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# Biology SPM paper 3 experiment

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Paper 3 SPM

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### Biology SPM paper 3 experiment

1. 1. TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF SUCROSE SOLUTION WHICH IS ISOTONIC TO THE CELL SAP OF POTATO STRIP Problem statement What is the concentration of the sucrose solution that will maintain the length of potato strip? Hypothesis As the sucrose solution reach certain concentration (isotonic to the cell sap),there is no changes in the length of potato strip Variables MV : the concentration of the sucrose solution RV : change in length of potato strip FV : initial length of potato strip Apparatus & material Cork borer, test tubes, stopwatch, ruler, potatoes, various concentration of sucrose solution, filter paper Procedure: 1.Six test tube are labelled P,Q,R,S,T and U 2.Test tube P is filled with 10ml distilled water, test tube Q is filled with 10ml sucrose solution O.1M,test tube R is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.2M,test tube S is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.3M,test tube T is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.4M and test tubes U is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.5M 3.The cork borer is pushed into the potato and the potato strip is obtained by pushing it out of the cork borer using a glass rod 4.The potato strips are cut to the exact length of 5 cm. 5.One potato cylinder is placed in each labeled test tubes for 30 minutes. 6.After 30minutes,the potato strips are removed from the test tube and gently wiped with filter paper 7.The final length of the potato strips are measured and record using a ruler 8.The final length of the potato strips are recorded in a result table 9. A graph pf the concentration of sucrose solution against the change in the length is plotted Presentation Test tube Concentration of sucrose solution(M) Length Initial(cm) Final(cm) Change in length(cm)
2. 2. P 0 5 Q 0.1 5 R 0.2 5 S 0.3 5 T 0.4 5 U 0.5 5 TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF ALBUMEN CONCETRATION ON THE ENZYME PEPSIN REACTION Problem statement What is the effect of different albumen concentration on the rate of enzyme reaction? Hypothesis The higher the albumen concentration,the higher the rate of enzyme reaction Variables MV : the concentration of albumen solution RV : rate of enzyme reaction CV : the volume of albumen solution Apparatus and Materials Albumen solution (1%,2%,3%,4%),1% pepsin solution, pipette/measuring cylinder, HCL, water bath, thermometer, stopwatch Procedure 1. 5ml of 1% albumen solution is poured into a test tube using a pipette.The test tube is labeled P. 2. 1 ml of HCL acid is poured into the same test tube using another pipette 3. 1 ml of 5% pepsin is poured into the same test tube using another pipette.The mixture is shaken well. 4. The test tube is placed in the beaker containing 300 ml of water at 37oC.A thermometer is placed in the beaker to check the temperature. 5. The stopwatch is started 6. The mixture is observed and the time taken for the solution to turn colourless is taken using a stopwatch and recorded in a table. 7. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated twice to get an average result 8. Steps 1 to 7 are repeated, replacing the 1% albumen solution with 2%,3% and 4% albumen solution respectively. 9. All data are recorded in a table and a graph of the rate of enzme reaction against the albumen concentrated is plotted Presentation of data
3. 3. Concentration of albumen solution (%) Time taken for the mixture to turn colourless (min) The rate of enzyme reaction (min-1 )1 2 3 average 1 2 3 4 TO DETERMINE THE ENERGY CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE OF FOOD Problem statement Does the final water temperature reading for cashew nut is higher than peanut and white bread? Hypothesis The final temperature reading/energy value for cashew is higher than peanut and white bread Variables MV : type of food RV : the energy content CV : volume of distilled water Materials and apparatus Cashew nut, peanut, white bread, distilled water, boiling tubes, plasticine, pin, thermometer, Bunsen burner and wire gauze, stopwatch, retort stand and clamp Procedure 1. Weigh the white bread and record its weight 2. Fill a boiling tube with 20ml distilled water 3. Clamp the boiling tube to the retort stand 4. Record the initial temperature of the water in the boiling tube 5. Spike the white bread firmly at the end of the pin which is mounted on some plasticine 6. Ignite the white bread by holding it in the flame of a bunsen burner.then, immediately place it beneath the boiling tube to heat the water 7. Stir the water gently with the thermometer 8. Record the initial temperature, that is the highest temperature reached as soon as the peanut has stopped burning using thermometer. 9. Calculate the energy value of the peanut using the formula below [show energy value
4. 4. formula] 10. Tabulate the results in table below 11. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated by using different food sample such as peanut and cashew nut Presentation of data Food sample Temperature 0 C Energy valueInitial Final Increase in temperature White bread Peanut Cashew nut TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE OF FRUIT JUICES Problem statement What is the sample of fruit juices that contains a higher concentration of vitamin C? Hypothesis Guava juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to orange Juice and pineapple juice Variables MV : type of fruit juice RV : concentration of vitamin C CV : volume of DCPIP solution Apparatus and materials Boiling tube, a syringe,a syringe with needles ,beaker, gauze cloth and a knife ,DCPIP solution,0.1% ascorbic acid solution .freshly prepared guava juice, pineapple juice and orange juice Procedure 1. Label four boiling tube as A, B, C, and D 2. Place 1ml of DCPIP solution in each boiling tube 3. Fill a syringe with 5ml of ascorbic acid solution 4. Immerse the needle of the syringe in the DCPIP solution drop-by-drop
5. 5. 5. Do not shake the tube vigorously 6. Record the volume of ascorbic acid solution used to turn the DCPIP solution colourless using a syringe 7. Repeat steps 22 to 7 using Lime Juice, pineapple juice and papaya juice 8. Calculate the percentage and concentration of vitamin C in these three types of fruit juice using the formula below [ shows percentage of vitamin C and Concentration of vitamin C formula] Presentation of data Solution Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourize 1ml of DCPIP solution (ml) Percentage of vitamin C In fruit juice (%) Vitamin C concentration in fruit juice (mg/cm) TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Problem statement What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis? Hypothesis The higher the light intensity ,the higher the rate of photosynthesis until it reaches limiting value Variables MV : light intensity RV : rate of photosynthesis CV : The temperature Apparatus and materials Hydrilla Sp.,0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, beaker, thermometer, test
6. 6. tube,stopwatch,60W electric bulb , measuring cylinder , retort stand, paper clip, metre ruler Procedure 1. A 5cm sprig is cut from a hydrilla sp. Plant using a sharp scalpel 2. The plant is placed with the cut end facing upwards 3. A paper clip is used to weight down the other end of the hydrilla sp. Sprig 4. 10ml of 0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is poured in a boiling tube 5. The boiling tube with plant is placed in a water bath with the temperature maintained at 280C 6. A 60watt bulb is placed at a distance of 50cm from the plant 7. When the rate of bubbles given out is constant ,the number of bubbles released for 5 minutes is recorded using a stopwatch 8. The steps are repeated by placing the apparatus at distance 40cm,30cm,20cm and 10cm from the light source. 9. The results are recorded and the rate of photosynthesis is calculated by using a formula:[rate of photosynthesis formula] Presentation of data Distance of light source (cm) Number of bubbles released in 5 minutes Rate of photosynthesis (number of bubble /minute) 50 40 30 20 10 TO INVESTIGATE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST Problem statement What is the effect of temperature on the rate anaerobic respiration in yeast? Hypothesis The increase the temperature,the increase the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast
7. 7. Variables MV : temperature RV : the rate of anaerobic respiration CV : volume/concentration of yeast Apparatus and materials Yeast solution, glucose solution, coloured liquid, paraffin oil, manometer tube, measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand Procedure 1.Filled the boiling tube with 15 ml yeast suspension. 2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution 3. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil 4. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube, rubber tubing and the manometer 5. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand 6. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a marker pen 7. Then, placed the boiling tube in water bath at 200C 8. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after 10 minutes) 9. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler 10. Repeat the experiment by placing the boiling tube in water baths at 300C, 400C and 500C 11. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air-tight 12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula 13. The results are tabulated in a table Presentation of data Temperature The height of coloured liquid in manometer(cm) Rate of anaerobic in yeast (cm/min) (C0 ) initial final 20 30 40 50
8. 8. THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST Problem statement What is the effect of concentration of glucose on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast? Hypothesis The higher the concentration of glucose the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast Variables MV : concentration of glucose RV : The rate of anaerobic respiration CV : Concentration of yeast solution Apparatus and materials Yeast solution, glucose solution, Vaseline, coloured liquid, paraffin oil, manometer tube, measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand Procedure 1. Filled the boiling tube with yeast suspension. 2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution 3. Glucose solution is heated to remove dissolved oxygen. The solution is left to cool 4. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil 5. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube, rubber tubing and the manometer 6. Vaseline is used to make sure all the joints is airtight 7. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand 8. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a marker pen 9. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after 10 minutes) 10. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler 11. Repeat the experiment by 10% and 30% glucose solution 12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula 13.The results are tabulated in a table Presentation of data
9. 9. Concentration of glucose (%) The height of coloured liquid in the manometer (cm) Rate of anaerobic respiration(cm/min) initial final 5 10 20 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF TOTAL SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME(TSA/V) RATIO TOWARDS THE RATE OF DIFFUSION OF SUBTANCES BY USING POTATO Problem statement How does the TSA/V ration effect the rate of diffusion of the substance? Hypothesis As the TSA/V ratio increases the rate of diffusion of the substances increases Variables MV : Total surface area per volume RV : rate of diffusion CV : concentration of coloured water Apparatus and materials Coloured water, potato, filter paper, knife, blade, white tiles, forceps, stopwatch, grided transparency sheet, beaker Procedure 1. Potato is cut into cubes which is 1 , 8 , 27 , and 64 2. Each potato cubes is placed in a beaker containing coloured water for 20minutes 3. After 20minutes the potato cubes are cut into two halves 4. The outer surface of the potato cubes are dried using filter paper 5. The transparency sheet is placed on the top of cut surface 6. The area that is stained red is drawn and shaded on the gridded transparency 7. Coloured area in each potato cubes is measured by using gridded transparency 8. The percentage of coloured area in each potato cube is calculated and recorded 9. Calculated and recorded the rate of diffusion using a formula Presentation of data
10. 10. Size of cubes(cm3 ) Percentage of coloured area (%) Rate of diffusion of potato cube (%/min) 1 8 27 64 TO DETERMINE WETHER THE NUMBER OF LEAVES EFFECTING THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS Problem statement Does number of leaves effect the rate of transpiration? Hypothesis The higher the number of leaves,the higher the rate of photosynthesis Variables MV : number of leaves RV : rate of transpiration CV : air movement Apparatus and materials Plant shoot with leaves, water, photometer (or capillary tube, ruler, rubber tube),stopwatch, light bulb, beaker Procedure 1. A leafy shoot is chosen from a plant. The shoot is cut and is immersed immediately into a basin of water 2. The shoot is cut 1cm from the bottom of the stem under water. The leaves are removed from the shoot and 8 leaves is left behind 3. The cut end of the stem is inserted carefully into the rubber tubing of the photometer under water 4. The apparatus is then set up as shown in diagram .the end of the tube is immersed in a beaker of water 5. The leaves and the apparatus are wiped dry with a cloth 6. Vaseline is used to ensure no water leakage and the apparatus is air tight 7. An air bubble is introduced in the tube 8. The photometer then placed in an enclosed room with no air movement
11. 11. 9. The shoot is allowed a few minutes to reach a steady state before any readings is taken 10. The stopwatch is activated and the time taken for air bubble travel10cm distance is recorded 11. The experiment is repeated to obtain two more reading 12. Steps 1 to 11 are repeated by using difference shoot with difference number of leaves 6, 4, 2 and 0. 13. The time taken for air bubble to travel for each shoot is recorded in the following table using stopwatch 14. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using formula Presentation of data Number of leaves Time taken (min) Rate of transpiration(cm/min) 0 2 4 6 8 TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement Is the light increasing the rate of transpiration of a plant? Hypothesis The higher the light intensity,the higher the rate of transpiration Variables MV : distance light sources RV : rate of transpiration CV : temperature Apparatus and materials Photometer, stopwatch, knife, beaker, fluorescent lamp, meter ruler, balsam plant, Vaseline, water, tissue Procedure 1. A suitable balsam plant is selected and is cut using a sharp knife. The cut end is immediately immersed in a beaker filled with distilled water
12. 12. 2. The cut plant is then fixed onto a photometer and the joint between the plant and the photometer are sealed using Vaseline to make the airtight 3. The laboratory curtains and doors are pulled and closed so that outside lightning will not affect the outcome of experiment 4. A 40W fluorescent lamp is set 30cm away from the edge of the photometer with a meter ruler placed to measure the distance 5. The air bubble in photometer is set to 0cm.the lamp is switched on and the stopwatch is started when the air bubble cross X mark. 6. The movement of air bubble is observed and the stopwatch is stopped when the bubble reaches Y mark that is 10cm 7. Record the time taken into a table using stopwatch 8. Step 4 to 7 are repeated ,with the distance of the lamp are put at 40cm,50cm,60cm away from the photometer. 9. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using a formula 10. All the findings are recorded In a table Presentation of data Distance of lamp from the edge of photometer (cm) Time taken for the air bubble to travel from X to Y (s) Rate of transpiration (cm/second) 0 40 50 60 TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement What are the effect of the different speed of air movement on the rate of transpiration? Hypothesis As the speed of the air movement increases, the rate of transpiration increases. Variables MV : speed of air movement RV : Rate of transpiration CV : the temperature Apparatus and materials
13. 13. Capillary tube, retort stand, 50ml beaker, basin, scalpel, rubber tubing, tissue paper, Vaseline, marker pen and stopwatch, ruler, fan, water and plant shoot Procedure 1. The leafy shoot is immersed In the water and cut using a sharp scalpel 2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water. The apparatus is filled with water. The leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing 3. Steps 1-2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubbles are trapped in the apparatus 4. A finger is placed over the open the end of the capillary tube. The apparatus is removed from the basin 5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before removing the finger from the tube 6. The water is dried from the surface of the leaves of the shoot using a tissue paper. Some Vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make the apparatus airtight 7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir .the rubber tubing is squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube .the capillary tube is placed in water 8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand. A marker pen is used to mark two points, X and Y at a distance of 5 cm apart 9. The photometer is placed under the table fan with speed 1 .record the time taken (in minutes) for the air bubble to move from point X to point Y using stopwatch 10. Repeat the experiment twice 11. To reset the photometer, squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into the beaker of water 12. The above step is repeated to get three readings with the same shoot in under water a an with speed 2 and respectively 13.The average rate of the rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table using formula Presentation of data Speed of fan Time taken for the air bubble to move from point X to Y (minutes) Rate of transpiration (cm/min) First reading Second reading Third reading average Speed 1 Speed 2 Speed 3
14. 14. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement Does the temperature affect the rate of transpiration of a plant? Hypothesis The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of transpiration of a plant Variables MV : temperature RV : the rate of transpiration CV : air movement Apparatus and materials Photometer, stopwatch, cutter, beaker, meter ruler, a basin of water, marker, a leafy shoot, water, vaseline, dry cloth, thermometer, transparent frame Procedure 1. The leafy shoot is immersed in the water and cut using a sharp scalpel 2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water. The apparatus is filled with water. The leafy shoot is inserted into the rubbing tubing. 3. Steps 1 and 2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubbles are trapped in the apparatus 4. A finger is placed over the open end of the capillary tube. The apparatus is removed from the basin 5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before removing the finger from the tube 6. The water is dried from the surfaces of the leaves of the shoot using tissue paper. Some Vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make it airtight 7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir. The rubber tubing is squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube. The capillary tube is placed in water 8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand. A marker pen is used to mark two points ,X and at a distance 5cm apart 9. The non-transparent frame is used to cover the leafy shoot and of the photometer is placed in the shady place at 300C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded using stopwatch 10. Record the time taken (in minutes)for the air bubble to move from X to Y using stopwatch 11. To reset the photometer, squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into
15. 15. the beaker of water 12. The above step is repeated to get the three readings with the same shoot with the transparent frame to cover the leaf shoot and photometer is placed under the sun at 330C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded using stopwatch 13. The rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table by using formula Presentation of data temperature Time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y (minute) Rate of transpiration(cms- 1 )1 2 3 average Shady place 300 C Under the sun 330 C TO DETERMINE THE URINE VOLUME RELEASED BY A STUDENT WHO DRINKS DIFFERENT VOLUME OF MINERAL WATER Problem statement What is the effect of water intake of urine output? Hypothesis If more water is taken, more urine will be released Variables MV : volume of water RV : volume of urine released CV : same student Apparatus and materials Beakers, cup/mug, measuring cylinder, stopwatch, drinking water, a student Procedure 1.A student (sample A) is chosen and instructed to empty his bladders before the start of the experiment 2. 200ml of water is measured and put into the mug 3. A student (sample A) is given 200ml of mineral drinking water drink 4. A stopwatch is started immediately after consuming the water 5.During the experiment, he is kept within 1-2 hours 6. He is instructed not to eat or perform any vigorous physical activities 7. After half an hour, he is asked to empty his bladder 8. The collected urine is kept in a large beaker
16. 16. 9. At the interval of half an hour, until two hours, students empty his bladder 10. After two hours, the total collected urine is measured using measuring cylinder 11. Repeat step 2-9 for different amount of drinking water (400ml, 600ml, 800ml, 1000ml) 12. Step 7 is conducted for four consecutive days in a fixed time and place 13. Dispose the measured urine properly 14. Measure and record the data collected into a table Presentation of data Volume of water intake(ml) Volume of urine is produced(ml) 200 400 600 800 1000