THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOUR GUIDES TO DESTINATIONUNDERSTANDING AND IMAGE. THE CASE OF HAITI VIAAN ANALYSIS OF: ‘BONJOUR BLANC...
Ian  ThomsonReade  rs            IAN THOMSON / LOCALS / TRAVEL WRITING /                           READERS
What does it     mean to be a tour     guide in Haiti? Who are the actual tour guides in Haiti?KEY QUESTIONS
Originals / Pathfinders            Animators            Tour leaders            ProfessionalsMAJOR FUNCTIONS OF A TOUR...
People do not trust tour                                                  guides                                         ...
Haiti is an unsecure destination (Higate & Henry, 2009)Haiti is a place where the worse is always likely to happen(Bonne...
Quotes from ‘Bonjour                                              Blanc,    a     journey                                 ...
Function of the tour                  guide in Haiti:                  F1 –                  Originals/Pathfinders       ...
2                                         1 Original/Pathfinder = Body-guard         Original/Pathfinder = Bodyguard To...
Role of the tour guide            rather limited in ‘Bonjour            blanc, a journey through            Haiti’:       ...
Negative description of the tour                  guides in ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey                  through Haiti’     ...
The locals are playing a major                                  role in the tourists experience                           ...
Tour guides contribute to the                                         image of the destination (Dahles,                   ...
The tour guiding sector of a destination (in our case,Haiti) can be a reflexion, even an allegory of the tourismindustry o...
‘Haiti is a country of incredible intensity and extremes –One of the most astonishing places on earth’(Thomson, 2004: 364)...
PHOTOS: Bruno MARIANI
THANK YOU FOR YOUR    ATTENTIONDO YOU HAVE FURTHER    QUESTIONS?      QUESTION / ANSWER
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The contribution of tour guides to destination understanding and image. The case of Haiti via an analysis of: ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’.

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‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’ (Thomson, 2004) is considered by many writers and literary critics as the best travel writing about Haiti as it makes the readers want to go there, make them feel they had actually been there and most importantly give them a better understanding of the place, notably due to the fact Ian Thomson takes the readers into areas of Haiti that no other modern writer has bothered to explore. Under many different aspects Ian Thomson can be considered as a ‘virtual’ tour guide. When he went to Haiti in 1990, Ian Thomson hired professional tour guides. All the information included in his travel writing (history of Haiti, history of particular areas of the country, information about particular people, etc) are derived from explanation provided by professional tour guides and also by the locals who are in some extent ‘tour guides’. In a country like Haiti with such a rich and complicated history, having a tour guide is a ‘must’ in order to be able to decipher the codes required to understand the true nature of the destination, its people and interpretations of heritage.

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The contribution of tour guides to destination understanding and image. The case of Haiti via an analysis of: ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’.

  1. 1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOUR GUIDES TO DESTINATIONUNDERSTANDING AND IMAGE. THE CASE OF HAITI VIAAN ANALYSIS OF: ‘BONJOUR BLANC, A JOURNEYTHROUGH HAITI’Dr Hugues SERAPHINThe University of WinchesterCREDDI-LEAD EA 2438 (Université des Antilles Guyane)hugues.seraphin@winchester.ac.uk International Research Forum on Guided Tours , 2013 (4,5,6 April) Breda University of Applied Science (NHTV)
  2. 2. Ian ThomsonReade rs IAN THOMSON / LOCALS / TRAVEL WRITING / READERS
  3. 3. What does it mean to be a tour guide in Haiti? Who are the actual tour guides in Haiti?KEY QUESTIONS
  4. 4. Originals / Pathfinders Animators Tour leaders ProfessionalsMAJOR FUNCTIONS OF A TOUR GUIDE (Cohen, 1985)
  5. 5. People do not trust tour guides Limited knowledge Poor payment for the job Can do little to ensure security of tourists Non registered guidesInability to meet expectations of touristsNo decent entertainment in the countryLocal do not always treat tourists properlyPoor connectivity with other areas with tourismpotential CHALLENGE FACED BY ‘PROFESSIONAL’ TOUR GUIDES IN HAITI adaptation of Prakash et al (2011)
  6. 6. Haiti is an unsecure destination (Higate & Henry, 2009)Haiti is a place where the worse is always likely to happen(Bonnet, 2010) THE BODYGUARD FUNCTION OF THE TOUR GUIDE IN HAITI
  7. 7. Quotes from ‘Bonjour Blanc, a journey through Haiti’: ‘You should never – never – be walking around Port-au-Prince like that on your own. It’s dangerous. There’s a siege, you understand’ ‘You need a guide’ wheedled Michael. ‘For protection, understand?’‘The inhabitants of this village were considered hostileand suspicious. ‘We began to walk, Michael and I, along the Carrefour road, a red light district which at night apparently teems with thieves and ghouls’ THE BODYGUARD FUNCTION OF THE TOUR GUIDE IN HAITI
  8. 8. Function of the tour guide in Haiti: F1 – Originals/Pathfinders (Bodyguard) F2 – Tour Leaders F3 – Professionals F4 - AnimatorsTHE BODYGUARD FUNCTION OF THE TOUR GUIDE IN HAITI
  9. 9. 2 1 Original/Pathfinder = Body-guard  Original/Pathfinder = Bodyguard Tour Leaders 3 4 Original/Pathfinder  Original/Pathfinder Tour Leaders  Tour Leaders Professionals  Professionals  Animators 1= Dictatorship / civil war / etc TO 4= Stability / democracy) FUNCTIONS OF TOUR GUIDES IN INSTABLE DESTINATIONS (Like Haiti)
  10. 10. Role of the tour guide rather limited in ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’: Chapter 3: Paris of the gutter Chapter 5: The white black men of EuropeTHE LOCALS IN HAITI: THE TOUR GUIDES
  11. 11. Negative description of the tour guides in ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’ Witch The man was terribly tall and thin, with sharp cheekbones and an aquiline curve to the nose Ignorant I’m English, not American’ ‘ ‘So you live in New York?’ Vulture‘I’m not a bad guy. I’m just hungry. So, you won’t mind if I have some ofthat chicken, no?’ THE LOCALS IN HAITI: THE TOUR GUIDES
  12. 12. The locals are playing a major role in the tourists experience Transferring detailed information and interpreting attractions, and sites Facilitating interaction between tourists and the environment Interacting and socialising with touristsThe functions of the tour guide described by Cohen (1985) andby Ap and Wrong (2001), are functions that are not onlyendorsed by the professional tour guide but also function thatlocals are also endorsing in Haiti, meaning the professionaltour guides are not the only one capable of enhancing theexperience of the tourists THE LOCALS IN HAITI: THE TOUR GUIDES
  13. 13. Tour guides contribute to the image of the destination (Dahles, 2002) Locals have a major role to play, e.g.: •Conde Marimon (Owner of Auberge Bolivar) •Madame Lexima (Vodoo ‘Ougan’) •Madame Thoby (Owner of Hotel Sambo) •Etc.In Haiti, tour guide can be a ‘real’ profession, only and only if changes aremade in all sectors of the tourism industry. Too many factors (internal andexternal) are stopping the development and evolution of the profession TALK THE TALK, WALK THE WALK
  14. 14. The tour guiding sector of a destination (in our case,Haiti) can be a reflexion, even an allegory of the tourismindustry of the destination. CONCLUSION
  15. 15. ‘Haiti is a country of incredible intensity and extremes –One of the most astonishing places on earth’(Thomson, 2004: 364) ‘BONJOUR BLANC, A JOURNEY THROUGH HAITI’
  16. 16. PHOTOS: Bruno MARIANI
  17. 17. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONDO YOU HAVE FURTHER QUESTIONS? QUESTION / ANSWER

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