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Iot presentation

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The Internet of things describes physical objects that are embedded with sensors, processing ability, software, and other technologies that connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet or other communications networks.

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INTERNET OF THINGS
NAME = HUMA AJMAL,
1
Content
WHAT IS IOT
IOT BACKGROUND
IOT COMPONENETS
IOT ARCHITECTURES
• centralized and decentralized
BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT)
• Hardware's
• Software's
IOT TECHNOLOGIES
IOT PROTOCOLS
WORKING OF IOT
• Communication Technologies in IOT
IOT SECTORS
• APPLICATIONS
IOT EMERGENCE IN 2021
CURRENT RESEARCH 2021
SPECIAL ISSUES
2
WHAT IS IOT
Sensors Software's Data Processing user interface
3
IOT DEFINITION
The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as a paradigm in which computer and
networking capabilities are embedded with each other to serve a meaningful
purpose. The Internet of Things refers to a new kind of world where almost all
the devices and appliances that we use are connected to a network(Pena-
Lopez et al, 2005).
We can use them collaboratively to achieve complex tasks that require a high
degree of intelligence.
IoT is not a single technology; it is a collection of various technologies that
work together.
4
Background of IoT
1999, Ashton's was the first mention of the internet of things, the idea of connected devices has been
around since the 1970s, under the monikers embedded internet and pervasive computing.
The first internet appliance, for example, was a Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University in the
early 1980s.
IoT evolved from M2M communication, Taking M2M to the next level, IoT is a sensor network of
billions of smart devices that connect people, systems and other applications to collect and share data.
As its foundation, M2M offers the connectivity that enables IoT.
The IOT 2008 was held at Zurich.Auto-ID Center focus on EPC-IOT, EPC is Electric Product Code, It’s a
family of coding schemes created as a low-cost method of tracking goods using RFID Technology,
5
IoT Components.
6

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Iot presentation

  • 1. INTERNET OF THINGS NAME = HUMA AJMAL, 1
  • 2. Content WHAT IS IOT IOT BACKGROUND IOT COMPONENETS IOT ARCHITECTURES • centralized and decentralized BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) • Hardware's • Software's IOT TECHNOLOGIES IOT PROTOCOLS WORKING OF IOT • Communication Technologies in IOT IOT SECTORS • APPLICATIONS IOT EMERGENCE IN 2021 CURRENT RESEARCH 2021 SPECIAL ISSUES 2
  • 3. WHAT IS IOT Sensors Software's Data Processing user interface 3
  • 4. IOT DEFINITION The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as a paradigm in which computer and networking capabilities are embedded with each other to serve a meaningful purpose. The Internet of Things refers to a new kind of world where almost all the devices and appliances that we use are connected to a network(Pena- Lopez et al, 2005). We can use them collaboratively to achieve complex tasks that require a high degree of intelligence. IoT is not a single technology; it is a collection of various technologies that work together. 4
  • 5. Background of IoT 1999, Ashton's was the first mention of the internet of things, the idea of connected devices has been around since the 1970s, under the monikers embedded internet and pervasive computing. The first internet appliance, for example, was a Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University in the early 1980s. IoT evolved from M2M communication, Taking M2M to the next level, IoT is a sensor network of billions of smart devices that connect people, systems and other applications to collect and share data. As its foundation, M2M offers the connectivity that enables IoT. The IOT 2008 was held at Zurich.Auto-ID Center focus on EPC-IOT, EPC is Electric Product Code, It’s a family of coding schemes created as a low-cost method of tracking goods using RFID Technology, 5
  • 7. IoT Architecture There is no single consensus on architecture for IoT, which is agreed universally. Different architectures have been proposed by different researchers. Like protocol architecture and system architecture Three- and Five-Layer Architectures. The most basic architecture is a three-layer architecture but I will discuss both as shown in the figure 7
  • 8. Three layer Architecture Perception layer: It is the physical layer, which includes the sensors for sensing and gathering information from the environment, it senses with the help of physical parameters and identifies smart objects from the surrounding. Network layer: As its name suggests it deals with the connectivity of the smart devices and makes a network. It is also used for transmitting and processing data. Application layer: It provides application-specific services to the users and also reports to the end-users.it communicates with the network layer for accessing data and providing services for the third parties or the owner of the data. It defines various applications in which the Internet of Things can be used, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and smart health. 8
  • 9. Five layer Architecture Now we will discuss Five-layer architecture The perception and application layer have the same role as discussed in the three-layer architecture so let’s see the remaining layers. Transport layer: It uses the wireless network technology 4G, LAN, Bluetooth, RFID, NFC, to transfer data from the perception layer to the transport layer and vice versa. Processing layer: The processing layer is also called middleware. The processing layer analyzes, processes a large amount of data coming from the transport layer, and reduces the data volume before storing it in the database. This layer is in contact with lower layers and provides services to them, different technologies included in this layer are cloud computing and big data modules. Business Layer: Business owners deduce information from the data and do analysis on the past and present data to plan accurately for the future. Simple is that it manages the IoT system and competes for more and more data for decision-making. it includes business and profit models, user privacy, and applications 9
  • 11. Centralized Architecture CLOUD-BASED ARCHITECTURE: IoT generates a large amount of data and that is a big challenge for storage engineers to store that data. Meeting this challenge, however, has pushed forward storage technology. So here we are talking about cloud computing which is in a symbiotic relationship with IoT. so in some architectures the processing of data is done in a large centralized fashion by cloud computing. In cloud computing architecture the cloud computer layer lies between applications and networks, it provides great scalability, flexibility, and offers services such as core infrastructure, storage, platform, software. Cloud computing was the first choice of the developers because of its flexibility(data mining, machine learning tools, software plus storage tools, visualization tools) (Pallavi Sethi and Smruti R. Sarangi, 2016). So because of that privacy and security issues, many risks and challenges have been observed which need to be resolved, for achieving this goal what is discussed in the 2021 conference is privacy as well as a security concern, issues, and open challenges. 11
  • 12. Cloud-based IoT survey Cloud computing security issue: survey related to cloud-based IoT security in each layer and presents some solutions for it in ( 2021 conference ) 12
  • 13. Decentralized Architecture Finally, it is important to note that cloud IoT storage innovation has not been halted. new technologies are constantly being developed, and some of them have arisen as a direct result of the demands of the IoT network. The present interest in edge computing and storage is a fantastic example of this(Nahla Davis, 2021) With the advent of edge IoT layers, systems may now handle and analyze data as close to the source as possible. Edge has now become the industry standard for 5th Generation mobile networks (5G), allowing systems to connect to more devices with less latency than current 4G standards. All of the IoT network procedures take place at the edge. As a result, time and resources are saved, and real-time reflexes and performance are increased. 13
  • 14. TWO BUILDING BLOCKS OF IOT There are two basic building blocks in internet of things 1. HARDWARE & 2. SOFTWARE HARDWARE: IOT hardware platforms are chosen accordingly as per the needs of IoT developers for product development or depending on the chosen applications and services. But let’s discuss generally IOT hardware: The devices that respond and have the capabilities to capture data, follow the instructions can be considered as the IoT Hardware. The following fall into such categories where they not only collect data but also respond to instructions based on the processed data 14
  • 15. Building Blocks of IoT Hardware Here, we will discuss some internet of Things Hardware: The hardware utilized in IoT systems includes • Devices for a remote dashboard, • Devices for control • Servers • Routing or bridge device • Sensors and Actutors 15
  • 16. DEVICES SENSORS & ACTUTORS: The sensor gather data from the physical environment while actuators makes physical changes to the product Here is a list of some of the measurement devices used in IoT: 16
  • 17. Hardware platform for IOT Some of the popular and commonly used hardware platforms are • Raspberry Pi, • Arduino, • Beagle Board, • Adafruit, • Cloudbit, • Samsung Artik, • Pinoccio, • Particle Photon etc. 17
  • 18. SOFTWARE The set of programs that help you get the activities done like the data collection, processing, storage, and evaluating instructions based on the processed data from the IoT Software. Operating Systems, firmware, applications, middleware are some of the examples that fall into this category. Data Collection Device Integration Real-Time Analytics Application and process Extension 18
  • 19. DIFFERENT IOT Operating systems IoT software's addresses its key areas of networking and action through platforms , embedded systems , partner systems, and middleware Some IoT operating system are • RIOT OS • LiteOS • Tiney OS • Contiki Os 19
  • 21. IOT Protocols Software platforms Supported hardware platforms Protocols used Estimated cost Visualization ArtikCloud Raspberry Pi, Arduino, Samsung ARTIK WebSocket, HTTP, COAP, MQTT Free & paid accounts Mobile apps., Third party apps., Dashboard Axeda Raspberry Pi, Arduino MQTT, AMMP, REST, SOAP Free & paid accounts Home automation Bugswarm Arduino HTTP Free & paid accounts Smart irrigation Carriots Raspberry Pi, Arduino MQTT, HTTP Free & paid accounts Dashboard, Mobile apps Cayenne Raspberry Pi COAP, MQTT Free & paid accounts Dashboard, Mobile apps Kaa Raspberry Pi, Intel Edison, Econais, LeafLabs, BeagleBone, Texas Instruments XMPP, HTTP, COAP, MQTT Open source Dashboard, Mobile apps Leylan Arduino Yun, Netduino, Raspberry Pi, Spark Core, Texas Instruments OAuth 2.0, MQTT, HTTP Open source Web apps., Third party apps Sensorcloud Arduino HTTP Paid accounts Home automation Smartliving Raspberry Pi, Arduino, Intel Edison, Stomp, MQTT, HTTP Open source Mobile apps Temboo Arduino, Samsung Artik, Texas Instruments HTTP, COAP, MQTT Free & paid accounts Dashboard, Mobile apps ThingBox Raspberry Pi MQTT, HTTP Open source Emoncms ThingSpeak Raspberry Pi, Arduino HTTP, MQTT Open source Dashboard, Mobile apps ThingSquare Raspberry Pi, Arduino HTTP Open source Home automation, Social IoT Ubidots Raspberry Pi, Arduino Spark Core, Adafruit FONA UDP, HTTP, COAP, MQTT Free & paid accounts Dashboard Wyliodrin Raspberry Pi, Arduino, Intel Galileo & Edison, BeagleBone HTTP, MQTT Free & paid accounts Dashboard, Mobile apps 21
  • 23. IoT SECTORS Some of the main sectors in IOT Industry/Area Use Home Control of heating,lights,door locks etc Health medical Remote Patient Monitoring etc Fitness and wellness Tacking heart rate and Training plans Factory and Industry Production line control ,asset tracking etc Agriculture Automatic watering,soil monitoring etc Cars and Roads – Connected cars, parking spaces, Smart Cities Traffic management, parking space tracking and availability 23
  • 24. SOME IoT APPLICATIONS Whenever we think of IoT systems, the most important and efficient application that stands out every time is Smart Home ranking as highest IOT application on all channels. The number of people searching for smart homes increases every month with about 60,000 people and increasing. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_of_things/internet_of_things_tutorial.pdf 24
  • 25. WEARABLES Just like smart homes, wearables remain a hot topic too among potential IOT applications. Every year, consumers all across the globe await the release of Apple’ smartwatch. 25
  • 26. SMART GRIDS Smart grids is another area of application that stands out. A smart grid basically promises to extract information on the behaviors of consumers and electricity suppliers in an automated fashion in order to improve the efficiency, economics, and reliability of electricity distribution. 26
  • 27. SMART FARMING Smart farming is an often overlooked IoT application. However, because the number of farming operations is usually remote and the large number of livestock that farmers work on, all of this can be monitored by the Internet of Things and can also revolutionize the way farmers work. 27
  • 28. SMART SUPPLYCHAIN Supply chains have already been getting smarter for a couple of years. Offering solutions to problems like tracking of goods while they are on the road or in transit, or helping suppliers exchange inventory information are some of the popular offerings. 28
  • 29. Emerging IOT Technologies 2021 New Capabilities These emerging technologies are creating all sorts of new capabilities for IOT devices and applications, from battery-free sensors to 5G network slicing. They aren’t just things of the future: It enable IOT sensors that don’t require batteries and can figure out precise body location New technologies are making it possible to run all sorts of applications and machine learning algorithms on tiny, low-power devices. https://www.crn.com/news/internet-of-things/5-emerging-iot-technologies-you-need-to-know-in-2021?itc=refresh 29
  • 30. Battery Free Sensors A Santa Clara, Calif.-based startup called Everactive is working on such an innovation with its Eversensor, which contains a variety of sensor types and generates power form a mix of sources, including Indoor solar, vibration and thermal The company said its Eversensors can last for 20 years without ever needing routine maintenance. https://everactive.com/ 30
  • 31. Containers For MCU Devices Container technology is becoming increasingly important for running applications in IoT devices, but one area that hasn’t received as much attention is containers for microcontroller units, tiny, low-power chips that enable tens of millions of IoT devices, from connected washer machines to heat sensors in oil refineries. https://www.nubix.io/ vendor called Nubix has developed a solution for deploying application containers to MCU devices that have real-time operating systems. 31
  • 32. TinyML TinyML can enable sensors with predictive maintenance capabilities for manufacturing equipment It can also enable health care devices to better protect patient data by keeping the data analysis on device. Does all machine learning have to happen in the cloud, or even in nearby edge gateways? What if such a workload could run on the tiny chips that make so many IoT devices possible in the first place? 32
  • 33. cities will be able to automate, remotely manage, and collect data through things like visitor kiosks, video camera surveillance systems, bike rental stations, and taxis. Smart Cities https://www.smartcitypk.com/ 33
  • 34. Deep Learning in Security of Internet of Things 34
  • 35. An IoT implementation to ATM safety system 35
  • 36. A Survey on the Integration of Blockchain With IoT to Enhance Performance and Eliminate Challenges 36
  • 37. Rain Water Harvesting for Smart Water Management Using IoT 37
  • 38. A Blockchain Based Secure IoT Solution for Water Quality Management 38
  • 39. SPECIAL ISSUES Special issue on AI and Blockchain powered IoT sustainable computing Special issue on Cloud/Fog/Edge-enabled Big Data Intelligence for IoE Special issue on When Blockchain Meets 5/6G – Enabling Endogenously Secure IoT 39
  • 40. References https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/6/2152/pdf https://www.jigsawacademy.com/4-layers-of-the-internet-of-things/ https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2017/9324035.pdf https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9397146 https://www.enterprisestorageforum.com/cloud/developments-in-cloud-storage-for-iot-data/ https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S1319157816300799?token=E9DC51BE7D715D2A07F7C4CE72C3 CB7EEF0BB968D8B77A8B19E4165B7B2E19CB31906EA83789998F0FBFC9CD327D0348&originRegion=eu- west-1&originCreation=20211205185453 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9520818 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9544638 L. Atzori, A. Iera, and G. Morabito, “SIoT: giving a social structure to the internet of things,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1193–1195, 2011 40
  • 41. 41

Editor's Notes

  1. IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices. The Internet of Things is a broad term used to describe devices, sensors, and everyday items which are not ordinarily considered to be computers but which have Internet connectivity and computing capability. These objects include: consumer goods, cars and trucks, industrial components, wearable health monitors, and collections of devices working together to create concepts such as “smart cities” and “smart homes”. These objects collect data from their surroundings which are then transmitted and remotely analyzed to create new insights, deliver services, and control other items. It is projected that there will be 100 billion connected IoT devices by 2025. The potential for tremendous growth, innovation, applications, and services is a testament to the open nature of the Internet’s architecture and design, which does not place limits on the kinds of devices or services that can connect to it. There remain significant challenges associated with the IoT which must be addressed in order for technology to reach its full potential. These challenges include the issues of: security, privacy, interoperability, and standards, as well as regulatory and rights issues, and the readiness of emerging economies to adopt it.
  2. Sensors and Actuators: These are the devices that enables interaction with the physical world. They collect data from the surrounding environment and deliver it to the data processing unit. Some of the commonly used sensors are Temperature sensors, Pressure sensors, Light sensors, Ultrasonic sensors etc. Sensors are chosen accordingly as per the needs of various applications. • Connectivity/Gateways: Data collected by the above devices are sent to a cloud infra structure for storage and processing. For this the devices make use of diferent technologies such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, Wi-Fi, Z-Wave, Cellular Networks, NFC, Lora WAN etc. and diferent protocols such as MQTT, AMQP, DDS, CoAP etc. • Data Processing: Once the collected data gets into the cloud, cloud analytic software processes the data using various tools and techniques and converts it into useful insights. Later it sends the necessary information to the users as required. User Interface: This information is made available to the end user in diferent ways such as triggering alarms or notifcation through texts or emails. Figure 2 represents these basic elements.
  3. Depending upon different application areas of Internet of Things, it works accordingly as per it has been designed/developed. But it has not a standard defined architecture of working which is strictly followed universally. The architecture of IoT depends upon its functionality and implementation in different sectors
  4. Perception layer: This is the lowest layer which recognizes the physical properties of IoT devices. It is also known as the sensor layer. It captures data from the surrounding environment with the help of different sensors and actuators. Later it gathers and process these data and forwards it to the network layer. In case of local and short-range networks, it also deals with IoT node collaborations. Network Layer: It acts as a bridge between the perception layer and network layer. It routes the data captured by previous layer to different devices, hubs or servers over the internet using any medium for transmission i.e., wired or wireless [5]. This layer includes routing devices, gateways, switches, different cloud computing platforms etc. Application layer: This layer delivers the application specific services to the end user, which guarantees the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the data
  5. Cisco follows a seven-layer IoT reference architecture Layer one consists of the physical devices and device controllers for sending and receiving information, analog to digital conversion, generating data and controlling devices. Layer two is the connectivity layer which deals with reliable and timely information delivery across devices and networks, routing and switching, implementation of various protocols and translations, network analytics and security. Layer three is the fog/edge computing layer which performs data aggregation, fltering, and cleanup, packet analysis and works on network and data level analytics. Layer four is the data accumulation layer which reduces data through fltering and provides persistent storage of data. Layer five is the data abstraction layer which creates schemas and views of data as needed by various applications by combining, fltering and reformatting data according to the client applications. Layer six is the application layer where the information interpretation occurs and deals with controlling applications, reporting, and generating business intelligence analytics Final layer is the collaboration and process layer which deals with people and business process that transcends multiple applications. Recently Cisco has introduced an IoT security architecture that delivers enhanced visibility across various IoT and operational technology platforms.
  6. i. Thing “Thing” in IOT is the asset that you want to control or monitor or measure, that is, observe closely. In many IoT products, the “thing” gets fully incorporated into a smart device. For example, think of products like a smart refrigerator or an automatic vehicle. These products control and monitor themselves. There are sometimes many other applications where the thing stands as an alone device, and a separate product is connected to ensure it possesses smart capabilities. ii. Data Acquisition Module The data acquisition module focuses on acquiring physical signals from the thing which is being observed or monitored and converting them into digital signals that can be manipulated or interpreted by a computer. This is the hardware component of an IOT system that contains all the sensors that help in acquiring real-world signals such as temperature, pressure, density, motion, light, vibration, etc. The type and number of sensors you need depend on your application. This module also includes the necessary hardware to convert the incoming sensor signal into digital information for the computer to use it. This includes conditioning of incoming signal, removing noise, analog-to-digital conversion, interpretation, and scaling. iii. Data Processing Module The third building block of the IoT device is the data processing module. This is the actual “computer” and the main unit that processes the data performs operations such as local analytics, stores data locally, and performs some other computing operations. iv. Communication Module The last building block of IOT hardware is the communications module. This is the part that enables communications with your Cloud Platform, and with 3rd party systems either locally or in the Cloud.
  7. 1.Chips: This is much a broader classification that contains all the electrical and electronic appliances such as microcontrollers, chips, integrated circuits, radio frequency systems, etc. 2. Sensors: The most important hardware in IoT might be its sensors. These devices consist of energy modules, power management modules, RF modules, and sensing modules. RF modules manage communications through their signal processing, WiFi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, radio transceiver, duplexer, and BAW. The sensing module manages sensing through assorted active and passive measurement devices.[ Article: Learn IoT Device] 3. Actuators: These devices provide the motion to a data collection system such as the solenoids, comb drives, etc to fetch details based on movements. 4. Standard devices: Standard devices constitute the generally used devices such as Tablets, Smartphones, Switches, Routers and etc. Each of these devices has its own set of settings that allow them to collect data.  [Article: Learn Latest Top 10 Real-World IoT Applications]
  8. 1. Data Collection: This step involves the core of the data collection aspects ranging from sensing the data, filtering it, measuring it, aggregating it, and at the end managing the security of the collected data. Data collection can be performed from various sources, and once done is distributed over devices and then to a central data repository. 2. Device Integration: This ensures that all components within the IoT system are all well integrated. It manages all the limitations, protocols, and applications that are handled properly to ensure proper communication amongst the devices. 3. Real-Time Analytics: Over the collected data and the processing that is done over this data, there can be automated tasks that could run and analyze this data for specific patterns. 4. Application and Process Extension: This ensures that the data collection process can be accentuated to get the most of it, from all possible sources. These are more like the enhancers over the existing data collection infrastructure.
  9. RFID: RFID belongs to a group of technologies called Automatic Identifcation and Data Capture (AIDC) which automatically identifes and collects data from objects and enters it into pcs without human intervention. WSN:These are the key enablers of IoT paradigm, and they comprise large number of self-confgured sensor nodes with varying topologies. They consume very little power and mostly are battery or solar power operated NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION:IT Is also a short-range wireless technology that allows two electronic devices to communicate within 4 cm and mostly used for contactless payments. It can also transfer videos, photos, and contacts information between two NFC enabled gadgets. Some advantages of NFC over Bluetooth are: connection between two NFC devices are automatically created when the devices are in close proximity, hence no manual confguration is needed among devices and it is more secured since it have a shorter range and is faster ZIGBEE:It is a wireless networking protocol used for devices requiring longer battery life and lower data rates like Bluetooth technology. It is commonly used for industrial settings, automation systems, medical devices, and remote-control applications. BLUETOOTH: It is a short-range wireless communication technology for exchanging data between fxed and mobile devices. It provides lower cost solutions for communication by creating an adhoc mobile personal area network supporting continuous streaming data applications.
  10. RFID:RFID belongs to a group of technologies called Automatic Identifcation and Data Capture (AIDC) which automatically identifes and collects data from objects and enters it into pcs without human intervention. WSN:These are the key enablers of IoT paradigm, and they comprise large number of self-confgured sensor nodes with varying topologies. They consume very little power and mostly are battery or solar power operated NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION:IT Is also a short-range wireless technology that allows two electronic devices to communicate within 4 cm and mostly used for contactless payments. It can also transfer videos, photos, and contacts information between two NFC enabled gadgets. Some advantages of NFC over Bluetooth are: connection between two NFC devices are automatically created when the devices are in close proximity, hence no manual confguration is needed among devices and it is more secured since it have a shorter range and is faster INTERNET PROTOCOLS: ZIGBEE:It is a wireless networking protocol used for devices requiring longer battery life and lower data rates like Bluetooth technology. It is commonly used for industrial settings, automation systems, medical devices, and remote-control applications. BLUETOOTH: It is a short-range wireless communication technology for exchanging data between fxed and mobile devices. It provides lower cost solutions for communication by creating an adhoc mobile personal area network supporting continuous streaming data applications.
  11.  The emergence of blockchain opened the door to solve some challenges related to IoT networks. Blockchain characteristics such as security, transparency, reliability, and traceability make it the perfect candidate to improve IoT systems, solve their problems, and support their future expansion. This paper demonstrates the major challenges facing IoT systems and blockchain's proposed role in solving them. It also evaluates the position of current researches in the field of merging blockchain with IoT networks and the latest implementation stages Finally, this research proposes an architectural design to integrate IoT with blockchain in two layers using dew and cloudlet computing. Our aim is to benefit from blockchain features and services to guarantee a decentralized data storage and processing and address security and anonymity challenges and achieve transparency and efficient authentication service. Blockchain uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to generate a 160-bit hash of public key address [40] for around 1.46×1048 IoT devices, which drastically reduces the address collision probability and hence is secure enough to provide a Global Unique Identifier (GUID). Also, assigning an address to an IoT device using blockchain does not require any registration or uniqueness verification [9]. In addition to enhancing security, blockchain eliminates the need for a central authority, therefore, it will eliminate the need for the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) in charge of global allocation of IPv6 and IPv4 addresses. Lastly, blockchain enhances scalability in securing IoT devices since it provides 4.3 billion addresses more than IPv6 which is a more scalable solution for IoT compared to IPv6 
  12. water management model will help the people facing problem in summer i.e., lack of water in cities and town as well as the overflow of rain water during rainy seasons by using the proposed device. Hence, the rainwater can be harvested for establishing a smart management by using IoT.
  13. AI and blockchain powered sustainable architectures for IoT applications - Theoretical aspects of AI and blockchain converged sustainable IoT Energy-efficient communication protocols for IoT systems powered by AI and blockchain - Security and privacy of sustainable computing for IoT applications - Case studies of sustainable Computing for emerging IoT applications powered by AI and blockchain - Blockchain for IoT sustainable computing security and privacy