Food security and environmental degradation

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Food security and environmental degradation

  1. 1. LIVING WITH THE EARTH1 Cooking a meal in Africa ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  2. 2. Objectives for this Chapter2  1. Define the term food security and discuss the reasons leading to food insecurity among many nations worldwide.  2. List the suggested steps that might be taken to minimize global food insecurity.  3. Explain the most likely reasons for a growing food insecurity in the United States.  4. List and discuss the demographics of the populations in the United States at risk to food insecurity. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  3. 3. LIVING WITH THE EARTH3 ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY INTRODUCTION: THE DEBATE  The ability of our planet to sustain and feed the dramatic increases in human population growth has been an on-going debate stretching back over 200 years. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  4. 4. The Viewpoint of Malthus and4 Followers  Neo-Malthusians (Malthus, 1789)  Human growth is logarithmic and plants grow arithmetically. Growth will eventually surpass the ability of the land to feed the expanding population.  Cornucopians  The real threat to global stability is the failure of nations to pursue economic trade and research policies that increase food production, more evenly distribute food and resources, and limit environmental pollution. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  5. 5. FOOD SECURITY5  Food security is said to occur when all people have physical and economic access to the basic food they need to work and function normally.  One of the biggest debates for the 21st century concerns whether or not the world can produce enough food to feed another few billion people.  For nearly 40 years, the world production of grain has risen by more than 2 percent a year, but declined to scarcely 1 percent a year in the 1990s. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  6. 6. Reasons for Regional Food6 Shortages  Food production fell behind population growth in 64 of 105 developing countries between 1985 to 1995.  The main reasons for food shortages in eastern Africa derive mainly from recent droughts followed by floods.  If countries are to feed the 9 billion expected by the year 2050, Africa would have to increase production by 300 percent, Latin America by 80 percent, Asia by 70 percent, and North America by 30 percent (Fig. 3-15). ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  7. 7. Sources – Where will the Food7 Come From?  Increases in food supply must come from one or more of the following sources:  increases in yield (tons per acre);  increases in arable land placed under cultivation;  and cropping intensity (fewer fallow periods or more than one crop per year or field).  There are scientists who believe that the ability to expand cropland is limited, and that it is disappearing in many areas of the world. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  8. 8. Sources8  The potential for increasing agricultural land is limited by:  the significant costs of developing an infrastructure in remote areas;  the lesser productivity of these alternative areas;  and the trade-offs in environmental destruction of sensitive ecosystems. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  9. 9. Sources9  These strategies are:  improved irrigation systems;  structured water pricing to reduce overuse;  alternative rotation of crops;  selective pesticide use;  use of pest-resistant varieties;  improved soil testing and fertilizer application;  regional crop breeding programs;  and more education to farmers. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  10. 10. Food Security10  Worldwide  Chronic undernutrition is a difficult and pervasive problem resulting in a food security crisis in many LDCs.  Net imports to LDCs are expected to increase from 90 to 160 million tons in the years from 1990 to 2010. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore
  11. 11. Hunger in America11  More than 25 million Americans, almost 50 percent of them under 17, resort to using food distribution programs such as soup kitchens and food pantries (Fig. 3-18).  Nearly 35 million Americans live in hungry or food-insecure households.  Alternative strategies are being evaluated and promoted that are more friendly to the environment. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY - Moore

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