What are we modeling when we model emotion

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What are we modeling when we model emotion

  1. 1. What Are We Modeling When We Model Emotion? Eva Hudlicka Psychometrix Associates Blacksburg, VA hudlicka@ieee.org AAAI Spring Symposium on “Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior” March 27, 2008
  2. 2. What Are We Modeling When We Model Emotion? aka Emotion Modeling 101
  3. 3. HudlickaHudlicka 3 “Emotion Modeling” • Lack of clarity re: – What is modeled and how • Lack of design guidelines re: – Which theories to use? – Which data? – Which computations must be performed? – Which representational & reasoning formalisms are best? – What type of architecture is best?
  4. 4. HudlickaHudlicka 4 Emotion Modeling Is ______ A: Emotion expression by machines B: Emotion recognition by machines C: Emotion generation in agents / robots D: Emotion effects on agent / robot behavior E: Affective user models F: All of the above .. And probably some others too
  5. 5. HudlickaHudlicka 5 “Emotion Models” Model ________ A: Feelings B: Moods C: Emotions D: Affective States E: Personality Traits
  6. 6. HudlickaHudlicka 6 A Taxonomy of Affective Factors Affective States Emotions Moods Basic Complex Negative Positive Affective Factors Traits States “Big 5” “Giant 3” … AngerJoyFear … ShameGuiltPride … Attitudes, Preferences…
  7. 7. HudlickaHudlicka 7 Emotion Models Also Vary In… • Specific roles of emotions modeled • Specific aspects of emotions modeled
  8. 8. HudlickaHudlicka 8 Roles of Emotions IntrapsychicIntrapsychic InterpersonalInterpersonal WHAT? * Social coordination * Rapid communication of behavioral intent; HOW? Express emotions via: -Facial expression -Speech (content & properties) -Gesture, Posture -Specific actions WHAT? * Motivation * Homeostasis * Adaptive behavior HOW? - Emotion generation (appraisal) - Emotion effects (processing biases) - Global interrupt system - Goal management - Prepare for coordinated actions
  9. 9. HudlickaHudlicka 9 How Do We Recognize an Emotion if We See One? • Manifested across multiple, interacting modalities: – Somatic / Physiological (neuroendocrine - e.g., heart rate, GSR) – Cognitive / Interpretive (“Nothing is good or bad but thinking makes it so…”) – Behavioral / Motivational (action oriented, expressive, ‘visible’) – Experiential / Subjective (“that special feeling…”, consciousness) • Much terminological confusion can be attributed to a lack of consideration of these multiple modalities of emotions – e.g., Is emotion a feeling or a thought? - It’s both
  10. 10. HudlickaHudlicka 10 Simple Fear “Signature”: Large, Approaching Object Cognitive Subjective Increased heart-rate; Attacked? Crushed? Flee? Freeze? Feeling of fear
  11. 11. HudlickaHudlicka 11 Problem • Lack of consistency & terminological clarity • … makes it difficult to: • Develop systematic guidelines for model development • Communicate effectively about alternative approaches • Evaluate & compare different models & theories
  12. 12. HudlickaHudlicka 12 Objective: Deconstruct ‘emotion modeling’ • View emotion models in terms of two fundamental processes: – Emotion generation – Emotion effects • Identify fundamental computational tasks necessary to implement these – The emotion modeling “building blocks” • …as a step toward more systematic design, comparison & evaluation of models
  13. 13. Emotion GenerationEmotion Generation Emotion EffectsEmotion Effects on Cognition & Behavioron Cognition & Behavior Emotion Roles implement Social - Communication - Coordination -…. Intrapsychic: - Goal management - Behavior preparation -…… Computational Tasks Computational Tasks Emotion ModelEmotion Model ““Building BlocksBuilding Blocks”” HudlickaHudlicka
  14. 14. HudlickaHudlicka 14 Emotion Modeling “Building Blocks” • Should provide a basis for identifying: – Theory requirements – Data requirements – Representational & reasoning requirements
  15. 15. HudlickaHudlicka 15 The Cognitive Caveat • Primary focus on cognitive modality of emotion
  16. 16. HudlickaHudlicka 16
  17. 17. HudlickaHudlicka 17 Core Processes of Emotions Effects of Emotions (on cognition & behavior) Cognitive-Affective Architecture Situations Expectations Goals Cognitive Appraisal Emotions Generation of Emotions (via cognitive appraisal) Stimuli
  18. 18. HudlickaHudlicka 18 Emotion Generation via Appraisal StimuliStimuli Appraisal ProcessAppraisal Process EmotionsEmotions Appraisal Dimensions Recalled Perceived Existing emotions, moods, traits Imagined Goals (desires, values, standards) Beliefs, Expectations
  19. 19. HudlickaHudlicka 19 Emotion Generation via Appraisal StimuliStimuli Appraisal ProcessAppraisal Process EmotionsEmotions Appraisal Dimensions Recalled Perceived Imagined
  20. 20. HudlickaHudlicka 20 Emotion Generation via Appraisal StimuliStimuli Appraisal ProcessAppraisal Process EmotionsEmotions Appraisal Dimensions Recalled Perceived Existing emotions, moods, traits Imagined Goals (desires, values, standards) Beliefs, Expectations
  21. 21. HudlickaHudlicka 21 Emotion Generation via Appraisal StimuliStimuli Appraisal ProcessAppraisal Process EmotionsEmotions Appraisal Dimensions Recalled Perceived Imagined Goals (desires, values, standards) Beliefs, Expectations Domain-Independent Appraisal Dimensions Novelty Valence Goal / Need relevance Goal congruence Agency Coping potential Social and self norms and values
  22. 22. HudlickaHudlicka 22 STIMULISTIMULI Novelty Valence Goal relevance Outcome probability Urgency Goal congruence Agency Coping potential Norms high high v. high low other lowlow low high FEARFEAR
  23. 23. HudlickaHudlicka 23 STIMULISTIMULI Novelty Valence Goal relevance Outcome probability Urgency Goal congruence Agency Coping potential Norms high high v. high low other highhigh low high ANGERANGER
  24. 24. HudlickaHudlicka 24 Most Influential Appraisal Theories inMost Influential Appraisal Theories in Computational ModelsComputational Models •• OrtonyOrtony,, CloreClore and Collins (OCC) (1988 -and Collins (OCC) (1988 - ……)) – Detailed taxonomy of triggers and emotions – Well-suited for computational implementation •• LeventhalLeventhal and Scherer (1984 -and Scherer (1984 - ……)) – Domain-independent appraisal dimensions – Appraisal as a dynamic, evolving process – Multiple levels of resolution •• ArnoldArnold  LazarusLazarus  Smith and Kirby (1960 - ..)Smith and Kirby (1960 - ..) – Emphasis on coping – Appraisal as a dynamic process – Increasing emphasis on mechanisms
  25. 25. HudlickaHudlicka 25 What Do We Need To Know To Build a Model • Stimulus - to - emotion mapping… – … for person… situation… affective state (?) – Implemented directly or via appraisal dimensions? • Integrating internal & external stimuli – … remembered & imagined, seen & told… • Distinct stages in the appraisal process – Functions implemented in each – Dependencies & interactions among them • Factors influencing emotion intensity & how? – Emotion dynamics (ramp-up & decay) – … variations by person… situation… emotion • Multiple emotions & conflict resolution
  26. 26. HudlickaHudlicka 26 Computational Tasks for Appraisal Models Stimuli Emotions Emotion attributes: - Complexity of emotion construct * type * intensity * cause … * direction * … Types of stimuli: - Internal / External - Real / Imagined - Past / Present / Future - Domain specific / Abstract appraisal dimensions - Complexity of stimulus structure - Mental constructs required (e.g., goals, expectations) - Stimuli-to-emotion mappings - Intensity calculation - Nature of mapping process: * Stages & functions * Degree of variability -Integrating multiple emotions -Emotion dynamics over time
  27. 27. HudlickaHudlicka 27 Cognitive-Affective Architecture Stimuli Situations Expectations Goals Affect Appraiser Emotions Emotion Effects on Cognition
  28. 28. HudlickaHudlicka 28 Emotion Effects on Cognition • Emotion and cognition function as closely-coupled information processing systems • Emotions influence fundamental processes mediating high-level cognition: – Attention speed and capacity – Working memory speed and capacity – Long-term memory recall and encoding • Influences on processing & contents and structure – Transient biases influence processing – Long-term biases result in differences in long-term memory content & structure
  29. 29. HudlickaHudlicka 29 Examples of Affective Biases • Anxiety – Narrows attentional focus – Bias toward detection of threatening stimuli – Bias toward interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as threats – Promotes self-focus • Anger – Increases risk tolerance – Bias toward impulsive action – Bias toward attribution of hostile intent in others • Positive emotions – Increase estimates of degree of control – Overestimate of likelihood of positive events – Focus on “big picture”
  30. 30. HudlickaHudlicka 30 Theories • Fewer theories exist than for appraisal • Specific mechanisms of emotion effects not as well developed • Some available theories: – Spreading activation & priming (Bower, 1984; Derryberry, 1988) • “Network theory of Affect” – Distinct modes of processing associated with different emotions (Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987) – Emotions as patterns of parameters modulating processing (Fellous, Matthews, Ortony et al., Hudlicka, Ritter…)
  31. 31. HudlickaHudlicka 31 Modeling Threat Bias TRAITS / STATES COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE PARAMETERS COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE Attention Action Selection Situation Assessment Goal Manager Expectation Generator Affect Appraiser Emotions Higher Anxiety / Fear Predisposes towards Processing Parameters Module & Construct parms. -Cue selection - Interpretive biases ... Preferential processing of Threatening stimuli Threat constructs Rated more highly Process Threat cues Process Threatening interpretations Traits Low Stability MAMIDMAMID
  32. 32. HudlickaHudlicka 32 What Do We Need To Know To Build a Model • Emotion - to - effects mapping – Which cognitive processes & structures affected… & how – How are contents & organization of LTM affected – How are cognitive appraisal processes affected • Relationship between emotion & mood intensity and type & magnitude of influence – Can distinct intensities have qualitatively distinct influences? • What are the mediating variables of the effects? – Emotions OR individual appraisal dimensions (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006)? • Multiple emotions & conflict resolution – How & where are multiple emotions integrated?
  33. 33. HudlickaHudlicka 33 Computational Tasks forComputational Tasks for Modeling Emotion EffectsModeling Emotion Effects Emotion(s)Emotion(s) --CognitionCognition Attention, perception, memory, learning, problem-solving, decision-making…) -Behavior Verbal, non-verbal, action selection …… & other affective& other affective factors:factors: - Affective States - Moods - Traits Effect(s)Effect(s) - Emotion-to-behavior mappings - Emotion-to-processes & structures mappings - Variability in effects (by intensity, by individual…) - Integration of multiple emotions - Similar vs. opposing - In cognition.. in behavior ..where?
  34. 34. HudlickaHudlicka 34 Ideally, theories would exactly specifyIdeally, theories would exactly specify all computational tasksall computational tasks .. and provide.. and provide necessary details fornecessary details for their implementationtheir implementation •• In practice, that is rarely the caseIn practice, that is rarely the case •• The act of constructing a computational modelThe act of constructing a computational model typically helpstypically helps define & refine thesedefine & refine these detailsdetails
  35. 35. HudlickaHudlicka 35 Related Work • Lot of people have been thinking about emotion model design – Sloman – Ortony – Canamero – Velasquez – Scheutz – Lisetti – Reilly – …
  36. 36. HudlickaHudlicka 36 Summary • Analyze emotion models in terms of two categories of processes: – Emotion generation – Emotion effects • Identify associated computational tasks • See if these “building blocks” provide basis for: – More systematic design of emotion models – Comparison & evaluation of existing models & modeling alternatives – Comparison & evaluation of existing theories • (Focus on cognitive modality of emotions)
  37. 37. HudlickaHudlicka 37 Parting Thought “Anyone can model emotions. That is easy. But to model emotions in the right context to the right degree at the right time for the right reason, and in the right way this is not easy.” Paraphrasing “On anger”, Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics
  38. 38. What Are We Modeling When We Model Emotion? Eva Hudlicka Psychometrix Associates Blacksburg, VA hudlicka@ieee.org AAAI Spring Symposium on “Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior” March 27, 2008

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