for international domains

      Build popularity from everywhere for your general English
      version subdirectory and from local domains in each country
      for your country-specific subdirectories
New Google guidelines for international domains

           But until now, we had little or no control over the page that
           Google showed in the SERPs



 widgets




                                           Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard

                                           www.domain.com/en/
                                           16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find
 widgets                                   thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get
                                           a recipe. Check out the latest sports ...

                                           Top 50 - Categories - Boredom Button




 widgets
New Google guidelines for international domains


         Include “alternate” tagging in your pages
         <HEAD> section.
                            <head>

                            ................................

                            <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-IE”
                            href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/
                            widgets.html” />

                            <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-UK”
                            href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-UK/
                            widgets.html” />
 http://www.mydomain.com/
                            ................................
        en/widgets.html
                            </head>
New Google guidelines for international domains


         Include “alternate” tagging in your pages
         <HEAD> section.
                            <head>

                            ................................

                            <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en”
                            href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en/
                            widgets.html” />

                            <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-IE”
                            href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/
                            widgets.html” />
 http://www.mydomain.com/
                            ................................
     en-UK/widgets.html
                            </head>
New Google guidelines for international domains


         Include “alternate” tagging in your pages
         <HEAD> section.
                             <head>

                             ................................

                             <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en”
                             href=”http://www.domain.com/en/
                             widgets.html” />

                             <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-UK”
                             href=”http://www.domain.com/en-UK/
                             widgets.html” />
  http://www.mydomain.com/
                             ................................
       en-IE/widgets.html
                             </head>
New Google guidelines for international domains

      Optional: also include “alternate” tagging with
      versions in other languages or for other countries.

                        <head>

                        ................................

                        <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”it” href=”http://
                        www.domain.com/it/widgets.html” />

                        <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”es-MX”
                        href=”http://www.domain.com/es-MX/
                        widgets.html” />

                        ................................

                        </head>
Implementation Scenario: does it work?


                        Web site with
                      multilingual non-
                      country-targeted
                         versions...
Implementation Scenario: does it work?


                        Web site with
                      multilingual non-
                      country-targeted
                         versions...




                          ... and subdirectories
                           targeted to specific
                        languages and countries
How did including the “alternate” tagging work?

                                 After implementation,
                                traffic decreased in the
                                 “general” versions and
                               increased in the country-
                                    specific versions


           Before          After



General



Country
-specific
How did including the “alternate” tagging work?
                                   Traffic from a specific
                                    country decreased in
                                    the general versions
                                    and increased in the
                                   specific version due to
                                   the positioning of the
                                       correct URLs
           Before          After



General



Country
-specific
How did including the “alternate” tagging work?
                                   Traffic from a specific
                                    country decreased in
                                    the general versions
                                    and increased in the
                                   specific version due to
                                   the positioning of the
                                       correct URLs
           Before          After



General



Country
-specific
Implementing “alternate”: +1Kb (for 30 versions!)




        44.0          GZIP          9.8
         Kb                         Kb




            File size is not a problem.
If size is a concern, implement “alternate” in
                your sitemap file
       Including the alternate tagging in your XML
       sitemap file
                           <url>
                             GZIP
                             <loc>http://www.mydomain.com/
                           en-IE/widgets.html</loc>
                             <xhtml:link
                               rel="alternate"
                               hreflang="es-MX"
                               href="http://
                           www.mydomain.com/es-MX/
                           widgets.html" />
                             <xhtml:link
                               rel="alternate"
                               hreflang="it"
http://www.mydomain.com/       href="http://www.example.com/
     en-IE/widgets.html    it/widgets.html" />
                           </url>
New Google guidelines for international domains

           Better control over which URLs will be shown in the SERPs in
           each country
                                         Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard

                                         www.domain.com/en/
                                         16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find
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 widgets                                 thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get
                                         a recipe. Check out the latest sports ...

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                                         www.domain.com/en-IE/widgets.html
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 widgets                                 thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get
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Specify your language



Before: RFC 4646, 3066 y 1766 based
on ISO 639 codes (obsolete)
NOW: RFC 5646, language tagging
based on IANA (http://www.iana.org/
assignments/language-subtag-
registry)
Specify your language: search




                      Search for the name
                       of the language tag
                        that you need, in
                      English. For instance,
                            “Spanish”.
Specify your language: find


                        Click on next until
                      you reach the one that
                         you really need.
Specify your language: find


                         Click on next until
                       you reach the one that
                          you really need.




                       The tag we want is
                     noted as “Subtag” and,
                      in this case, it is “es”
                      for castilian Spanish.
Include the tag in your HEAD

For HTML files:
• <html lang=”fr”>


For XML files:
• <html xml:lang="fr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/
  1999/xhtml">


For HTML 5+XML 1.x polyglote files:
• <html lang="fr" xml:lang="fr" xmlns="http://
  www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
Key recommendations for language versions


          Create a subdirectory for every version of
                                      each language

         If your positioning depends primarily on a
         single keyword, generate a subdomain for
                                every new language

         Using Google Tools, adjust the geographic
           orientation of every section of your Web
                                site to each country

         Use the new tagging for international Web
                                              sites

                       Achieve localized popularity
Optimizing video content for international
                searches
 Host it in YouTube
 Optimize the title and description
 Use closed captions or transcripts for international
 content (archives .sub .srt)
 Publish your video in different video platforms (Vimeo,
 Blip.tv, etc.)
 Use video sitemaps (thumbnail image, tags,
 description...)
 Use optimized URLs
 Keep your video size under control
 Build popularity for your video URL
Optimizing video content for international
                searches
Optimizing video content for international
                 searches




Fill in all the
 fields with
 optimized
text, select
  the right
 categories,
geolocation
  and date
Optimizing video content for international
                searches




http://www.afterdawn.com/guides/archive/subtitle_formats_explained.cfm
Optimizing video content for international
                searches




                                                                Since June
                                                                    15th,
                                                                automatic
                                                                transcripts
                                                                 works for
                                                                 languages
                                                                other than
                                                                   English




http://www.afterdawn.com/guides/archive/subtitle_formats_explained.cfm
DivXLand Media Subtitler
       1
       00:00:00,063 --> 00:00:05,081
       One of the suggestions received during the live 120
       seconds chapter

       2
       00:00:05,122 --> 00:00:09,311
       was that we should record the process for creating
       a 120 seconds chapter




                                          .SRT
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files


1                                                     Order number in the sequence
00:00:00,063 --> 00:00:05,081                         Time when the subtitle
                                                      appears and disappears
One of the suggestions received during the live 120
seconds chapter                                       Subtitle text

                                                      Separation white line
2
00:00:05,122 --> 00:00:09,311
was that we should record the process for creating
a 120 seconds chapter




            Create a transcript .srt file for each language
            and upload them to YouTube
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files:
   are they good for positioning?
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files:
   are they good for positioning?




                                    Title and
                                   description
                                  only in English
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files:
   are they good for positioning?
Transcripts/closed captions .srt files:
   are they good for positioning?

                          If you search for text in
                      German that can only be found
                      in the transcript file, the video
                            is found. It works!!!
Set the correct geographic target
       from Google Webmaster Tools




Select Configuration > Geographic Target for the country
                  you want to target
Set the correct geographic target
         from Google Webmaster Tools




If you have different versions in subdirectories or domains, add
      them as different sites to Google Webmaster Tools
Set the correct geographic target
 from Google Webmaster Tools




      And from Configuration > Geographic target
      we set each subdomain or subdirectory to the
                    correct country.
SEMRush




With SEMRush, we can query local versions of both Google
and Bing to find keywords and pages in different countries.
Google Trends: select the correct location




                                              In
  Google Insights we must filter geographic areas to correctly
identify the seasonal patterns and the search trends in various
                           countries.
Google Trends
Google Trends
         In countries located in different
       hemispheres, the seasonal patterns
                   are inverted
Google Trends
Google Trends




     From Google Trends we can also find
      where certain keywords are more
            popular for searches
Google Trends
Google Trends




                    In
           Google Trends we must filter
       geographic areas to correctly identify
       the seasonal patterns and the search
            trends in various countries.
Google Keyword Tool
Google Keyword Tool




        In Google Keyword Tool, we have to
           select the correct country and
               language combination
Übersuggest
Übersuggest


    Übersuggest lets you find popular
     searches in different countries
How to check your positions
          in local versions of Google



www.google.com.ar




www.google.co.uk
How to check your positions
             in local versions of Google



www.google.com.ar



     Go to the local
    version of Google
      and select the
    default language
     for the country


www.google.co.uk
How to check your positions
         in local versions of Google
www.google.com.ar
How to check your positions
         in local versions of Google
www.google.com.ar
                                Enter your
                              target location
How to implement Google Analytics tracking
      code for international versions


1 visitor




3 visitors
  in GA
How to implement Google Analytics tracking
      code for international versions


1 visitor          Having different UA in different versions
                  makes it easier to track local traffic, but we
                    lose the global perspective (duplicate
                   visitors, sessions, wrong referrers, etc.)




3 visitors
  in GA
How to implement GA tracking for multiversion
                  sites


1 visitor




1 visitor
How to implement GA tracking for multiversion
                  sites

                        Using a unique UA, we have a better
                    global understanding of a visitor’s referrals
1 visitor              and behaviour. We can also configure
                       profiles and filters to dig into the local




1 visitor
Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
Russian analytics: Yandex Metrica
Russian analytics: Yandex Metrica
Russian Keyword tool: Yandex Wordstat
Bonus track: Baidu
     mini-tutorial
Baidu: mini-tutorial




From this link, we can access the Baidu products and
                       services
Baidu: mini-tutorial




From this link, we can access the Baidu Webmaster Tools
Baidu: mini-tutorial




From this button, we can access the Baidu platform
Baidu: mini-tutorial




From this button, we can reach the register form for Baidu
Baidu: mini-tutorial

                                                      Mail address

                                                      User

                                                      Password

                                                      Confirm password

                                                      Complete captcha




Once completed, click on this button to submit the form
     (fortunately, the captcha uses arabic figures)
Baidu: mini-tutorial




You will receive an email. Click on the link to authenticate
                   your new user access.
Baidu: mini-tutorial



                                    Administrator
                                    Tools




                                    Help



                                    Other services


Once validated, we can access the Baidu Webmaster Tools
                and add them to our site
Baidu: mini-tutorial




From this link on the left, we can access the page where we
  can add our site by clicking on this button on the right.
Baidu: mini-tutorial




Fill in your domain and click on the button
Baidu: mini-tutorial




  You will have to validate that you are the owner of your
Web site by adding this meta tag in your Head section, just as
                       we do in Google
Baidu: mini-tutorial




Once added, you will be able to access all the data and add
   it to Baidu Statistics (similar to Google Analytics)
Baidu Statistics
Chinese social media
Fernando Maciá Domene
CEO
Human Level
Communications
Fernando Maciá Domene
CEO
Human Level
Communications
Fernando Maciá Domene
CEO
Human Level Communications

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International Search Engine Optimization - Multilingual SEO

  • 1. International Search Engine Optimization - SEO Fernando Maciá Human Level Communications CEO @fernandomacia fernando@humanlevel.com
  • 2. Fernando Maciá Domene CEO Human Level Communications You’ll find me here: @fernandomacia
  • 3. Why should we target foreign markets? Traditional/local markets are shrinking • The Internet allows us to research and open up new markets in an affordable and risk-free fashion Competitiveness is increasing • IT can dramatically increase our competitive edge It is important to keep a low risk profile in new business projects • The Internet puts us in contact with partners worldwide to start joint ventures, maximizing the synergies and reducing the risks involved Traditional distribution channels are exhausted • Waiting for the good times to return represents a bigger risk than venturing into new channels and markets
  • 4. Users search in their own language Although English remains the “international language”, don’t assume that people in other countries will use English as their first choice when searching
  • 5. Using a language other than English means less competition in the SERPs 3.170.000 results in English 895.000 results in French 145.000 results in Norwegian
  • 6. Using a language other than English means less competition in the SERPs 3.170.000 results in English 895.000 results in French 145.000 results in Norwegian
  • 7. Keywords for the same concept can vary... even within the same country! Mexerica (SP) Tangerina (RJ) Bergamota (RS) People use different words for the same fruit in different countries and regions
  • 8. Beware of pejorative connotations of very common words in other countries For example, Spain and Latin America use very different words for identical concepts Agarrar Coger Carro Coche Manejar Conducir Monto Importe Mercadeo Marketing Cauchos Ruedas Cancelar Pagar Calzado para damas Zapatos de señora Jugo Zumo Etc. Etc.
  • 9. Google Insights: which keywords are used in which countries (e.g., coches & carros) In Spain, a car is a “coche” while in Latin America, a car is a “carro”
  • 10. Google Insights: which keywords are used in which countries (e.g., neumático & caucho) In Spain, a tire is a “neumático” while in some Latin American countries, a tire is a “caucho”
  • 11. And there are countries, like Japan, where keywords can be written using three different alphabets Hiragana • Is a Japanese syllabary which is used to write native Japan words, like とうきょう Katakana • Is a Japanese syllabary which is used to write foreign language words, like トウキョウ Kanji • Are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese, like 東京 Therefore, the same keyword could be written in different ways!!
  • 12. Google is not the only search engine in use Although Google enjoys the biggest market share, there are countries where people prefer local search engines
  • 13. Therefore, we must identify the search engines used in the countries we are targeting
  • 14. Other search engines: Baidu Geolocation is not available yet ccTLD (.cn, .com.cn) and hosting the Web site in China is favored Baidu.com grants some relevance to obsolete metatags like the keyword metatag Beware of censored contents and searches Authority of linking domains is not such an important factor as it is in Google
  • 15. Other search engines: Yandex Geolocation is available Its relevance algorithm is similar to Google’s Inbound links are considered for the popularity as well as outbound links Yandex also considers the keywords metatag
  • 16. US Search Market Share 3%2% 14% Google Microsoft Yahoo! 15% Ask AOL 66%
  • 17. Europe Search Market Share 7% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% Google Sites 2% eBay 2% 3% Yandex Yahoo! Sites Microsoft Sites NASZA-KLASA.PL QXL Ricardo AOL LLC Ask Network Rambler Media 79% Other
  • 18. Asia Search Market Share 3% 9% 15% Google Baidu Yahoo! Bing 73%
  • 19. Japan Search Market Share 2% 2% 2% Yahoo! Google 40% Rakuten 54% Microsoft NTT
  • 20. Korea Search Market Share 3%2%1% 1% 10% Naver Daum Google 15% Nate Yahoo KT Group Cyworld 67%
  • 21. China Search Market Share 3% 1% 1% % 0 16% Baidu Google Sogou Soso Youdau Otros 78%
  • 22. Information Sources on International Search Market Share: update often!
  • 23. Domain Name Types TLD (Top Level Domain) ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) IDN (Internationalized Domain Names)
  • 24. Domain Types: TLD (Top Level Domain) TLD (Top Level Domain) • .com • .net • .info • .biz • .co
  • 25. Domain Types: ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain) ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) • .es • .it • .fr • .de
  • 26. Domain Types: IDN (Internationalized Domain Name) It is an Internet domain name containing non- ASCII characters. This type of domain can include diacritics, as is required by many European alphabets, or even non-Latin characters such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian, etc. With Punycode, non-ASCII characters are translated into ASCII compatible domains
  • 27. Domain Types: IDN (Internationalized Domain Name) http://www.españaescultura.es (Spanish) • http://www.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es/ http://‫( )("ل.إ%$#"ر‬Arabic) • http://xn--mgbh0fb.xn--kgbechtv/ http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή (Greek) • http://xn--hxajbheg2az3al.xn--jxalpdlp http://пример.испытание (Russian) • http://xn--e1afmkfd.xn--80akhbyknj4f/
  • 28. IDN (Internationalized Domain Name): problems you can encounter with Google Analytics <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-24296763-1']); _gaq.push(['_setDomainName', '.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es']); _gaq.push(['_setAllowLinker', true]); _gaq.push(['_setAllowHash', false]); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageLoadTime']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); })(); Use the Punycode version </script> of your domain to set your Domain Name
  • 29. IDN (Internationalized Domain Name): problems you can encounter with Google Analytics When filtering an IDN hosting, select “Include traffic” from both domain names (IDN and Punycode): www.españaescultura.es|www.xn--espaaescultura-tnb.es
  • 30. Key recommendations for domain types If we believe that there is a potential market in other countries or that we could sell the domain later on, we should start with a TLD: .com If we want to focus on a specific country, then we should start with a ccTLD, like .es, .it or .co.uk We should register as many domain extensions as we can afford if we are serious about investing in its promotion
  • 31. International versions: subdirectories, subdomains, local domains • When should we use a subdirectory, a subdomain or a local domain? – Subdirectory: www.yoursite.com/uk/ – Subdomain: uk.yoursite.com – Country code Top Level Domain: yoursite.co.uk • Suggestion: it depends on the number of pages to be indexed and on your popularity – Subdirectory: if your domain is not popular and you do not have a lot of pages to index – Subdomain: if your traffic depends on a single keyword or if you have lots of pages to index – Domain: if you have lots of content and can get tons of links
  • 32. Subdirectory or subdomain? Questions: • Does your conversion traffic depend mainly on just one keyword? • Do you have the resources to build popularity for different domains? • What PR do your competitors have? • Do you have the resources to create a lot of content? • Do you have thousands of pages to index? If the answer is NO, then you should choose subdirectories: • Subdirectories can quickly inherit the domain’s PR • You can set a different geographical target for each subdirectory using Google Webmasters Tools
  • 33. Key recommendations on a domain’s relevance Exact keyword domains generally rank better for a specific keyword Popular domains in a specific country rank better for searches from users in that country Country code Top Level Domains generally rank better in a specific country than TLD’s Host your ccTLD on a host located in the country that you are targeting
  • 34. International Domains: Step 1 Don’t let competitors buy your ccTLDs: Buy them first, even if you will not use them immediately mydomain.co.jp mydomain.fr mydomain.com mydomain.co.uk mydomain.cn
  • 35. International Domains: Step 2 ccTLD with no content: redirect them! mydomain.co.jp mydomain.fr mydomain.com mydomain.co.uk mydomain.cn
  • 36. International Domains: Step 3 Multilingual microsites in subdirectories mydomain.co.jp mydomain.fr mydomain.com mydomain.com/jp/ mydomain.com/uk/ mydomain.com/fr/ mydomain.com/cn/ mydomain.co.uk mydomain.cn
  • 37. International Domains: Step 4 ccTLD with multilingual microsites mydomain.co.jp mydomain.fr PR mydomain.com mydomain.com/jp/ mydomain.com/uk/ mydomain.com/fr/ mydomain.com/cn/ mydomain.co.uk mydomain.cn
  • 38. International Domains: Step 5 Fully localized ccTLD, build popularity/authority mydomain.co.jp mydomain.fr mydomain.com mydomain.co.uk mydomain.cn
  • 39. Key recommendations for a domain’s relevance Buy ccTLD’s for those countries where there is a chance that you will have business in the future Redirect all your ccTLD’s to your main domain while you build multilingual content Develop multilingual microsites in subdirectories to check the international interest of your products/services Develop fully localized Web sites in your ccTLDs for those countries where the feedback is positive. Build local popularity by hosting your ccTLD in a local server
  • 40. Where is my server geolocated? ccTLD domain Hosting IP Inbound links
  • 42. Where is my server located? Akamai/ other CDN’s We can lose IP geolocation Setting a geographic target is a must
  • 43. Where is my domain geolocated?
  • 44. Where is my domain geolocated?
  • 45. Key recommendations for a domain’s geolocation Host your international domains in the countries that you are targeting Faster responses and less latency will provide a better user experience Build local popularity and a social graph for your local domain
  • 46. International versions of a Web site
  • 47. Multilingual Web sites Automatic translation SEO FRIENDLY Content translation Content localization SEO-oriented content localization
  • 48. Multilingual Web sites Automatic translation It is better than nothing, BUT: • Content is translated on-the-fly: it is not crawlable/ indexable • Translation quality is just acceptable • Configure an event in Google Analytics to track the country origin of your visitors that use Google Translation: those should become your first priority when developing international versions.
  • 49. Multilingual Web sites Content translation Pros: • Indexable content that can be crawled by search engines robots • You can obtain very good quality translations Cons: • It is just a translation. The reason people from different countries may visit your Web site or may be interested in your products could vary significantly. A simple translation will not address those subtleties.
  • 50. Multilingual Web sites Content localization • It is indexable • It addresses the different expectations and needs of your multinational audience SEO oriented content localization • Provides all the previous advantages and, in addition, it will include specific keywords with high traffic potential in all the right prominent areas: titles, headings, alt text, URLs, etc.
  • 51. Relevance: special characters and diacritics Google makes subtle differences for searches with special characters/diacritics • Most users do not use diacritics when searching • Works: including words with no special characters in URLs and alt text • Does not work: including words with no special characters in keywords meta tag, dc, object tag, noscript, etc.
  • 52. Relevance: special characters and diacritics Recommendations 1. Your visitors will get a very poor impression of your Web site if you include incorrectly spelled words in visible areas. 2. Don’t include too many misspelled words as alt text or in other prominent areas of the page. 3. Don’t include too many misspellings as anchor texts.
  • 53. Key recommendations for a domain’s localization Study your target for each country and adapt your content accordingly Find out which search patterns your target audience uses in each country Localize your content including search patterns and popular keywords for your local audience Do not just translate your content
  • 54. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables SEO FRIENDLY Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 55. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables SEO FRIENDLY Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 56. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables (forms/POST method)
  • 57. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables (forms/POST method)
  • 58. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables (forms/POST method)
  • 59. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: cookies
  • 60. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: cookies
  • 61. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: environment variables (User agent/OS language)
  • 62. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: environment variables (User agent/OS language)
  • 63. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: environment variables (user IP)
  • 64. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables: environment variables (user IP)
  • 65. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables - Cons:
  • 66. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables - Cons: lang=es lang=de
  • 67. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables - Cons: lang=es lang=de =
  • 68. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables - Cons: lang=es lang=de = www.mydomain.com/home.php = www.mydomain.com/home.php
  • 69. How to check the default content from your server Selecting “Show source” you can use the W3C markup validation service to “see” the default code that your server is returning
  • 70. How to check the default content from your server We can see the code from Zara.com with the “alternate” tags and funny comments.
  • 71. How to check the default content from your server We can also check the default content using the Web Developer plug-in for Firefox, where we can disable cookies, Javascript, CSS, replace images with alt text, and so on.
  • 72. How to check the default content from your server We can also check the default content through the text- only version from Google’s cache
  • 73. How to check the default content from your server Finally, we can check the default content in our own Web site through GWT “Fetch as Google” menu.
  • 74. Beware of multilingual selectors in your header Repeating the names of many countries in every page affects your relevance
  • 75. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 76. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 77. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en
  • 78. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en
  • 79. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en =
  • 80. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=es • http://www.mydomain.com/home.php&lang=en = www.mydomain.com/ home.php&lang=es = www.mydomain.com/ home.php&lang=de
  • 81. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method - Cons: • From Google Webmaster Tools, you can set geographic targets only for: • Domains: www.mydomain.com • Subdomains: uk.mydomain.com • Subdirectories: www.mydomain.com/uk/ Therefore, you cannot set geographic targets Keywords in URLs in just one language will not be relevant nor usable in different countries
  • 82. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Beware of versions served as default www.mydomain.com problem: duplicate content solution: noindex/robots.txt canonical
  • 83. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Beware of versions served as default www.mydomain.com www.mydomain.com/ home.php?lang=fr problem: duplicate content solution: noindex/robots.txt canonical
  • 84. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Beware of versions served as default www.mydomain.com www.mydomain.com/ home.php?lang=fr www.mydomain.com/ home.php?lang=es problem: duplicate content solution: noindex/robots.txt canonical
  • 85. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Beware of versions served as default = www.mydomain.com = www.mydomain.com/ home.php?lang=es problem: duplicate content solution: noindex/robots.txt canonical
  • 86. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 87. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Languages identified by hidden variables Languages identified by variables passed in URLs through the GET method Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories
  • 88. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories • Subdomains: • es.mydomain.com • fr.mydomain.com • en.mydomain.com • Or, subdirectories: • www.mydomain.com/es/ • www.mydomain.com/fr/ • www.mydomain.com/en/
  • 89. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories: pros
  • 90. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories: pros =
  • 91. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories: pros = www.mydomain.com/es/ = www.mydomain.com/en/
  • 92. URL structure for multilingual Web sites Different languages in different subdomains or subdirectories: pros = www.mydomain.com/es/ = www.mydomain.com/en/ www.mydomain.com/es/ www.mydomain.com/en/ palabraclaverelevante.html relevantkeyword.html
  • 93. Setting geographic targets with GWT: does it work?
  • 94. Setting geographic targets with GWT: does it work? Setting UK as a geographic target for our / en_GB/ subdirectory keeps our pages in the results even if the user searches in google.co.uk and restricts the results to “Pages from the UK”, and even if our domain is not a ccTLD or is not hosted on a British server.
  • 95. New Google guidelines for international domains
  • 96. New Google guidelines for international domains Scenario: different versions in different subdirectories http://www.mydomain.com/ http://www.mydomain.com/ http://www.mydomain.com/ en/widgets.html en-UK/widgets.html en-IE/widgets.html
  • 97. New Google guideline for international domains Set each of your subdirectories to the correct geographic target from GWT http://www.mydomain.com/en/widgets.html Do not set a geographic target for your general content http://www.mydomain.com/en-UK/widgets.html http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/widgets.html
  • 98. New Google guidelines for international domains Build popularity from everywhere for your general English version subdirectory and from local domains in each country for your country-specific subdirectories
  • 99. New Google guidelines for international domains But until now, we had little or no control over the page that Google showed in the SERPs widgets Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard www.domain.com/en/ 16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find widgets thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get a recipe. Check out the latest sports ... Top 50 - Categories - Boredom Button widgets
  • 100. New Google guidelines for international domains Include “alternate” tagging in your pages <HEAD> section. <head> ................................ <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-IE” href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/ widgets.html” /> <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-UK” href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-UK/ widgets.html” /> http://www.mydomain.com/ ................................ en/widgets.html </head>
  • 101. New Google guidelines for international domains Include “alternate” tagging in your pages <HEAD> section. <head> ................................ <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en” href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en/ widgets.html” /> <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-IE” href=”http://www.mydomain.com/en-IE/ widgets.html” /> http://www.mydomain.com/ ................................ en-UK/widgets.html </head>
  • 102. New Google guidelines for international domains Include “alternate” tagging in your pages <HEAD> section. <head> ................................ <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en” href=”http://www.domain.com/en/ widgets.html” /> <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”en-UK” href=”http://www.domain.com/en-UK/ widgets.html” /> http://www.mydomain.com/ ................................ en-IE/widgets.html </head>
  • 103. New Google guidelines for international domains Optional: also include “alternate” tagging with versions in other languages or for other countries. <head> ................................ <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”it” href=”http:// www.domain.com/it/widgets.html” /> <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”es-MX” href=”http://www.domain.com/es-MX/ widgets.html” /> ................................ </head>
  • 104. Implementation Scenario: does it work? Web site with multilingual non- country-targeted versions...
  • 105. Implementation Scenario: does it work? Web site with multilingual non- country-targeted versions... ... and subdirectories targeted to specific languages and countries
  • 106. How did including the “alternate” tagging work? After implementation, traffic decreased in the “general” versions and increased in the country- specific versions Before After General Country -specific
  • 107. How did including the “alternate” tagging work? Traffic from a specific country decreased in the general versions and increased in the specific version due to the positioning of the correct URLs Before After General Country -specific
  • 108. How did including the “alternate” tagging work? Traffic from a specific country decreased in the general versions and increased in the specific version due to the positioning of the correct URLs Before After General Country -specific
  • 109. Implementing “alternate”: +1Kb (for 30 versions!) 44.0 GZIP 9.8 Kb Kb File size is not a problem.
  • 110. If size is a concern, implement “alternate” in your sitemap file Including the alternate tagging in your XML sitemap file <url> GZIP <loc>http://www.mydomain.com/ en-IE/widgets.html</loc> <xhtml:link rel="alternate" hreflang="es-MX" href="http:// www.mydomain.com/es-MX/ widgets.html" /> <xhtml:link rel="alternate" hreflang="it" http://www.mydomain.com/ href="http://www.example.com/ en-IE/widgets.html it/widgets.html" /> </url>
  • 111. New Google guidelines for international domains Better control over which URLs will be shown in the SERPs in each country Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard www.domain.com/en/ 16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find widgets thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get a recipe. Check out the latest sports ... Top 50 - Categories - Boredom Button Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard www.domain.com/en-UK/widgets.html 16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find widgets thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get a recipe. Check out the latest sports ... Top 50 - Categories - Boredom Button Widgets - Downloads - Dashboard www.domain.com/en-IE/widgets.html 16 Nov 2010 – Your one-stop widget warehouse. You'll find widgets thousands of widgets, most of them free. Play a game. Get a recipe. Check out the latest sports ... Top 50 - Categories - Boredom Button
  • 112. Specify your language Before: RFC 4646, 3066 y 1766 based on ISO 639 codes (obsolete) NOW: RFC 5646, language tagging based on IANA (http://www.iana.org/ assignments/language-subtag- registry)
  • 113. Specify your language: search Search for the name of the language tag that you need, in English. For instance, “Spanish”.
  • 114. Specify your language: find Click on next until you reach the one that you really need.
  • 115. Specify your language: find Click on next until you reach the one that you really need. The tag we want is noted as “Subtag” and, in this case, it is “es” for castilian Spanish.
  • 116. Include the tag in your HEAD For HTML files: • <html lang=”fr”> For XML files: • <html xml:lang="fr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ 1999/xhtml"> For HTML 5+XML 1.x polyglote files: • <html lang="fr" xml:lang="fr" xmlns="http:// www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • 117. Key recommendations for language versions Create a subdirectory for every version of each language If your positioning depends primarily on a single keyword, generate a subdomain for every new language Using Google Tools, adjust the geographic orientation of every section of your Web site to each country Use the new tagging for international Web sites Achieve localized popularity
  • 118. Optimizing video content for international searches Host it in YouTube Optimize the title and description Use closed captions or transcripts for international content (archives .sub .srt) Publish your video in different video platforms (Vimeo, Blip.tv, etc.) Use video sitemaps (thumbnail image, tags, description...) Use optimized URLs Keep your video size under control Build popularity for your video URL
  • 119. Optimizing video content for international searches
  • 120. Optimizing video content for international searches Fill in all the fields with optimized text, select the right categories, geolocation and date
  • 121. Optimizing video content for international searches http://www.afterdawn.com/guides/archive/subtitle_formats_explained.cfm
  • 122. Optimizing video content for international searches Since June 15th, automatic transcripts works for languages other than English http://www.afterdawn.com/guides/archive/subtitle_formats_explained.cfm
  • 123. DivXLand Media Subtitler 1 00:00:00,063 --> 00:00:05,081 One of the suggestions received during the live 120 seconds chapter 2 00:00:05,122 --> 00:00:09,311 was that we should record the process for creating a 120 seconds chapter .SRT
  • 124. Transcripts/closed captions .srt files 1 Order number in the sequence 00:00:00,063 --> 00:00:05,081 Time when the subtitle appears and disappears One of the suggestions received during the live 120 seconds chapter Subtitle text Separation white line 2 00:00:05,122 --> 00:00:09,311 was that we should record the process for creating a 120 seconds chapter Create a transcript .srt file for each language and upload them to YouTube
  • 129. Transcripts/closed captions .srt files: are they good for positioning?
  • 130. Transcripts/closed captions .srt files: are they good for positioning? Title and description only in English
  • 131. Transcripts/closed captions .srt files: are they good for positioning?
  • 132. Transcripts/closed captions .srt files: are they good for positioning? If you search for text in German that can only be found in the transcript file, the video is found. It works!!!
  • 133. Set the correct geographic target from Google Webmaster Tools Select Configuration > Geographic Target for the country you want to target
  • 134. Set the correct geographic target from Google Webmaster Tools If you have different versions in subdirectories or domains, add them as different sites to Google Webmaster Tools
  • 135. Set the correct geographic target from Google Webmaster Tools And from Configuration > Geographic target we set each subdomain or subdirectory to the correct country.
  • 136. SEMRush With SEMRush, we can query local versions of both Google and Bing to find keywords and pages in different countries.
  • 137. Google Trends: select the correct location In Google Insights we must filter geographic areas to correctly identify the seasonal patterns and the search trends in various countries.
  • 139. Google Trends In countries located in different hemispheres, the seasonal patterns are inverted
  • 141. Google Trends From Google Trends we can also find where certain keywords are more popular for searches
  • 143. Google Trends In Google Trends we must filter geographic areas to correctly identify the seasonal patterns and the search trends in various countries.
  • 145. Google Keyword Tool In Google Keyword Tool, we have to select the correct country and language combination
  • 147. Übersuggest Übersuggest lets you find popular searches in different countries
  • 148. How to check your positions in local versions of Google www.google.com.ar www.google.co.uk
  • 149. How to check your positions in local versions of Google www.google.com.ar Go to the local version of Google and select the default language for the country www.google.co.uk
  • 150. How to check your positions in local versions of Google www.google.com.ar
  • 151. How to check your positions in local versions of Google www.google.com.ar Enter your target location
  • 152. How to implement Google Analytics tracking code for international versions 1 visitor 3 visitors in GA
  • 153. How to implement Google Analytics tracking code for international versions 1 visitor Having different UA in different versions makes it easier to track local traffic, but we lose the global perspective (duplicate visitors, sessions, wrong referrers, etc.) 3 visitors in GA
  • 154. How to implement GA tracking for multiversion sites 1 visitor 1 visitor
  • 155. How to implement GA tracking for multiversion sites Using a unique UA, we have a better global understanding of a visitor’s referrals 1 visitor and behaviour. We can also configure profiles and filters to dig into the local 1 visitor
  • 156. Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
  • 157. Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
  • 158. Other search engines: Yandex Webmaster Tools
  • 161. Russian Keyword tool: Yandex Wordstat
  • 162. Bonus track: Baidu mini-tutorial
  • 163. Baidu: mini-tutorial From this link, we can access the Baidu products and services
  • 164. Baidu: mini-tutorial From this link, we can access the Baidu Webmaster Tools
  • 165. Baidu: mini-tutorial From this button, we can access the Baidu platform
  • 166. Baidu: mini-tutorial From this button, we can reach the register form for Baidu
  • 167. Baidu: mini-tutorial Mail address User Password Confirm password Complete captcha Once completed, click on this button to submit the form (fortunately, the captcha uses arabic figures)
  • 168. Baidu: mini-tutorial You will receive an email. Click on the link to authenticate your new user access.
  • 169. Baidu: mini-tutorial Administrator Tools Help Other services Once validated, we can access the Baidu Webmaster Tools and add them to our site
  • 170. Baidu: mini-tutorial From this link on the left, we can access the page where we can add our site by clicking on this button on the right.
  • 171. Baidu: mini-tutorial Fill in your domain and click on the button
  • 172. Baidu: mini-tutorial You will have to validate that you are the owner of your Web site by adding this meta tag in your Head section, just as we do in Google
  • 173. Baidu: mini-tutorial Once added, you will be able to access all the data and add it to Baidu Statistics (similar to Google Analytics)
  • 176. Fernando Maciá Domene CEO Human Level Communications
  • 177. Fernando Maciá Domene CEO Human Level Communications
  • 178. Fernando Maciá Domene CEO Human Level Communications Social profiles

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