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Fundamental Of Imm


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Fundamental Of Imm

  2. 2. SESSION PLAN 9:00am to 9:30pm PROGRAM INTRODUCTION 9:30am to 10:00am IMM INTRODUCTION 10:00am to 10:30am REFRESHMENT 10:30am to 12:45pm PROGRAM CONTINUE 12:45pm to 2:00pm LUNCH 2:00pm to 3:15pm BASIC CONSTRUCTION OF MOULD 3:15pm to 3:45pm BREAKTIME 3:45pm to 4:00pm PROGRAM CONTINUE 4:00pm Q & A
  4. 4. IMM Introduction <ul><li>Birth of plastics? What was the main cause or major force behind developments? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Consumer Demand </li></ul><ul><li>2. Development of new technology </li></ul><ul><li>3. War </li></ul>
  5. 5. Contents <ul><li>The relationship between grades of plastics materials and the degree of polymerization(Molecular Growth). </li></ul><ul><li>2. The forms of molecular shape of plastics materials. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The forms of molecular arrangement in plastics materials. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Monomers and polymers of common plastics materials. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History Of Plastics <ul><li>Plastics also known as polymer </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of polymer came from ancient Greek word. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Poly” means many and “Mer” means unit </li></ul>
  7. 7. Inventions By the mid 20 th century bakelite was invented as the first synthetic resin to use as engineering material by Baekeland. In 1950s the new raw material found and lead to the changes from coal to oil as our energy source created a light alkane fraction as a by product. (Ethylene group).
  8. 8. The Making Of Plastics Most synthetic plastics come from crude oil but coal and natural gas is also used. When crude oil is refined gasses are given off . The gasses are broken down into Monomers. These are chemical substances consisting of a single molecule. Thousands of these are linked together in a process called Polymerization to form new compounds called Polymers.
  9. 9. Polymerization A chemical reaction in linking the molecules of a simple substance (monomer) together to form large molecules whose molecular weight is a multiple of that monomer. A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A+A A Monomer (Functional group) REACTION
  10. 10. Degree of Polymerisation Each polymer molecule incorporates large numbers of monomer units.The degree of polymerization determined the numbers of monomer units in the molecular chain.The higher mean the greater number of monomers and the length of the chain. Molecular weight is the term referred to as the length of the polymer chain.
  11. 11. Chains arrangement Polymerisation also has an affect on the shape of polymer molecules: Linear chain arrangement. Branched chain arrangement. Cross linked chain arrangement.
  12. 12. Linear Chain Arrangement Linear molecules basically form a straight molecule chain.They are considered to be long and flexible Monomer unit
  13. 13. Branched Chain Arrangement The long chain with intermittent off shoots is referred to as Branching or Branched polymer.
  14. 14. Cross link Chain Arrangement The polymer chain are linked by a chemical reaction that physically bonds the chains together.
  15. 15. General Characteristics of polymers Hygroscopic Having the tendency to absorb moisture from the air. Some resins are hygroscopic, thus requiring drying before molding. Homopolymer A polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a single type of repeating unit. Copolymer/Terpolymer Polymer resulting from the polymerization of a different monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a 2 or 3 type of repeating unit .
  16. 16. IMM Introduction <ul><li>What is the injection moulding process? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Injection Moulding <ul><li>A typical / generic injection moulding machine </li></ul>The responsibility of the molding personnel is to maintain: 1. The optimal cycle time for maximum productivity 2. The dimensional control of the parts 3. The aesthetic quality of the parts
  18. 18. Advantages of Injection Molding <ul><li>1. High-Volume Process </li></ul><ul><li>2. Complex Part Capability </li></ul><ul><li>3. High Part Quality </li></ul><ul><li>4. Wide Range of Plastic Materials </li></ul>Details <ul><li>1. High-Volume Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast thermal processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melt, Mold, and Cool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-cavity molds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 100 cavities per mold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High machine output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of parts per hour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Complex Part Capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex parts molded in one shot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts with over 100 dimensions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple functions in each part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holes, hinges, springs, snap fits, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3) High Part Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensional accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus/minus .001 mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High gloss surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molded-in color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No painting required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Wide Range of Plastic Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150 to 200 plastic types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each with a different set of properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent, insulating, lightweight, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flame retardant, U.V. resistant, FDA Grade, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Machine Toggle clamping system With 5 point locking Injection Unit Screw unit Non return valve Fixed platen Moving platen Control Cabinet
  20. 20. Nozzle Nozzle contact with the sprue bush of the mould Materials flows inside the mould through Sprue bush
  21. 21. Injection Screw
  22. 22. Injection End Parts and Their Functions <ul><li>The Screw and Barrel </li></ul>Nozzle Thermocouples Hopper Plastic Pellets Feed Throat Non-Return Valve Screw Stationary Platen Mold Barrel Heater Bands Screw Rotation
  23. 23. Screw
  24. 24. Shut off Valve Nozzle and Shut off valve
  25. 25. Injection Screw
  26. 26. Injection and Holding pressure phase Plasticising-Dosage Injection Screw
  27. 27. Injection moulding of thermoplastics <ul><li>CYCLE PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>1) Mould closing </li></ul><ul><li>2) Injection unit advanced </li></ul><ul><li>3) Injection </li></ul><ul><li>4) Holding Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>5) Dosage (rotation) </li></ul><ul><li>6) Injection unit retract* </li></ul><ul><li>7) Mould Opening </li></ul><ul><li>8) Espulsione manufatto </li></ul><ul><li>*) possibility of ejection </li></ul>ejection closing Inj.unit advanced injection Hold. pressure dossage Inj.unit retract opening
  28. 28. IMM Introduction <ul><li>Significance of injection moulding machines </li></ul><ul><li>1. Production volumes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Elimination of secondary processes </li></ul>
  29. 29. IMM Introduction <ul><li>Identification of </li></ul><ul><li>IMM / Int.Standard </li></ul><ul><li>1. Clamp Force </li></ul><ul><li>2. Injection Unit </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types Of IMM
  31. 31. Types Of IMM <ul><li>IMMs are divided into 3 major groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>2. Electric </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hybrid machine </li></ul>
  32. 32. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Hydraulic machines </li></ul>
  33. 33. Types Of IMM <ul><li>What are major components of hydraulic machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pump </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hydraulic system </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hydraulic motor </li></ul><ul><li>5. Valves </li></ul><ul><li>6. Pressure / Stroke sensors </li></ul><ul><li>7. Analogue pressure gauge </li></ul><ul><li>8. CPU / Terminal </li></ul>
  34. 34. Types Of IMM Electric motor and pump arrangement
  35. 35. Types Of IMM <ul><li>What are the advantages of hydraulic machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cheaper machines </li></ul><ul><li>2. Popular concept </li></ul><ul><li>3. High injection speeds </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cost-effective </li></ul><ul><li>What are the disadvantages of hydraulic machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Not ideal for clean-room environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. The need for hydraulic oil </li></ul><ul><li>3. Not environmental friendly </li></ul>
  36. 36. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Electrical machines </li></ul>
  37. 37. Types Of IMM <ul><li>What are major components of an electric machine? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pump </li></ul><ul><li>3. Belt / Pulley / Chain System </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pressure and Stroke sensors </li></ul><ul><li>5. CPU </li></ul>
  38. 38. Types Of IMM Synchronous Motors High torque motors
  39. 39. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Why are fully electrical machines preferred? </li></ul><ul><li>1. High degree of precision </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ideal for clean-room conditions / food grade </li></ul><ul><li>3. No need for hydraulic oil </li></ul><ul><li>4. Inventor of electrical machines - Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>What are the disadvantages of electric machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Higher costs (generally 20%) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Relatively slow injection speeds (less than 800mm/s) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Electrical machines major concept differences: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Belt drives </li></ul>
  41. 41. Types Of IMM <ul><li>2. Direct drives </li></ul>
  42. 42. Rotor Stator Slow turning, water cooled high-torque motors Water cooling system Space to integrate ball spindel
  43. 43. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Hybrid machines </li></ul>Mould Movements Metering/ Plasticising Ejectors Injection Nozzle Unit Core Pull
  44. 44. Types Of IMM <ul><li>Why are hybrid machines preferred? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Combines best of both worlds concept </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ideal for all processes </li></ul><ul><li>What are the disadvantages of hybrid machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Costs (generally the most expensive) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Types Of IMM Electric screw-drive
  47. 47. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Types of clamping unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Toggle (Three Platen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Fully hydraulic (Three platen Platen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Hydrostatic (Two Platen) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of injection unit </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>2. Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Multiplug </li></ul>
  48. 48. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Types of clamping unit </li></ul>TOGGLE
  49. 49. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Toggle System </li></ul>Five-point double toggle
  50. 50. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Toggle System </li></ul>
  51. 51. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Toggle System </li></ul>
  52. 52. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Toggle System </li></ul>
  53. 53. Comparison between toggle and full hydraulic Toggle system Hydraulic system S 2 H 2 H 3 = 950 S 2 H 2 H 1 S 1 H 3 S 1 Mould opening stroke remains the same, maximum platen distance H 3 changes Mould opening stroke changes with mould height, maximum platen distance H 3 remains the same H 1 = 200 S 1 = 550 H 2 = 500 S 2 = 250 H 3 = 750 H 1 = 200 S 1 = 450 H 2 = 500 S 2 = 450 H 1 H 3 = 650
  54. 54. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Fully Hydraulic </li></ul>
  55. 55. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Fully Hydraulic </li></ul>FULLY HYDRAULIC schematic diagram Two clamping cylinders Flow multiplier 1:20 DFE-pump A B C A B C
  56. 56. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Fully Hydraulic </li></ul>
  57. 57. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Hydro-static / Hydro-mechanical </li></ul>TWO-PLATEN SYSTEMS (HYDRO-MECHANICAL)
  58. 58. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Hydro-static / Hydro-mechanical </li></ul>
  59. 59. tie bars are fully forward Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change clamp opens to align calipers with notches calipers locks clamp closes by retracting tie bars clamp opens - ready for cycle mode calipers unlocks clamp closes until mould halves touch
  60. 60. tie bars are fully forward Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  61. 61. clamp closes until mould halves touch Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  62. 62. clamp opens to align callipers with notches Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  63. 63. calipers locks Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  64. 64. clamp closes by retracting tie bars Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  65. 65. clamp closes by retracting tie bars Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  66. 66. Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change Calipers unlocks
  67. 67. clamp opens - ready for cycle mode Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  68. 68. tie bars are fully forward Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  69. 69. clamp closes until mould halves touch Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  70. 70. clamp opens to align calipers with notches Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  71. 71. calipers locks Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  72. 72. clamp closes by retracting tie bars Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change
  73. 73. Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change Calipers unlocks
  74. 74. Automatic Set-Up After Mould Change clamp opens - ready for cycle mode
  75. 75. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Types of injection unit (IU) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stand-alone </li></ul>
  76. 76. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Horizontal IU </li></ul>
  77. 77. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Screw and Barrel Unit </li></ul>
  78. 78. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Screw </li></ul>
  79. 79. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Vertical IU </li></ul>
  80. 80. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Stand-alone IU </li></ul>Not-included
  81. 81. <ul><li>Types of control on injection process </li></ul><ul><li>1. Closed loop </li></ul><ul><li>2. Closed speed control </li></ul>Components Of IMM
  82. 82. <ul><li>What is open-loop and closed-loop control? </li></ul>Components Of IMM Input Input Process Input Input Process Open- loop Feedback Closed-loop
  83. 83. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Closed-loop speed control </li></ul>
  84. 84. Components Of IMM <ul><li>Why is closed-loop speed control important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A must for processes involving very slow injection speeds (less than 2mm/s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A higher degree of precision – due to the double closed- loop monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents overshoot of injection speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A selling point which people usually are confused between closed-loop control and closed-loop SPEED control </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Cores </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are cores and its function? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What parts require cores? </li></ul><ul><li>Ejectors </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are ejectors and its function? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What types of ejectors are available? </li></ul>Components Of IMM
  86. 86. Components Of IMM Mechanical ejector on electric machine
  87. 87. Components Of IMM Variable pump system Ejector bar Movable platen Clamping cylinder Ejector valve Mechanical ejector on hydraulic machine
  88. 88. Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment
  89. 89. Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment <ul><li>What are these equipments in brief? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mould temperature controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopper Loaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveyor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Peripheral / Auxilliary Equipment <ul><li>Mould Temp. Controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Cooled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Cooled (Why?) </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Peripheral / Auxilliary Equipment <ul><li>Chiller / Mould Cooling Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water temp = 12-15 deg. Celcius </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Material Drying System Air Exhaust Plastic Pellets Dried Moist Return Air Desiccant Drying Unit Drying Hopper Air Dispersion Cone Hot Dry Air Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment
  93. 93. Part and Runner Grinder Feed Throat Reground Material Drawer Rotor Rotating Blade Stationary Blade Perforated Screen Cutting Chamber <ul><li>Granulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granulate scrap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between scrap and waste? </li></ul></ul>Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment
  94. 94. Hopper Loader Compressed Air Vacuum Feed Tube Container for Plastic Pellets Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment
  95. 95. Additive Metering System Auger Feeder Feed Throat Virgin Plastic Color Concentrate Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment
  96. 96. Peripheral / Auxiliary Equipment <ul><li>Robot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Robot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprue picker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side Entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 axis robot </li></ul></ul>Side entry pick and place robot
  97. 97. Safety In IMM <ul><li>What is safety? </li></ul><ul><li>1. General Safety </li></ul><ul><li>2. Specific Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Why is safety necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Safety of IMM machines consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Interlocks / switches (Mechanical + Electrical) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physical barrier (Guards) </li></ul><ul><li>Overriding safety – why should you or shouldn’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in safety in various int. countries </li></ul>
  98. 98. Safety In IMM
  99. 99. MOULD
  100. 100. MOULD
  101. 101. MOULD 2-plate mould
  102. 102. MOULD 3-plate mould
  103. 103. MOULD 2-plate mould with slider/split mould
  104. 104. MOULD Stack mould
  105. 105. MOULD
  106. 106. SPRUE SYSTEM SPRUE BUSH It channels the molten Materials from the plasticising Unit/barrel of the moulding machine And guide its to the cavity
  107. 107. SPRUE SYSTEM
  108. 108. SPRUE SYSTEM
  109. 109. SPRUE SYSTEM
  110. 110. RUNNER SYSTEM
  111. 111. RUNNER SYSTEM Hot runner system
  112. 112. RUNNER SYSTEM Cold slug is referring to contaminations or cold materials. Cold slug are formed when: The material at nozzle tip is trapped by the cold well before it enter the cavity. The residual material at Nozzle loses heat and Solidify before next cycle.
  113. 113. GATING SYSTEM
  114. 114. GATING SYSTEM Gating system can be divided into 2 categories:- 1.Unrestricted Gate (Direct Gate) Where the pressure loss is low,however the defects such as deformation and loss of impact strength may occur,due to residual stress. 2.Restricted Gate (All types of gate except direct gate) Where molten plastic passed at high velocity,generating a large pressure drop where by its then converted to frictional heat which used to heat the molten plastic.
  115. 115. GATING SYSTEM Direct Gate Also known as sprue gate. Disadvantages of using this method: -Required secondary process -Impression of sprue mark -Take time to cool the sprue
  116. 116. GATING SYSTEM Edge Gate Also known as side gate.The product is gated at parting line Cross section of the gate is usually tapered or semi circular for ease of ejection
  117. 117. GATING SYSTEM Fan Gate Gate width is more than 3 times the height of the cross section. Often used in thin wall product that required good surface finish.
  118. 118. GATING SYSTEM Disk Gate Also known as diaphragm gate.Allow uniform filling for cylindrical parts. Advantage of using this system product remain round and concentric. Dis advantages gates need to machined off.
  119. 119. GATING SYSTEM Pin point Gate Generally used in 3 plate mould. Advantages of using this method,part and runner is separated automatically.
  120. 120. GATING SYSTEM Tab Gate Used in thick walled products.To avoid moulding defect for example like jetting. Disadvantages required secondary process.
  121. 121. GATING SYSTEM Film Gate Also known as flash gate.Primarily used in moulding part with large surfaces and thin walls. Disadvantages required secondary process.
  122. 122. GATING SYSTEM Ring Gate Used for tubular moulding product. Gate is in form of a concentric film between the runner and the cavity.
  123. 123. GATING SYSTEM Tunnel Gate Also known as submarine gate Commonly used in multi-cavity mould and for small parts. Cross section of gate is conical Provide automatic degating.
  124. 124. MOULD Sample pictures of cavity plate and inserts
  125. 125. MOULD
  126. 126. RUNNER & CAVITY LAYOUT All cavities should be filled at the same time,to avoid short shot and flashing. Runner flow length should be short as possible,to avoid pressure loss and material waste. There should be sufficient space between cavities for proper cooling and ejection.
  128. 128. MOULD Venting
  129. 129. COOLING SYSTEM
  130. 130. COOLING SYSTEM
  131. 131. COOLING SYSTEM
  132. 132. COOLING SYSTEM
  133. 133. COOLING SYSTEM
  137. 137. EJECTOR SYSTEM
  138. 138. EJECTOR SYSTEM Mechanical ejector system
  139. 139. EJECTOR SYSTEM
  140. 140. EJECTOR SYSTEM Standard ejector pin pin Standard ejector blade pin Standard ejector sleeve
  141. 141. EJECTOR SYSTEM Stripper plate ejector
  142. 142. EJECTOR SYSTEM Air Valve system
  143. 143. EJECTOR SYSTEM Poppet Valve system
  144. 144. MOULD MOUNTING Direct machine clamping
  145. 145. MOULD MOUNTING Mould clamp
  146. 146. MOULD MOUNTING
  151. 151. MOULD MAINTENANCE Method of labeling for identification and storage
  152. 152. MOULD MAINTENANCE Application of anti rust after production To prevent mould from rust.
  153. 153. MOULD MAINTENANCE Preventive maintenance during production and after production
  154. 154. MOULD MAINTENANCE Spare parts availability Workshop practice