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Outlining an Essay: Conclusion **

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  1. 1. The Conclusion References © 2001 by Ruth Luman Making Your Last Paragraph Count The End
  2. 2. A Conclusion Definition and Purpose The conclusion is the last paragraph in your essay. A conclusion completes the essay and reemphasizes your thesis statement or main ideas. Look at the example thesis statement and conclusion below.
  3. 3. A Conclusion First Sentence of Conclusion Ultimately, because of the steps I took, I was successful in fighting the disease… Thesis Statement When I first found out that I was diagnosed with cancer, I took two important steps to fight the disease. First sentence in conclusion reemphasizes ideas in thesis statement.
  4. 4. A Conclusion So What? In addition to referring back to your main idea, your conclusion needs to show your reader the significance of your thesis. When discussing the importance of your thesis, try to address questions such as… <ul><li>How and why is this topic important? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this topic affect me or other people? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be learned from this topic? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Look at the example below of a conclusion that shows the reader the importance of the main idea of the essay. Example #1 So What?
  6. 6. Conclusion Paragraph Draft Ultimately, because of the steps I took, I was successful in fighting the disease. I was able to become healthy enough to attend my daughter’s wedding, and I no longer worried about dying. Others suffering with cancer can learn an important lesson from my experience: Don’t give up no matter how hopeless things may seem and always get a second opinion from another doctor! Example #1 The writer points out how the steps she took to fight cancer affected her and other people. The writer discusses the importance of her topic by writing about the lessons that can be learned.
  7. 7. Look at the example below of a conclusion that refers back to the thesis statement and shows the reader the importance of the main idea of the essay. Example #2 Conclusion
  8. 8. Conclusion Paragraph The decision to move to the United States was a difficult one for my parents to make. Though I was angry with their decision at the time, I understand now that the poor economy and political instability of my country forced them to immigrate. Through this experience I learned that one simply cannot control all of life’s circumstances. One must learn to deal with tough situations as they come and work to be successful regardless of one’s location. Example #2 Thesis Statement There were several factors that caused my family to make the difficult decision to immigrate to the United States. The first two sentences reemphasize the thesis statement. The writer concludes by discussing the lessons learned from his experience.
  9. 9. Concluding an Essay Techniques Some ways to enhance a conclusion are to include a… <ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Concluding an Essay A Prediction A prediction talks about what might happen in the future. A prediction can be a good way to finish your essay. It can make your reader think about the possible results of your thesis statement.
  11. 11. Prediction Example Finally, the importance of beginning a program to re forest parts of Haiti will be an important step in making this country more economically self-sufficient. Without such a program in place, the people of this country will continue to destroy their natural resources for fuel in order to salvage their present state of survival. A program to reforest parts of Haiti is urgently needed. Thesis Statement A prediction is used to make the reader think about possible results of the thesis.
  12. 12. Concluding an Essay A Recommendation A recommendation is often used by a writer after he/she has discussed a problem in an essay. A recommendation can be used to suggest a solution or call the readers to do something about the problem in the essay.
  13. 13. Recommendation Example As we have seen, international students face a number of difficulties when coming to a new country to study. However, problems such as culture-shock and the language barrier can be lessened before a student comes to the new country through preparation. If you are considering going to school in another country, you should begin learning about the culture, customs, and history of your host nation. Also, you should be sure that you are proficient in the national language or be sure to sign up for language classes once you are there. A recommendation is used to suggest a solution to a problem.
  14. 14. Concluding an Essay “ A Quotation” A relevant quotation can bring good closure to your essay, especially if the quotation is from an expert on the topic in your composition.
  15. 15. Quotation Example David Werner, author of, Where There Is No Doctor , notes that, “Only when the people themselves become actively responsible for their own and their community’s health, can important changes take place.” This should be the mantra of every public health agency when looking at making improvements in common health problems. Unless a community understands the importance of the intervention and takes responsibility for transformation, no long-lasting changes will be made. A quotation from an expert can be used to add credibility to a writer’s position.
  16. 16. A Conclusion Useful Transitions It is sometimes helpful to have a transition at the beginning of your conclusion to signal the end of your essay. Some common transitions used in conclusions are listed below. Remember to use a comma after your transitions. <ul><li>In conclusion, </li></ul><ul><li>In summary, </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, </li></ul><ul><li>To conclude, </li></ul><ul><li>In short, </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Conclusion Example of Transition Use Thus, despite the advances in computer technology, the kind of computers that take on human characteristics often found in science-fiction movies are still a long way off. The transition, thus , is used at the beginning of the conclusion to signal the end of the essay.
  18. 18. Practice Exercise <ul><li>Now, you are ready to practice what you’ve learned. Click on </li></ul><ul><li>the button below to go back to Unit C. Print and complete the </li></ul><ul><li>worksheet for Practice Exercise Three. </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman: Modesto Junior College. </li></ul><ul><li>This project incorporates portions of copyrighted works. These items are included under the fair use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines. They are restricted from further use. </li></ul>