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atomic structure

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atomic structure

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atomic structure

  1. 1. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE AA gguuiiddee ffoorr GGCCSSEE ssttuuddeennttss 22001100 KKNNOOCCKKHHAARRDDYY PPUUBBLLIISSHHIINNGG SSPPEECCIIFFIICCAATTIIOONNSS
  2. 2. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any commercial work. All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any commercial work.
  3. 3. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE CCOONNTTEENNTTSS • Rutherford’s experiment • Structure of atoms • Mass number and atomic number • Atoms and ions • Isotopes • Electronic structures of the first 20 elements
  4. 4. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons. Around the nucleus are the electrons. Because electrons weigh very much less than protons and neutrons, most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus.
  5. 5. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
  6. 6. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a ‘plum pudding’. Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like.
  7. 7. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT ALPHA (a) PARTICLES GOLD ATOMS Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a ‘plum pudding’. Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like. He fired positively charged ALPHA PARTICLES (helium nuclei) at a very thin sheet of gold and detected what happened to their path.
  8. 8. ALPHA (a) PARTICLES MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE
  9. 9. ALPHA (a) PARTICLES SOME WERE DEFLECTED AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT SOME WERE DEFLECTED NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED
  10. 10. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT ALPHA (a) PARTICLES VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL
  11. 11. ALPHA (a) PARTICLES MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH SOME WERE DEFLECTED AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK SUMMARY MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH SOME WERE DEFLECTED MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL
  12. 12. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons and around which there are electrons.
  13. 13. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON
  14. 14. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NUCLEUS 1 +1
  15. 15. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge +1 1 PROTON NEUTRON 0 1 NUCLEUS NUCLEUS
  16. 16. THE SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE OOFF AATTOOMMSS The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON +1 0 -1 1 1 Negligble ‘Very small’ NUCLEUS NUCLEUS IN SHELLS AROUND THE NUCLEUS
  17. 17. THE STRUCTURE OOFF AATTOOMMSS -- SSuummmmaarryy The three important particles found in atoms are… Particle Where it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON +1 0 -1 1 1 Negligble ‘Very small’ NUCLEUS NUCLEUS IN SHELLS AROUND THE NUCLEUS
  18. 18. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  19. 19. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Symbol Atoms of an element are given a symbol Some have one capital letter H, N, O, P, K Some have two letters, the first He, Na, Mg Cu one being a capital Recently discovered high atomic Unh number elements have been given symbols with three letters
  20. 20. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Symbol Atoms of an element are given a symbol Some have one capital letter H, N, O, P, K Some have two letters, the first He, Na, Mg Cu one being a capital Recently discovered high atomic Unh number elements have been given symbols with three letters When necessary, the atomic number and the mass number can be written alongside the symbol
  21. 21. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na When necessary, the atomic number and the mass number can be written alongside the symbol
  22. 22. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS
  23. 23. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS THESE ALWAYS GO TOGETHER – ANYTHING WITH 11 PROTONS MUST BE SODIUM
  24. 24. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS
  25. 25. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS THERE WILL BE 12 NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS 23 – 11 = 12
  26. 26. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 23 11 Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS
  27. 27. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS
  28. 28. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
  29. 29. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS PROTONS 6 11 16 17 20 ELECTRONS 6 10 16 18 18 ATOM or ION?
  30. 30. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS PROTONS 6 11 16 17 20 ELECTRONS 6 10 16 18 18 ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION
  31. 31. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
  32. 32. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS NEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS POSITIVE
  33. 33. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS NEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS POSITIVE
  34. 34. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS NEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS POSITIVE PROTONS 6 11 16 17 20 ELECTRONS 6 10 16 18 18 ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION CHARGE
  35. 35. AATTOOMMSS AANNDD IIOONNSS ATOMS SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS NEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS POSITIVE PROTONS 6 11 16 17 20 ELECTRONS 6 10 16 18 18 ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION CHARGE Neutral + Neutral - 2+
  36. 36. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Protons Neutrons Electrons Charge Atomic Number Mass Number Symbol A 19 21 19 B 20 0 40 C + 11 23 D 6 6 0 E 92 0 235 F 6 13 G 16 2- 16 H 27Al3+
  37. 37. MASS NUMBER AANNDD AATTOOMMIICC NNUUMMBBEERR Protons Neutrons Electrons Charge Atomic Number Mass Number Symbol A 19 21 19 0 19 40 40K B 20 20 20 0 20 40 40Ca C 11 12 10 + 11 23 23Na+ D 6 6 6 0 6 12 12C E 92 143 92 0 92 235 235U F 6 7 6 0 6 13 13C G 16 16 18 2- 16 32 32S2- H 13 14 10 3+ 13 27 27Al3+
  38. 38. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  39. 39. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.
  40. 40. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element have SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
  41. 41. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element have SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS or put another way SAME ATOMIC NUMBER DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER
  42. 42. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element have SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS or put another way SAME ATOMIC NUMBER DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER ISOTOPES HAVE SIMILAR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
  43. 43. ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  44. 44. ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  45. 45. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER 1 1
  46. 46. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER 1 1 MASS NUMBER
  47. 47. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER 1 1 MASS NUMBER 1 2 PROTONS
  48. 48. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER 1 1 MASS NUMBER 1 2 PROTONS 1 1 NEUTRONS
  49. 49. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER 1 1 MASS NUMBER 1 2 PROTONS 1 1 NEUTRONS 0 1
  50. 50. ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER MASS NUMBER PROTONS NEUTRONS IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  51. 51. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20
  52. 52. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE
  53. 53. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25%
  54. 54. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25% RATIO
  55. 55. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25% RATIO 3 : 1
  56. 56. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE
  57. 57. ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE MASS 35 + 35 + 35 + 37 = 4 IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  58. 58. ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE 3 5 Cl 17 3 7 Cl 17 ATOMIC NUMBER 17 17 MASS NUMBER 35 37 PROTONS 17 17 NEUTRONS 18 20 ABUNDANCE 75% 25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE MASS 35 + 35 + 35 + 37 = 35.5 4 IISSOOTTOOPPEESS
  59. 59. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CARBON 1 2 C 6 1 3 C 6 1 4 C 6 ATOMIC NUMBER 6 6 6 MASS NUMBER 12 13 14 PROTONS 6 6 6 NEUTRONS 6 7 8
  60. 60. IISSOOTTOOPPEESS ISOTOPES OF CARBON 1 2 C 6 1 3 C 6 1 4 C 6 ATOMIC NUMBER 6 6 6 MASS NUMBER 12 13 14 PROTONS 6 6 6 NEUTRONS 6 7 8
  61. 61. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE TTHHEE AARRRRAANNGGEEMMEENNTT OOFF EELLEECCTTRROONNSS IINN AATTOOMMSS OOFF TTHHEE FFIIRRSSTT TTWWEENNTTYY EELLEEMMEENNTTSS IINN TTHHEE PPEERRIIOODDIICC TTAABBLLEE
  62. 62. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca + ATOMIC NUMBER 1 GROUP 1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 1 HYDROGEN • atoms have the same number of electrons as protons • electrons are found in shells (energy levels) around the nucleus • electrons are put into the lowest energy level first
  63. 63. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 2+ ATOMIC NUMBER 2 GROUP 0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2 HELIUM • the innermost shell can hold up to two electrons
  64. 64. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 3+ ATOMIC NUMBER 3 GROUP 1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,1 LITHIUM • each shell (energy level) can hold a maximum number of electrons • the first one can only hold 2,so the next goes in the second shell
  65. 65. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 4+ ATOMIC NUMBER 4 GROUP 2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,2 BERYLLIUM • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  66. 66. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 5+ ATOMIC NUMBER 5 GROUP 3 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,3 BORON • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  67. 67. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 6+ ATOMIC NUMBER 6 GROUP 4 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,4 CARBON • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  68. 68. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 7+ ATOMIC NUMBER 7 GROUP 5 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,5 NITROGEN • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  69. 69. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 8+ ATOMIC NUMBER 8 GROUP 6 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,6 OXYGEN • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  70. 70. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 9+ ATOMIC NUMBER 9 GROUP 7 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,7 FLUORINE • the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
  71. 71. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 10+ ATOMIC NUMBER 10 GROUP 0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8 NEON • the second shell is now full • full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES
  72. 72. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 11+ ATOMIC NUMBER 11 GROUP 1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,1 SODIUM • as the second shell is full, electrons go into the third shell • the third shell can hold up to a maximum of eight electrons
  73. 73. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 12+ ATOMIC NUMBER 12 GROUP 2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION MAGNESIUM 2,8,2
  74. 74. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 13+ ATOMIC NUMBER 13 GROUP 3 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,3 ALUMINIUM
  75. 75. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 14+ ATOMIC NUMBER 14 GROUP 4 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,4 SILICON
  76. 76. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 15+ ATOMIC NUMBER 15 GROUP 5 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION PHOSPHORUS 2,8,5
  77. 77. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE SULPHUR (SULFUR) F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 16+ ATOMIC NUMBER 16 GROUP 6 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,6
  78. 78. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca ATOMIC NUMBER 17 GROUP 7 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,7 17+ CHLORINE
  79. 79. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 18+ ATOMIC NUMBER 18 GROUP 0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 2,8,8 ARGON • the third shell is now full • full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES
  80. 80. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 19+ ATOMIC NUMBER 19 GROUP 1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION POTASSIUM 2,8,8,1 • as the third shell is full, electrons go into the fourth shell
  81. 81. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 20+ ATOMIC NUMBER 20 GROUP 2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION CALCIUM 2,8,8,2
  82. 82. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE WWHHAATT IISS IITT??
  83. 83. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 16+ ELECTRONS ? PROTONS ? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT?
  84. 84. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 16+ ELECTRONS 16 PROTONS 16 ATOM / ION ATOM ELEMENT SULPHUR ANSWER S WHAT IS IT?
  85. 85. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 19+ ELECTRONS ? PROTONS ? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT?
  86. 86. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 19+ ELECTRONS 18 PROTONS 19 ATOM / ION POSITIVE ION ELEMENT POTASSIUM ANSWER K+ WHAT IS IT?
  87. 87. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 17+ ELECTRONS ? PROTONS ? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT?
  88. 88. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 17+ ELECTRONS 18 PROTONS 17 ATOM / ION NEGATIVE ION ELEMENT CHLORINE ANSWER Cl¯ WHAT IS IT?
  89. 89. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 8+ ELECTRONS ? PROTONS ? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT?
  90. 90. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 8+ ELECTRONS 10 PROTONS 8 ATOM / ION NEGATIVE ION ELEMENT OXYGEN ANSWER O2- WHAT IS IT?
  91. 91. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 13+ ELECTRONS ? PROTONS ? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT?
  92. 92. H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE F Cl He Ne Ar Ca 13+ ELECTRONS 10 PROTONS 13 ATOM / ION POSITIVE ION ELEMENT ALUMINIUM ANSWER Al3+ WHAT IS IT?
  93. 93. AATTOOMMIICC SSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE TTHHEE EENNDD © 22001111 JJOONNAA TTHHAANN HHOOPPTTOONN && KKNNOOCCKKHHAARRDDYY PPUUBBLLIISSHHIINNGG

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